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Cardiovascular perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336939/locating-the-human-cardiac-conduction-system-using-a-3d-model-of-its-nutritious-arteries
#1
Yu Xu, Yukun Peng, Rongmei Qu, Guorong Zheng, Feiyan Feng, Yan Feng, Linying He, Shanli He, Zeyu Li, Chang Liu, Zhaoming Xiao, Jun Ouyang, Jingxing Dai
It is difficult for anatomists to dissect the human cardiac conduction system (CCS) on specimens as well as for cardiovascular clinicians to locate the CCS during cardiac operations. Here, we demonstrate a new method for locating the CCS using a 3D model of its nutritious arteries. First, we perfused the coronary arteries with contrast material and then acquired a set of data of thin computer tomography (CT) scans. Then, we generated a 3D model of the coronary artery and distinguished the arteries that supply the CCS...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330967/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-response-to-heat-stress-is-attenuated-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#2
Jian Cui, John Boehmer, Cheryl A Blaha, Lawrence I Sinoway
Heat stress evokes significant increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy individuals. The MSNA response to heat stress in chronic heart failure (CHF) is unknown. We hypothesized that the MSNA response to heat stress is attenuated in CHF. Passive whole body heating was applied with water-perfused suits on 13 patients (61 ± 2 years) with stable class II-III CHF, 12 age-matched (62 ± 2 years) healthy subjects, and 14 young (24 ± 1 years) healthy subjects. Mild heating (i.e. increases in skin temperature ΔTsk ~2-4 °C, internal temperature ΔTcore <0...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330412/early-asymmetric-cardio-cerebral-causality-and-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Lei Gao, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole
The brain and heart are two vital systems in health and disease, increasingly recognised as a complex, interdependent network with constant information flow in both directions. After severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the causal, directed interactions between the brain, heart and autonomic nervous system have not been well established. Novel methods are needed to probe unmeasured, potentially prognostic information in complex biological networks that are not revealed via traditional means. In this study, we examined potential bi-directional causality between intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and its relationship to mortality in a 24-hour period early after TBI...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315568/diurnal-blood-pressure-parameters-in-normal-tension-glaucoma-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-and-healthy-subjects
#4
Tolga Kocatürk, Çağdaş Akgüllü, Gökhan E Evliçoğlu, İmran K Ömürlü, Harun Çakmak, Ufuk Eryılmaz, Volkan Dayanır
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of glaucoma is still undisclosed. Cardiovascular hemodynamic changes are hypothesized to contribute to glaucoma. This study aimed to determine the differences in the diurnal blood pressure (BP) of patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and controls without glaucoma. METHODS: A total of 129 patients were included in this study. The day-night average systolic and diastolic BPs, the day-night average pulse pressures (PPs), the day-night average heart rates, and the percentage of BP decline at night were obtained from the Holter devices and compared...
March 9, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314530/objective-analysis-of-midterm-outcomes-of-conventional-and-hybrid-aortic-arch-repair-by-propensity-score-matching
#5
Arudo Hiraoka, Genta Chikazawa, Toshinori Totsugawa, Kentaro Tamura, Atsuhisa Ishida, Taichi Sakaguchi, Hidenori Yoshitaka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the objective outcomes of conventional total aortic arch repair (CTAR) and hybrid arch repair by using propensity-score matching to reduce selection bias. METHODS: Between January 2006 and April 2016, 470 consecutive patients underwent isolated aortic arch repair (excluding hemiarch or partial arch reconstruction, and cases with concomitant cardiac surgeries) at a single cardiovascular institute. We categorized 337 total aortic arch repair with antegrade cerebral perfusion under circulatory arrest as the CTAR group and 58 hybrid aortic arch repair (HAR) with thoracic endovascular aortic repair as the HAR group...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306335/prognostic-value-of-normal-positron-emission-tomography-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-patients-with-known-or-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-a-meta-analysis
#6
A'Di Chen, HaoSen Wang, Bing Fan, YaWei Xu, Wei Chen, Neng Dai
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have confirmed high diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether the superior diagnostic accuracy could translate into improved mortality outcomes remains unknown. The aim of this study was to define the prognostic value of normal PET MPI. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched to identify related studies up to June 2016...
March 17, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302592/spectral-detector-ct-for-cardiovascular-applications
#7
Prabhakar Rajiah, Suhny Abbara, Sandra Simon Halliburton
Spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) is a novel technology that uses two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low and high energy data. Spectral data is used to generate conventional polyenergetic images as well as dedicated spectral images including virtual monoenergetic and material composition (iodine-only, virtual unenhanced, effective atomic number) images. This paper provides an overview of SDCT technology and a description of some spectral image types. The potential utility of SDCT for cardiovascular imaging and the impact of this new technology on radiation and contrast dose are discussed through presentation of initial patient studies performed on a SDCT scanner...
