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Cardiovascular perfusion

Asima Farooq, Ali Shukur, Cai Astley, Lubomira Tosheva, Peter Kelly, Debra Whitehead, May Azzawi
Blood vessel disease is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is hallmarked by dysfunction of the lining endothelial cells (ECs). These cells play a significant role in vascular homeostasis, through the release of mediators to control vessel diameter, hence tissue perfusion. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) can be used as potential drug delivery platforms for vasodilator drugs. Here, using an ex vivo model of vascular function, we examine the use of titania coating for improved biocompatibility and release dynamics of MSN loaded sodium nitroprusside (SNP)...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Junhui Xiao, Zun-Ping Ke, Yan Shi, Qiutang Zeng, Zhe Cao
Thymoquinone (TQ), as the active constituents of black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil, has been reported to have potential protective effects on the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of TQ on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Wister rat hearts were subjected to I/R and the experimental group were pretreated with TQ prior to I/R. Hemodynamic parameters, myocardial infarct size, cardiac marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were assayed...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Kensuke Kobayashi, Tadashi Kitamura, Satoshi Kohira, Shinzo Torii, Toshiaki Mishima, Hirotoki Ohkubo, Yuki Tanaka, Akihiro Sasahara, Takuma Fukunishi, Yuki Ohtomo, Rihito Horikoshi, Yuta Murai, Kagami Miyaji
Regional cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy devices is commonly used for detecting cerebral ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass, and aim to avoid poor cerebral perfusion which may result in perioperative neurological impairment. Today, several devices that can detect cerebral ischemia are commercially available. Although these devices operate on the same measurement principles, their algorithms for detecting and calculating cerebral ischemia are different and no criteria for directly comparing values measured by such different devices exist...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Pär Steneberg, Emma Lindahl, Ulf Dahl, Emmelie Lidh, Jurate Straseviciene, Fredrik Backlund, Elisabet Kjellkvist, Eva Berggren, Ingela Lundberg, Ingela Bergqvist, Madelene Ericsson, Björn Eriksson, Kajsa Linde, Jacob Westman, Thomas Edlund, Helena Edlund
AMPK activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of energy homeostasis, is activated in response to an energy shortage imposed by physical activity and caloric restriction. We here report on the identification of PAN-AMPK activator O304, which - in diet-induced obese mice - increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, reduced β cell stress, and promoted β cell rest. Accordingly, O304 reduced fasting plasma glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a proof-of-concept phase IIa clinical trial in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients on Metformin...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
I Made Ady Wirawan, Robin F Griffiths, Peter D Larsen
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine which marker or testing protocols have been suggested for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in asymptomatic populations, at which CVD risk level, and how this can be implemented for CVD risk assessment in pilot populations. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using Systematic Reviews Subset on PubMed; the OvidSP interface, including all EBM reviews and EMBASE databases; and the G-I-N International Guideline Library...
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Thomas Bochaton, Eric Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Nadia Aissaoui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite many advances in the management of critically ill patients, cardiogenic shock remains a challenge because it is associated with high mortality. Even if there is no universally accepted definition of cardiogenic shock, end-perfusion organ dysfunction is an obligatory and major criterion of its definition.Organ dysfunction is an indicator that cardiogenic shock is already at an advanced stage and is undergoing a rapid self-aggravating evolution. The aim of the review is to highlight the importance to diagnose and to manage the organ dysfunction occurring in the cardiogenic shock patients by providing the best literature published this year...
June 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Tamas Csipo, Gabor A Fulop, Agnes Lipecz, Stefano Tarantini, Tamas Kiss, Priya Balasubramanian, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence is increasing in all age groups, with the biggest impact observed in middle-aged and older adults. A critical mechanism by which obesity promotes vascular pathologies in these patients involves impairment of endothelial function. While endothelial dysfunction in large vessels promotes atherogenesis, obesity-induced microvascular endothelial dysfunction impairs organ perfusion and thereby is causally related to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, intermittent claudication, exercise intolerance, and exacerbates cognitive decline in aging...
