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Autism Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821725/interplay-between-maternal-slc6a4-mutation-and-prenatal-stress-a-possible-mechanism-for-autistic-behavior-development
#1
Calvin P Sjaarda, Patrick Hecht, Amy J M McNaughton, Audrina Zhou, Melissa L Hudson, Matt J Will, Garth Smith, Muhammad Ayub, Ping Liang, Nansheng Chen, David Beversdorf, Xudong Liu
The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821666/gabaergic-interneuron-differentiation-in-the-basal-forebrain-is-mediated-through-direct-regulation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-isoforms-by-dlx-homeobox-transcription-factors
#2
Trung N Le, Qing-Ping Zhou, Inma Cobos, Shunzhen Zhang, Jamie Zagozewski, Sara Japoni, Jerry Vriend, Tracie Parkinson, Guoyan Du, John L Rubenstein, David D Eisenstat
γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the development of, the basal ganglia primodia from which many GABAergic neurons originate and migrate to other forebrain regions. The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential migration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to the neocortex (Anderson et al...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819289/escrt-iii-membrane-trafficking-misregulation-contributes-to-fragile-x-syndrome-synaptic-defects
#3
Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
The leading cause of heritable intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by loss of the mRNA-binding translational suppressor Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). In the Drosophila FXS disease model, we found FMRP binds shrub mRNA (human Chmp4) to repress Shrub expression, causing overexpression during the disease state early-use critical period. The FXS hallmark is synaptic overelaboration causing circuit hyperconnectivity. Testing innervation of a central brain learning/memory center, we found FMRP loss and Shrub overexpression similarly increase connectivity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818479/a-structured-assessment-of-motor-function-behavior-and-communication-in-patients-with-wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome
#4
Heidi E Nag, David K Bergsaker, Bente S Hunn, Susanne Schmidt, Lise B Hoxmark
The present study aimed to increase the knowledge about Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), especially concerning motor function, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and adapted behavior, but also regarding clinical symptoms in general. Motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) or Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816917/factors-associated-with-developmental-behavioral-pediatricians-prescribing-psychotropic-medication-to-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-study-of-three-dbpnet-sites
#5
Carissa Jackel, Justine Shults, Susan Wiley, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Marilyn Augustyn, Nathan Blum
OBJECTIVE: Psychotropic medications are frequently prescribed to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the prescribing practices of developmental-behavioral pediatricians (DBPs). Our objective was to determine whether clinical site, age, insurance, or comorbidities influenced DBPs prescribing psychotropic medication for children with ASD. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed using electronic health record data of all patients with ASD seen at 3 academic developmental-behavioral pediatrics (DBP) clinical programs from January 2010 to December 2011...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816489/the-path-to-an-autism-spectrum-disorders-diagnosis-in-ethiopia-parent-perspective
#6
Waganesh A Zeleke, Tammy Hughes, Morgan Chitiyo
This study explores the common characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the available diagnostic and intervention currently practiced for children with ASDs in Ethiopia based on parents' experience. Data gathered from 100 parents in Ethiopia detail the difficulties families face when they suspect their child has an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The data indicate Ethiopian parents pursued a diagnosis of ASD after noting common ASD behaviors such as hand flapping and unusual attachments to objects...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816000/investigating-facial-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-the-importance-of-a-hypothesis-driven-approach
#7
Maryam Boutrus, Murray T Maybery, Gail A Alvares, Diana Weiting Tan, Kandice J Varcin, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Atypical facial characteristics have been observed in many disorders associated with developmental disability. While autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have not previously been thought to be associated with a distinct facial phenotype, an emerging research literature is casting doubt on this assumption. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of individuals with ASC may contribute to efforts to promote early identification of the condition and help elucidate etiological pathways. With the aim of identifying facial phenotypes associated with ASC, this commentary evaluated facial features purported to distinguish ASC from typical development...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815985/sticking-with-it-psychotherapy-outcomes-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-university-counseling-center-setting
#8
Emily Anderberg, Jonathan C Cox, E Shannon Neeley Tass, David M Erekson, Terisa P Gabrielsen, Jared S Warren, Jared Cline, Devin Petersen, Mikle South
Young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience high rates of comorbid mental health concerns in addition to distress arising from the core symptoms of autism. Many adults with ASD seek psychological treatment in outpatient facilities in their communities that are not specifically geared toward individuals with ASD. However, few studies have looked at the effectiveness of standard psychotherapeutic care in adults with ASD. This study aimed to discover how individuals with ASD fare in psychotherapy within a college counseling setting, compared to their neurotypical peers...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815940/production-and-perception-of-emotional-prosody-by-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Daniel J Hubbard, Daniel J Faso, Peter F Assmann, Noah J Sasson
This study examined production and perception of affective prosody by adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research has reported increased pitch variability in talkers with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) controls in grammatical speaking tasks (e.g., comparing interrogative vs. declarative sentences), but it is unclear whether this pattern extends to emotional speech. In this study, speech recordings in five emotion contexts (angry, happy, interested, sad, and neutral) were obtained from 15 adult males with ASD and 15 controls (Experiment 1), and were later presented to 52 listeners (22 with ASD) who were asked to identify the emotion expressed and rate the level of naturalness of the emotion in each recording (Experiment 2)...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815619/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-and-adolescents-with-higher-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders-social-impairments-and-internalizing-symptoms
#10