March 17, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302002/preoperative-cardiac-risk-assessment-in-patients-undergoing-liver-transplant-due-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma-should-it-be-different
#8
Haldun Muderrisoglu, Kerem Can Yilmaz, Emir Karacaglar, Ugur Bal, Alp Aydinalp, Gokhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Liver transplant is a high-risk surgery for cardiac events. The risk of 30-day major cardiac adverse events is estimated at more than 5%. In this retrospective study, we evaluated our preoperative cardiac risk assessment approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 58 adult patients who underwent liver transplant between May 2011 and May 2015. Preoperative cardiac risk factors and results of diagnostic tests were noted. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with or without hepatocellular carcinoma...
March 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299725/defining-the-relationship-between-hypertension-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Rebecca F Gottesman
Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition which has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although the understanding of the relationship between cardiocirculatory dysfunction and brain health has improved significantly over the last several decades, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a potentially treatable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. While it is clear that hypertension can affect brain structure and function, recent findings suggest that the associations between blood pressure and brain health are complex and, in many cases, dependent on factors such as age, hypertension chronicity, and antihypertensive medication use...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296232/inhibitors-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-minimize-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cardiac-damage-in-normal-hypertensive-and-diabetic-rats
#10
Oliul Islam, Prashanth Patil, Sumanta K Goswami, Rema Razdan, Mohammed N Inamdar, Mohammed Rizwan, Jubin Mathew, Bora Inceoglu, Kin S Stephen Lee, Sung H Hwang, Bruce D Hammock
AIM: We designed a study to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of two soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors, 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (TPPU) and trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]cyclohexyloxy}benzoic acid (t-TUCB), in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model. METHODS: Cardioprotective effects of the sEH inhibitors were evaluated against IR-induced myocardial damage in hearts from normal, hypertensive and diabetic rats using Langendorff's apparatus...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290782/prognostic-value-of-combined-ct-angiography-and-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-versus-invasive-coronary-angiography-and-nuclear-stress-perfusion-imaging-in-the-prediction-of-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-the-core320-multicenter-study
#11
Marcus Y Chen, Carlos E Rochitte, Armin Arbab-Zadeh, Marc Dewey, Richard T George, Julie M Miller, Hiroyuki Niinuma, Kunihiro Yoshioka, Kakuya Kitagawa, Hajime Sakuma, Roger Laham, Andrea L Vavere, Rodrigo J Cerci, Vishal C Mehra, Cesar Nomura, Klaus F Kofoed, Masahiro Jinzaki, Sachio Kuribayashi, Arthur J Scholte, Michael Laule, Swee Yaw Tan, John Hoe, Narinder Paul, Frank J Rybicki, Jeffrey A Brinker, Andrew E Arai, Matthew B Matheson, Christopher Cox, Melvin E Clouse, Marcelo F Di Carli, João A C Lima
Purpose To compare the prognostic importance (time to major adverse cardiovascular event [MACE]) of combined computed tomography (CT) angiography and CT myocardial stress perfusion imaging with that of combined invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and stress single photon emission CT myocardial perfusion imaging. Materials and Methods This study was approved by all institutional review boards, and written informed consent was obtained. Between November 2009 and July 2011, 381 participants clinically referred for ICA and aged 45-85 years were enrolled in the Combined Noninvasive Coronary Angiography and Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using 320-Detector Row Computed Tomography (CORE320) prospective multicenter diagnostic study...
March 14, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289524/assessment-of-stable-coronary-artery-disease-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-current-and-emerging-techniques
#12
REVIEW
James R J Foley, Sven Plein, John P Greenwood
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is established in clinical practice guidelines with a growing evidence base supporting its use to aid the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected or established CAD. CMR is a multi-parametric imaging modality that yields high spatial resolution images that can be acquired in any plane for the assessment of global and regional cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and viability, tissue characterisation and coronary artery anatomy, all within a single study protocol and without exposure to ionising radiation...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274817/microvascular-nadph-oxidase-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Yao Li, Patrick J Pagano
The systemic and cerebral microcirculation contribute critically to regulation of local and global blood flow and perfusion pressure. Microvascular dysfunction, commonly seen in numerous cardiovascular pathologies, is associated with alterations in the oxidative environment including potentiated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of redox signaling pathways. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a primary source of ROS in the vascular system and play a central role in cardiovascular health and disease...
