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Cardiovascular perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091969/quality-of-life-as-predictor-for-the-development-of-cardiac-ischemia-in-high-risk-asymptomatic-diabetic-patients
#1
Philip Haaf, Myriam Ritter, Leticia Grize, Matthias E Pfisterer, Michael J Zellweger
BACKGROUND: Ischemia induced by psychological stress and depression is a common phenomenon in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated the quality of life (QoL) of diabetic patients screened for CAD and assessed the prognostic value of mental and physical QoL scores to predict the development of new cardiac ischemia. METHODS: Prospective multicentre outcome study. The study comprised 400 asymptomatic diabetic patients without history or symptoms of CAD...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089233/epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-myocardial-ischemia-assessed-by-computed-tomography-perfusion-imaging-and-invasive-fractional-flow-reserve
#2
Rahul G Muthalaly, Nitesh Nerlekar, Dennis T L Wong, James D Cameron, Sujith K Seneviratne, Brian S Ko
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active fat depot that is associated with incident coronary artery disease (CAD) and major adverse cardiovascular events. The relationship between EAT and myocardial ischemia remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between EAT volume and the presence of perfusion defects on myocardial computed tomographic perfusion imaging (CTP) and functional stenoses on invasive fractional flow-reserve (FFR). METHODS: Data were obtained from a previous prospective cross-sectional study in patients with suspected CAD...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077385/impact-of-sex-and-contact-to-device-time-on-clinical-outcomes-in-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-findings-from-the-national-cardiovascular-data-registry
#3
Robert O Roswell, Jordan Kunkes, Anita Y Chen, Karen Chiswell, Sohah Iqbal, Matthew T Roe, Sripal Bangalore
BACKGROUND: Emergent myocardial reperfusion via primary percutaneous coronary intervention is optimal care for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Delays in such interventions are associated with increases in mortality. With the shift in focus to contact-to-device (C2D) time as a new perfusion metric, this study was designed to examine how sex affects C2D time and mortality in STEMI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical data on male and female STEMI patients were extracted and analyzed from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry from July 1, 2008 to December 31, 2014...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069703/loss-of-osteoglycin-promotes-angiogenesis-in-limb-ischaemia-mouse-models-via-modulation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2-signalling-pathway
#4
Qi-Hong Wu, Yu Ma, Cheng-Chao Ruan, Yan Yang, Xin-He Liu, Qian Ge, Ling-Ran Kong, Ji-Wei Zhang, Chen Yan, Ping-Jin Gao
OBJECTIVE: Osteoglycin (OGN) has been noted for its implication in cardiovascular disease in recent studies. However, the relationship between OGN and angiogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of OGN on ischaemia-induced angiogenesis and to address the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of OGN was decreased in a limb ischaemia mouse model. OGN knockout (KO) mice were used to further understand the role of OGN after ischaemia...
January 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067615/intracranial-atherosclerosis-from-anatomy-to-pathophysiology
#5
Yuehua Pu, Linfang Lan, Xinyi Leng, Lawrence Ks Wong, Liping Liu
Background Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis is an important etiology subtype of ischemic stroke. Stenosis severity was thought to be the main reference index for clinical treatment and research. However, stenosis could not reflect the ischemia risk completely, instead the hemodynamic state across the lesion, the extent of collateral circulation, and perfusion impairment downstream the stenosis are more important. Aims We write this review aimed to summarize novel angiographic methods applied in the evaluation of functional severity of ICAS, and commented on their limitations and prospects in future research...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063261/isolated-heart-models-for-studying-cardiac-electrophysiology-a-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#6
Jie Ming Yeo, Vivian Tse, Judy Kung, Hiu Yu Lin, Yee Ting Lee, Joseph Kwan, Bryan P Yan, Gary Tse
Experimental models used in cardiovascular research range from cellular to whole heart preparations. Isolated whole hearts show higher levels of structural and functional integration than lower level models such as tissues or cellular fragments. Cardiovascular diseases are multi-factorial problems that are dependent on highly organized structures rather than on molecular or cellular components alone. This article first provides a general introduction on the animal models of cardiovascular diseases. It is followed by a detailed overview and a historical perspective of the different isolated heart systems with a particular focus on the Langendorff perfusion method for the study of cardiac arrhythmias...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052043/particle-tracking-for-the-assessment-of-microcirculatory-perfusion
#7
Michele Sorelli, Can Ince, Leonardo Bocchi
In recent years the development of portable microscopes, which enable the noninvasive bedside evaluation of the sublingual microcirculation in critically ill patients, has expanded the clinical research on this level of the cardiovascular system. Several semi-quantitative scores have been defined in order to provide researchers with a standardized framework for the offline assessment of the microcirculation status. Among those, space-time diagrams (STDs) constitute an established method for obtaining an estimate of the red blood cells (RBCs) flow velocity in capillaries...