Outi Reinvall, Teija Kujala, Arja Voutilainen, Anu-Liisa Moisio, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Marja Laasonen
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was introduced in 1980s in the field of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies indicate that symptoms of SCT are separate from symptoms of ADHD and independently associated with multiple domains of functioning in clinical groups and in typical development. We assessed whether similar pattern would apply to higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with higher functioning ASD (N = 55; 5-15 years) were divided into the ASD+High SCT (n = 17), the ASD+Medium SCT (n = 18) and the ASD+Low SCT (n = 20) groups based on parent-rated daydreaming and slowness on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF)...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814540/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-fragile-x-syndrome-cooccurring-conditions-and-current-treatment
#11
Walter E Kaufmann, Sharon A Kidd, Howard F Andrews, Dejan B Budimirovic, Amy Esler, Barbara Haas-Givler, Tracy Stackhouse, Catharine Riley, Georgina Peacock, Stephanie L Sherman, W Ted Brown, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are frequently codiagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most of our current knowledge about ASD in FXS comes from family surveys and small studies. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the ASD diagnosis in a large clinic-based FXS population to better inform the care of people with FXS. METHODS: The study employed a data set populated by data from individuals with FXS seen at specialty clinics across the country...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813944/robotic-set-up-to-quantify-hand-eye-behavior-in-motor-execution-and-learning-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Claudia Casellato, Marta Gandolla, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Pedrocchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812269/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-early-life-of-mammals-link-to-neurodevelopmental-disorders-associated-with-asd
#13
Françoise Muscatelli, Michel G Desarménien, Valery Matarazzo, Valery Grinevich
Oxytocin plays a role in various functions including endocrine and immune functions but also parent-infant bonding and social interactions. It might be considered as a main neuropeptide involved in mediating the regulation of adaptive interactions between an individual and his/her environment. Recently, a critical role of oxytocin in early life has been revealed in sensory processing and multi-modal integration that are essential for normal postnatal neurodevelopment. An early alteration in the oxytocin-system may disturb its maturation and may have short-term and long-term pathological consequences such as autism spectrum disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811938/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-children-with-mixed-autism-and-adhd
#14
Costanza Colombi, Mohammad Ghaziuddin
Clinical heterogeneity is a well-established characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the comorbidity of ASD and ADHD is well known in clinical practice, relatively little research has examined the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD + ADHD. Our study showed significant differences in the neuropsychological characteristics of children with ASD + ADHD compared to those with ASD only. Children with ASD + ADHD showed higher symptoms of anxiety, worse working memory, and less empathy, as measured by the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811601/autonomic-versus-perceptual-accounts-for-tactile-hypersensitivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Hiroshi Fukuyama, Shin-Ichiro Kumagaya, Kosuke Asada, Satsuki Ayaya, Masaharu Kato
Tactile atypicality in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has harmful effects on their everyday lives including social interactions. However, whether tactile atypicality in ASD reflects perceptual and/or autonomic processes is unknown. Here, we show that adults with ASD have hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli in the autonomic but not perceptual domain. In particular, adults with ASD showed a greater skin conductance response (SCR) to tactile stimuli compared to typically developing (TD) adults, despite an absence of differences in subjective responses...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810018/prenatal-antidepressant-use-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-reply
#16
Simone N Vigod, Tara Gomes, Joel G Ray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810014/prenatal-antidepressant-use-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Deepa Singal, Dan Chateau, Marni Brownell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808839/individuals-with-autism-have-higher-8-iso-pgf2%C3%AE-levels-than-controls-but-no-correlation-with-quantitative-assay-of-paraoxonase-1-serum-levels
#18
Bianca Pop, Alexandru-Ștefan Niculae, Tudor Lucian Pop, Andreea Liana Răchișan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a very large set of neurodevelopmental issues with diverse clinical outcomes. Various hypotheses have been put forth for the etiology of autism spectrum disorder, including issues pertaining to oxidative stress. In this study, we conducted measurements of serum 8-Iso-Prostaglanding F2 α (8-iso-PGF2α, which is the results of non-enzimatically mediated polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation) in a population of individuals with autism and a control group of age and sex matched controls...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808808/ketogenic-diet-versus-gluten-free-casein-free-diet-in-autistic-children-a-case-control-study
#19
Omnia El-Rashidy, Farida El-Baz, Yasmin El-Gendy, Randa Khalaf, Dina Reda, Khaled Saad
Many diet regimens were studied for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past few years. Ketogenic diet is gaining attention due to its proven effect on neurological conditions like epilepsy in children. Forty-five children aged 3-8 years diagnosed with ASD based on DSM-5 criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally divided into 3 groups, first group received ketogenic diet as modified Atkins diet (MAD), second group received gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet and the third group received balanced nutrition and served as a control group...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808521/replicative-genetic-association-study-between-functional-polymorphisms-in-avpr1a-and-social-behavior-scales-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-korean-population
#20
So Young Yang, Soon Ae Kim, Gang Min Hur, Mira Park, Jong-Eun Park, Hee Jeong Yoo
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin has been shown to affect social and emotional behaviors, which is mediated by the arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR1A). Genetic polymorphisms in the AVPR1A promoter region have been identified to be associated with susceptibility to social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesize that alleles of polymorphisms in the promoter region of AVPR1A may differentially interact with certain transcriptional factors, which in turn affect quantitative traits, such as sociality, in children with autism...
2017: Molecular Autism
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