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Autism Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324694/screening-of-autism-based-on-task-free-fmri-using-graph-theoretical-approach
#1
Masoumeh Sadeghi, Reza Khosrowabadi, Fatemeh Bakouie, Hoda Mahdavi, Changiz Eslahchi, Hamidreza Pouretemad
Studies on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated several dysfunctions in the structure, and functional organization of the brain. However, findings have not been established as a general diagnostic tool yet. In this regard, current study proposed an automatic screening method for recognition of ASDs from healthy controls (HCs) based on their brain functional abnormalities. In this paradigm, brain functional networks of 60 adolescent and young adult males (29 ASDs and 31 HCs) were estimated from subjects' task-free fMRI data...
March 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323454/interaction-behaviors-of-bilingual-parents-with-their-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Kristelle Hudry, Lisa Rumney, Nicole Pitt, Josephine Barbaro, Giacomo Vivanti
Given concerns that bilingual exposure might confuse children with disabilities-including autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-bilingual parents may restrict exposure to one language, often the community-dominant language. We investigated a potential consequence of this decision; the possibility that non-native language use might influence parental communicative behaviors during interaction with the child. We recruited 39 parent-child dyads, each with a young child with ASD (mostly boys) and parent/carer (mostly mothers)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319657/risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-born-to-mothers-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
Sophie Wojcik, Sasha Bernatsky, Robert W Platt, Christian A Pineau, Ann E Clarke, Éric Fombonne, Anick Bérard, Évelyne Vinet
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests in utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines as important risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to systematically review the risk of ASD in children born to mothers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to children born to mothers without RA. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of original articles using electronic databases: PubMed, EMBase, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Our literature search identified a total of 70 articles...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319204/responses-to-others-pain-in-adults-with-autistic-traits-the-influence-of-gender-and-stimuli-modality
#4
Jing Meng, Zuoshan Li, Lin Shen
Individuals with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairments in response to others' pain. Evidence suggests that features of autism are not restricted to individuals with ASD, and that autistic traits vary throughout the general population. To investigate the association between autistic traits and the responses to others' pain in typically developing adults, we employed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 1670 healthy adults and explored whether 60 participants (30 males and 30 females) with 10% highest AQ scores (High-AQ) would exhibit difficulties in the responses to others' pain relative to 60 participants (30 males and 30 females) with 10% lowest AQ scores (Low-AQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319054/association-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-with-mean-platelet-volume-and-vitamin-d
#5
Mesut Garipardic, Murat Doğan, Keziban Asli Bala, Tuba Mutluer, Sultan Kaba, Oktay Aslan, Lokman Üstyol
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the values of the mean platelet volume (MPV) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease in these 2 disorder groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included a total of 79 patients with ADHD or ASDs and controls in the Van region of Turkey. The control group included subjects of matching age and sex with no ADHD, ASDs, or chronic disease and taking no vitamins...
March 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317384/exploring-possible-predictors-and-moderators-of-an-executive-function-training-for-children-with-an-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Marieke de Vries, Mathilde Ge Verdam, Pier Jm Prins, Ben A Schmand, Hilde M Geurts
Previously, a total of 121 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed an adaptive working memory (WM)-training, an adaptive flexibility-training, or a non-adaptive control (mock)-training. Despite overall improvement, there were minor differences between the adaptive and mock-training conditions. Moreover, dropout was relatively high (26%). In the current study we explored potential predicting and moderating factors to clarify these findings. The effects of intelligence, autism traits, WM, flexibility, reward sensitivity and Theory of Mind on dropout, improvement during training, and improvement in everyday executive functioning (EF), ASD-like behavior, and Quality of Life (QoL) were studied...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317224/pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-aggression-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-questionnaire-survey-of-571-psychiatrists
#7
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Noa Tsujii, Toyosaku Ota, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Junzo Iida
AIMS: Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently accompanied by serious aggression that requires psychiatric treatment. However, little is known about the experiences psychiatrists have had using pharmacotherapy to treat aggression in patients who have both ASD and ADHD (ASD/ADHD). The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of Japanese child and adolescent psychiatrists in prescribing medication for aggression in patients with ASD/ADHD...
March 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317218/rodent-models-of-genetic-and-chromosomal-variations-in-psychiatric-disorders
#8
Jun Nomura, Geetha Kannan, Toru Takumi
Elucidating the molecular basis of complex human psychiatric disorders is challenging due to the multitude of factors that underpin these disorders. Genetic and chromosomal changes are two factors that have been suggested to be involved in psychiatric disorders. Indeed, numerous risk loci have been identified in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia, and related psychiatric disorders. Here, we introduce genetic animal models that disturb excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance in the brain and animal models mirroring human chromosomal abnormalities, both of which may be implicated in ASD pathophysiology...