January 4, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050863/incremental-prognostic-value-of-spect-mpi-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-reclassification-analysis
#8
Amjad M Ahmed, Waqas T Qureshi, Wesley T O'Neal, Fatima Khalid, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
BACKGROUND: Traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors have limited predictive value of CV mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, creatinine clearance less than 60 mL/minute per 1.73 m(2)). The aim of this study was to evaluate incremental and independent prognostic value of single-photon emission computerized tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) across continuum of renal function. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 11,518 (mean age, 65 ± 12 years; 52% were men) patients referred for a clinical indication of SPECT-MPI between April 2004 and May 2009...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040435/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-hemodynamic-responses-of-the-cerebral-coronary-and-renal-circulations-with-a-rotary-blood-pump-installed-in-the-descending-aorta
#9
M A Rezaienia, G Paul, E J Avital, S Mozafari, M Rothman, T Korakianitis
This study investigates the hemodynamic responses of the cardiovascular system when a rotary blood pump is operating in the descending aorta, with a focus on the cerebral, coronary and renal autoregulation, using our in-house cardiovascular emulator. Several improvements have been made from our previous studies. A novel coronary system was developed to replicate the native coronary perfusion. Three pinch valves actuated by stepper motors were used to simulate the regional autoregulation systems of the native cerebral, coronary and renal circulations...
December 28, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034564/acute-black-tea-consumption-improves-cutaneous-vascular-function-in-healthy-middle-aged-humans
#10
Kirsty A Woodward, Nicola D Hopkins, Richard Draijer, Young de Graaf, David A Low, Dick H J Thijssen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary flavonoids, such as those present in black tea, are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through improving nitric oxide (NO) mediated vascular function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute black tea ingestion on cutaneous microvascular function. METHODS: Twenty healthy participants (58 ± 5 y, 9 men) attended two experimental trials (tea, placebo), 7-days apart in a randomised, controlled, double-blind, cross-over design...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028974/myocardial-ischaemia-coronary-atherosclerosis-and-pulmonary-pressure-elevation-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-patients
#11
Agnieszka Padjas, Wojciech Płazak, Magdalena Celińska-Lowenhoff, Adam Mazurek, Carlo Perricone, Piotr Podolec, Jacek Musiał
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic events in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) involve venous and arterial circulation with the possible involvement of coronary or pulmonary microcirculation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and on myocardial ischaemia assessed by single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), coronary atherosclerosis assessed by multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) and pulmonary pressure assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS)...
November 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017639/selective-coupling-of-the-s1p3-receptor-subtype-to-s1p-mediated-rhoa-activation-and-cardioprotection
#12
Bryan S Yung, Cameron S Brand, Sunny Y Xiang, Charles B B Gray, Christopher K Means, Hugh Rosen, Jerold Chun, Nicole H Purcell, Joan Heller Brown, Shigeki Miyamoto
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lysophospholipid, is generated and released at sites of tissue injury in the heart and can act on S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3 receptor subtypes to affect cardiovascular responses. We established that S1P causes little phosphoinositide hydrolysis and does not induce hypertrophy indicating that it does not cause receptor coupling to Gq. We previously demonstrated that S1P confers cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by activating RhoA and its downstream effector PKD...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013417/left-atrial-mechanics-strongly-predict-functional-capacity-assessed-by-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-subjects-without-structural-heart-disease
#13
Luís Leite, Sofia Lázaro Mendes, Rui Baptista, Rogério Teixeira, Manuel Oliveira-Santos, Nelson Ribeiro, Rosa Coutinho, Victor Monteiro, Rui Martins, Graça Castro, Maria João Ferreira, Mariano Pego
Left atrium function is essential for cardiovascular performance and is evaluable by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). Our aim was to determine how echocardiographic parameters interrelate with exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency in subjects with no structural heart disease. Asymptomatic volunteers, in sinus rhythm and with normal biventricular size and function, were recruited from a community-based population. Individuals with moderate-to-severe valvular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and history of cardiac disease were excluded...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009652/positive-and-negative-affect-is-related-to-experiencing-chest-pain-during-exercise-induced-myocardial-ischemia
#14
Philippe Stébenne, Simon L Bacon, Anthony Austin, Nicola J Paine, André Arsenault, Catherine Laurin, Bernard Meloche, Jennifer Gordon, Jocelyn Dupuis, Kim L Lavoie
OBJECTIVES: Silent myocardial ischemia is thought to be associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes due to a lack of perception of pain cues that initiate treatment seeking. Negative affect (NA) has been associated with increased pain reporting and positive affect (PA) with decreased pain reporting, but these psychological factors have not been examined within the context of myocardial ischemia. This study evaluated the associations between PA, NA, and chest pain reporting in patients with and without ischemia during exercise testing...