March 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266825/cardiovascular-disease-update-pulmonary-hypertension
#14
Johnathan D McDivitt, Craig Barstow
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a spectrum disorder with multiple causes of the elevation of pressure in the lungs. It often is difficult to diagnose because it mimics many commonly reported symptoms (eg, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, chest pain). Diagnosis is made via right heart catheterization; however, transthoracic echocardiography may show evidence of elevated pulmonary pressure as the first clue to the diagnosis. Diagnostic tests to consider include a liver panel, complete blood count, and thyroid function test; electrocardiogram; chest x-ray; pulmonary function testing; and possibly lung imaging via computed tomography scan or ventilation-perfusion scan...
March 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264924/relations-of-arterial-stiffness-with-postural-change-in-mean-arterial-pressure-in-middle-aged-adults-the-framingham-heart-study
#15
Alyssa Torjesen, Leroy L Cooper, Jian Rong, Martin G Larson, Naomi M Hamburg, Daniel Levy, Emelia J Benjamin, Ramachandran S Vasan, Gary F Mitchell
Impaired regulation of blood pressure on standing can lead to adverse outcomes, including falls, syncope, and disorientation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) typically increases on standing; however, an insufficient increase or a decline in MAP on standing may result in decreased cerebral perfusion. Orthostatic hypotension has been reported in older people with increased arterial stiffness, whereas the association between orthostatic change in MAP and arterial stiffness in young- to middle-aged individuals has not been examined...
April 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256176/stress-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-current-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Thu-Thao Le, Weiting Huang, Jennifer Ann Bryant, Stuart Alexander Cook, Calvin Woon-Loong Chin
Vasodilator and dobutamine are the main pharmacological agents used in current stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Exercise stress has well-established advantages and it is commonly used in other stress imaging, but the technical considerations have limited its use in stress CMR. In this review, we will describe the diagnostic performance, prognostic value, strengths and challenges of current stress CMR techniques. We will also discuss future perspectives of exercise stress CMR. Areas covered: Despite notable mechanistic differences, vasodilator and dobutamine stress CMR offer similar diagnostic and prognostic value in coronary artery disease...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240525/infrapopliteal-calcification-patterns-in-critical-limb-ischemia-diagnostic-pathologic-and-therapeutic-implications-in-the-search-for-the-endovascular-holy-grail
#17
Jihad A Mustapha, Larry J Diaz-Sandoval, Fadi Saab
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the terminal stage of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is characterized by multilevel and multivessel disease. Amongst patients with infrainguinal disease, approximately one third have predominantly isolated infrapopliteal disease and the remaining two thirds, a combination of femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal disease. Isolated infrapopliteal disease is mainly seen in the elderly, diabetic, or dialysis-dependent patients. These patients have higher risk of amputation and shorter amputation-free survival...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240274/low-cost-optical-mapping-systems-for-panoramic-imaging-of-complex-arrhythmias-and-drug-action-in-translational-heart-models
#18
Peter Lee, Conrado J Calvo, José M Alfonso-Almazán, Jorge G Quintanilla, Francisco J Chorro, Ping Yan, Leslie M Loew, David Filgueiras-Rama, José Millet
Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239641/macrovascular-and-microvascular-cerebral-blood-flow-in-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Lindsay R Clark, Sara E Berman, Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Siobhan M Hoscheidt, Burcu F Darst, Corinne D Engelman, Howard A Rowley, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Patrick Turski, Oliver Wieben, Sterling C Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Capillary hypoperfusion is reported in asymptomatic adults at-risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the extent that can be explained by reduced flow in intracranial arteries is unknown. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five asymptomatic adults enriched for AD risk (mean age 61 years) completed arterial spin labeling (pcASL) and 4D-flow MRI sequences. Voxel-wise regression models investigated the relationship between mean flow in bilateral cerebral arteries and capillary perfusion, and tested potential moderators of this relationship...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237004/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-cardiology
#20
REVIEW
Ornella Milanesi, Giovanni Stellin, Pietro Zucchetta
Accurate cardiovascular imaging is essential for the successful management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography and angiography have been for long time the most important imaging modalities in pediatric cardiology, but nuclear medicine has contributed in many situations to the comprehension of physiological consequences of CHD, quantifying pulmonary blood flow symmetry or right-to-left shunting. In recent times, remarkable improvements in imaging equipments, particularly in multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have led to the progressive integration of high resolution modalities in the clinical workup of children affected by CHD, reducing the role of diagnostic angiography...
March 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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