June 18, 2018: GeroScience
Pairoj Chattranukulchai, Jule Namchaisiri, Monravee Tumkosit, Sarinya Puwanant, Yongkasem Vorasettakarnkij, Suphot Srimahachota, Smonporn Boonyaratavej
BACKGROUND: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. The enlarged right coronary artery provides retrograde collaterals to supply the left ventricle then preferentially directs into the lower pressure pulmonary artery system causing coronary steal phenomenon. Few patients who survive through adulthood without surgery must have abundant, well-formed functioning collaterals with adequate perfusion of the left ventricle...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Evgeny Shkolnik, Greta Burneikaite, Gabrielius Jakutis, Mikhail Scherbak, Gitana Zuoziene, Birute Petrauskiene, Ekaterina Trush, Yury Vasyuk, Aleksandras Laucevicius, Jelena Celutkiene
BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in managing coronary artery disease and continuous research on alternative techniques to enhance myocardial perfusion and reduce symptoms, coronary artery disease is still one of the leading causes of adult disability worldwide. Cardiac shock-wave therapy (CSWT) has shown promising results in the amelioration of myocardial ischemia in experimental studies; however, clinical results are limited to single-center, mostly uncontrolled and underpowered trials...
June 16, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
Catharina Elizabeth Myburgh, Leoné Malan, Annemarie Wentzel, Jacobus De Wet Scheepers, Nicolaas Theodor Malan
BACKGROUND: Defensive coping (DefS) was associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility in Blacks. Whether coping strategies will associate with sub-clinical left ventricular hypertrophy (electrocardiographic-left ventricular hypertrophy [ECG-LVH] or Cornell product), cardiomyocyte injury and blood pressure (BP), is unclear. Therefore, we assessed relationships between ECG-LVH, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and 24-hour BP in bi-ethnic groups when habitually utilising a certain coping style, and these groups when having a stress-related cTnT cut-point of 4...
May 31, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Zehava Ovadia-Blechman, Ashley Gritzman, Maya Shuvi, Benjamin Gavish, Vered Aharonson, Neta Rabin
BACKGROUND: The peripheral microcirculation supplies fresh blood to the small blood vessels, providing oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, removing waste, and maintaining normal homeostatic conditions. The goal of this study was to characterize the response of the peripheral microcirculation, in terms of blood flow and tissue oxygenation variables, to gravity-induced changes. METHODS: The study included 20 healthy volunteers and the experiment involved monitoring central and peripheral variables with the right hand positioned at different heights...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Mohammed Haque, Adriaan Van Rensburg, Stuart McCluskey, Massimiliano Meineri, Matteo Parotto
We report a case of profound coagulopathy after the dual insult of cold in-situ perfusion of the liver and cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient undergoing complex hepatobiliary and cardiovascular surgery. Management of this coagulopathy with conventional blood products was hindered by elevated venous pressures, thought to contribute to persistent bleeding and risked liver and right ventricular dysfunction, necessitating a change in strategy. Anesthesiologists should consider fluid-restrictive strategies to correct coagulopathy in combined liver and cardiac surgery...
June 11, 2018: A&A practice
Chunguang Feng, Yi Liu, Lulu Wang, Dongdong Niu, Bing Han
BACKGROUND: To determine whether nicorandil administration distal to the thrombus in the coronary artery during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients reduced the incidence of no-reflow phenomenon, reperfusion injury, and adverse events. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial involved 170 STEMI patients who underwent PCI. All patients underwent thrombectomy and tirofiban injection (10μg/kg) distal to the vascular lesion via a suction catheter, followed by nicorandil (84 patients; 2mg) or saline injection (86 patients; 2mL) at the same site...