December 22, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003211/lower-limb-hot-water-immersion-acutely-induces-beneficial-hemodynamic-and-cardiovascular-responses-in-peripheral-arterial-disease-and-healthy-elderly-controls
#15
Kate N Thomas, Andre Marie van Rij, Samuel J E Lucas, James D Cotter
Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71±6 y, 7 male) and ten Controls (age 72±7 y, 8 male) underwent hot-water immersion (30 min waist-level immersion in 42...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000002/stress-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-detect-coronary-artery-lesions-in-children
#16
Chodchanok Vijarnsorn, Michelle Noga, Daryl Schantz, Dion Pepelassis, Edythe B Tham
BACKGROUND: Stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used widely in adult ischemic heart disease, but data in children is limited. We sought to evaluate feasibility, accuracy and prognostic value of stress CMR in children with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Stress CMR was reviewed from two pediatric centers over 5 years using a standard pharmacologic protocol. Wall motion abnormalities, perfusion deficits and late enhancement were correlated with coronary angiogram (CAG) when available, and clinical status at 1 year follow-up for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; coronary revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction and death due to CAD) was recorded...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979038/baseline-assessment-and-comparison-of-arterial-anatomy-hyperemic-flow-and-skeletal-muscle-perfusion-in-peripheral-artery-disease-the-cardiovascular-cell-therapy-research-network-patients-with-intermittent-claudication-injected-with-aldh-bright-cells-cctrn-pace
#17
Bharath Ambale Venkatesh, Victor Nauffal, Chikara Noda, Tomoki Fujii, Phillip C Yang, Judy Bettencourt, Erin P Ricketts, Michael Murphy, Nicholas J Leeper, Lem Moyé, Ray F Ebert, Raja Muthupillai, David A Bluemke, Emerson C Perin, Alan T Hirsch, João A C Lima
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is important to public health as a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques permit improved assessment of PAD anatomy and physiology, and may serve as surrogate end points after proangiogenic therapies. METHODS: The PACE study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to assess the physiologic impact and potential clinical efficacy of autologous bone marrow-derived ALDH(br) stem cells...
January 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966001/cortisol-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-ratio-associated-with-silent-ischaemia-in-a-black-male-cohort-the-sa-bpa-study
#18
Christiaan E Schutte, Leoné Malan, Jacobus D Scheepers, Woudri Oosthuizen, Marike Cockeran, Nicolaas T Malan
AIM: Emotional distress has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Africans. Cortisol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as markers of emotional distress, increase cardiometabolic risk. We therefore aimed to investigate associations between cardiometabolic risk markers and the cortisol-to-BDNF ratio (cortisol:BDNF). METHODS: A cross-sectional study included a bi-ethnic gender cohort (n = 406) aged 44.7 ± 9.52 years. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM), ECG, fasting serum cortisol and BDNF levels and cardiometabolic risk markers were obtained...
November 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959626/the-pathogenesis-of-ebola-virus-disease
#19
Laura Baseler, Daniel S Chertow, Karl M Johnson, Heinz Feldmann, David M Morens
For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control...
December 7, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957249/physiology-of-in-situ-arterial-revascularization-in-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-preoperative-intraoperative-and-postoperative-factors-and-influences
#20
REVIEW
T Bruce Ferguson
Surgical revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become established as the most effective interventional therapy for patients with moderately severe and severe stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). This recommendation is based on traditional 5-year outcomes of mortality and avoidance of myocardial infarction leading to reintervention and/or cardiac death. However, these results are confounded in that they challenge the traditional CABG surgical tenets of completeness of anatomic revascularization, the impact of arterial revascularization on late survival, and the lesser impact of secondary prevention following CABG on late outcomes...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
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