March 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317138/impact-of-providing-psychiatry-specialty-pharmacist-intervention-on-reducing-drug-related-problems-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-related-to-disruptive-behavioural-symptoms-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-study
#9
R Wongpakaran, T Suansanae, T Tan-Khum, C Kraivichian, R Ongarjsakulman, C Suthisisang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Psychopharmacologic therapy has so far focused on ameliorating disruptive behaviours to improve patient's function and quality of life. Due to the complicated neurobiological aetiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a traditional pharmacist intervention may be insufficient to initiate the optimal care for this vulnerable population. We evaluate the impact of providing specialty psychiatry (PS) pharmacist intervention in identifying and resolving drug-related problems (DRPs) among children with ASD associated with disruptive behaviours...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317113/temperamental-markers-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Suzanne L Macari, Judah Koller, Daniel J Campbell, Katarzyna Chawarska
BACKGROUND: Although temperament has been recognized as an important contributor to childhood psychopathology, its role in emergent autism spectrum phenotypes is not well understood. This study examined whether toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display temperamental vulnerabilities compared to toddlers with other developmental challenges, whether these characteristics are distinct from core autism symptoms, if they are stable over time, and if they contribute to social outcomes in preschool...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314733/genetics-implicate-common-mechanisms-in-autism-and-schizophrenia-synaptic-activity-and-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Xiaoming Liu, Zhengwei Li, Conghai Fan, Dongli Zhang, Jiao Chen
The diagnosis of debilitating psychiatric disorders like autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ) is on the rise. These are severe conditions that lead to social isolation and require lifelong professional care. Improved diagnosis of ASD and SCHZ provides early access to medication and therapy, but the reality is that the mechanisms and the cellular pathology underlying these conditions are mostly unknown at this time. Although both ASD and SCHZ have strong inherited components, genetic risk seems to be distributed in hundreds of variants, each conferring low risk...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314621/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-an-essential-nutrient-and-a-nutraceutical-for-brain-health-and-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Grace Y Sun, Agnes Simonyi, Kevin L Fritsche, Dennis Y Chuang, Mark Hannink, Zezong Gu, C Michael Greenlief, Jeffrey K Yao, James C Lee, David Q Beversdorf
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) enriched in phospholipids in the brain and retina, is known to play multi-functional roles in brain health and diseases. While arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), DHA is linked to action of the Ca(2+)-independent iPLA2. DHA undergoes enzymatic conversion by 15-lipoxygenase (Alox 15) to form oxylipins including resolvins and neuroprotectins, which are powerful lipid mediators. DHA can also undergo non-enzymatic conversion by reacting with oxygen free radicals (ROS), which cause the production of 4-hydoxyhexenal (4-HHE), an aldehyde derivative which can form adducts with DNA, proteins and lipids...
March 10, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314459/autism-spectrum-disorders-challenges-and-opportunities-for-transition-to-adulthood
#13
REVIEW
Gerrit I van Schalkwyk, Fred R Volkmar
Improved outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have opened a range of potential pathways during the transition to adulthood. These include attending college, entering the labor force, and achieving a degree of independent living. Less cognitively able individuals may be eligible for state benefits and may enter supported employment programs. Those attending college require careful support and planning. Practitioners need to be familiar with the unique needs of young adults with ASD. Further research should attempt to define the priorities of individuals and families with ASD making this transition and clarify the value of existing supports and interventions...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304131/copy-number-variation-in-19-italian-multiplex-families-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-importance-of-synaptic-and-neurite-elongation-genes
#14
Carla Lintas, Chiara Picinelli, Ignazio Stefano Piras, Roberto Sacco, Claudia Brogna, Antonio M Persico
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is endowed with impressive heritability estimates and high recurrence rates. Its genetic underpinnings are nonetheless very heterogeneous, with common, and rare contributing variants located in hundreds of different loci, each characterized by variable levels of penetrance. Multiplex families from single ethnic groups represent a useful means to reduce heterogeneity and enhance genetic load. We screened 19 Italian ASD multiplex families (3 triplets and 16 duplets, total N = 41 ASD subjects), using array-CGH (Agilent 180 K)...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303423/theory-of-mind-predominantly-associated-with-the-quality-not-quantity-of-pretend-play-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Shu-Kai Lin, Ching-Hong Tsai, Hsing-Jung Li, Chien-Yu Huang, Kuan-Lin Chen
This study aimed to clarify the relationships between theory of mind and pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder, using refined assessments of theory of mind and pretend play while controlling for autistic behaviors and verbal comprehension. A total of 92 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-10 years were enrolled. In two visits, the children were assessed with the Theory of Mind Task Battery, the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Verbal Comprehension Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, respectively, for their theory of mind, pretend play performance, autistic behaviors, and verbal comprehension...
March 16, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303420/aging-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-naturalistic-longitudinal-study-of-the-comorbidities-and-behavioral-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-adults-with-asd
#16
Elizabeth A Wise, Marcia D Smith, Peter V Rabins
Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in persons over age 50. In a retrospective, naturalistic review of 74 individuals aged 30 and older meeting DSM-5 criteria for ASD, the point prevalence of behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms (BNPS) declined significantly for 12 of 13 BNPS over a mean of 25 years while many other features of ASD remained stable. GI disorders (68.9%) and seizure disorders (23%) were common, and 25.7% of the sample had a BMI >30. Females were more likely to engage in screaming (p < 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302198/-association-between-maternal-folate-supplementation-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-offspring-a-meta-analysis
#17
Xiao-Fang Yu, Mei Li, Yan Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively and comprehensively investigate the association between maternal folate supplementation during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP Database, and Chinese Biomedical Database were searched to collect the articles on maternal folate supplementation during pregnancy and the risk of ASD in children. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to determine the effect size...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302197/-event-related-potential-of-working-memory-on-emotional-faces-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Cai-Juan Xu, Ling Zhang, Ning Pan, Qiong-Xi Lin, Jun Ye, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of working memory ability on emotional faces and related event-related potential (ERP) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: The Chinese Facial Affective Picture System was used as test material, and the event-related potential system was used to record the electroencephalographic data when 16 ASD children aged 6-12 years (ASD group) and 14 normal children matched for age (control group) were completing the facial emotion delayed match-to-sample task...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302196/-association-between-intelligence-development-and-facial-expression-recognition-ability-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Ning Pan, Gui-Hua Wu, Ling Zhang, Ya-Fen Zhao, Han Guan, Cai-Juan Xu, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of intelligence development, facial expression recognition ability, and the association between them in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: A total of 27 ASD children aged 6-16 years (ASD group, full intelligence quotient >70) and age- and gender-matched normally developed children (control group) were enrolled. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition and Chinese Static Facial Expression Photos were used for intelligence evaluation and facial expression recognition test...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#20
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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