May 22, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Christopher W Ives, Wael A AlJaroudi, Vineeta Kumar, Ayman Farag, Dana V Rizk, Suzanne Oparil, Ami E Iskandrian, Fadi G Hage
PURPOSE: Noninvasive stress testing is commonly performed as part of pre-renal transplantation (RT) evaluation. We evaluated the prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI)-myocardial perfusion, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart rate response (HRR)-post-RT. METHODS: Consecutive RT recipients were identified at our institution. MPI was considered abnormal when there was a perfusion defect or reduced ejection fraction. HRR to vasodilator stress was calculated as percentage change from baseline...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Eline E van Haaften, Tamar B Wissing, Marcel Rutten, Jurgen A Bulsink, Kujtim Gashi, Mathieu A J van Kelle, Anthal Smits, Carlijn Bouten, Nicholas A Kurniawan
The success of cardiovascular tissue engineering strategies largely depends on the mechanical environment in which cells develop a neo-tissue via growth and remodeling processes. This mechanical environment is defined by the local scaffold architecture to which cells adhere, i.e., the micro-environment, and by external mechanical cues to which cells respond, i.e., hemodynamic loading. The hemodynamic environment of early-developing blood vessels consists of both shear stress (due to blood flow) and circumferential stretch (due to blood pressure)...
June 7, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Barbara Weaver, Kelsey Guerreso, E Alexander Conner, Kendra Russell, Robert Vogel, Mitch Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Premature infants may require packed red blood cell transfusions, but current guidelines lack empirical evidence and vary among institutions and prescribers. OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiological changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics and oxygen delivery between premature infants with anemia who receive packed red blood cell transfusions and premature infants without anemia. METHODS: The study was a prospective observational cohort investigation of 75 premature infants...
2018: AACN Advanced Critical Care
Sonu Kashyap, Mazen Osman, Christopher M Ferguson, Meryl C Nath, Bhaskar Roy, Karen R Lien, Karl A Nath, Vesna D Garovic, Lilach O Lerman, Joseph P Grande
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal and cardiovascular disease in renovascular hypertension (RVH). Ccl2 is an important mediator of inflammation, and is induced within 24 hours following surgery to establish RVH in the murine 2 kidney 1 clip model, a time prior to onset of interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, or tubular atrophy. We tested the hypothesis that Ccl2 deficiency protects the stenotic kidney (STK) from development of chronic renal damage in mice with renovascular hypertension due to renal artery stenosis (RAS)...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sanjay R Kharche, Aaron So, Fabio Salerno, Ting-Yim Lee, Chris Ellis, Daniel Goldman, Christopher W McIntyre
Dialysis prolongs life but augments cardiovascular mortality. Imaging data suggests that dialysis increases myocardial blood flow (BF) heterogeneity, but its causes remain poorly understood. A biophysical model of human coronary vasculature was used to explain the imaging observations, and highlight causes of coronary BF heterogeneity. Post-dialysis CT images from patients under control, pharmacological stress (adenosine), therapy (cooled dialysate), and adenosine and cooled dialysate conditions were obtained...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pieter van der Bijl, Victoria Delgado, Marianne Bootsma, Jeroen J Bax
The etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be grouped as either genetic or nongenetic. More than 50 pathogenic genes have been described, with sarcomeric and lamin A/C mutations being the most common. Mutation carriers for genetic DCM are often asymptomatic until cardiac disease manifests with heart failure, arrhythmias, or sudden cardiac death. Preventive strategies are promising but can only be applied and tested adequately if genetic DCM can be diagnosed at an early stage. Early diagnosis of mutation carriers that may develop overt DCM requires advanced imaging techniques that can detect subtle structural and functional abnormalities...
June 5, 2018: Circulation
L Santoro, A Flex, A Nesci, P M Ferraro, G De Matteis, A Di Giorgio, B Giupponi, L Saviano, G Gambaro, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini, R Landolfi, A Santoliquido
OBJECTIVE: Most studies on atherosclerotic processes include peripheral arterial disease diagnosis only if patients report symptoms suggestive of peripheral arterial disease and/or an instrumental demonstration of lower limbs perfusion deficit is provided, rather than the sole presence of atherosclerotic lesions localized at lower limbs, this attitude leading to ignore early stages of the disease. To overcome these limitations, we have proposed a new ultrasonographic semiquantitative score to better identify all disease stages...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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