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Autism Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548711/sequential-associations-between-caregiver-talk-and-child-play-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-typical-development
#1
Kristen Bottema-Beutel, Caitlin Malloy, Blair P Lloyd, Rebecca Louick, Linnea Joffe-Nelson, Linda R Watson, Paul J Yoder
This study examined sequential associations between child play and caregiver talk in 98 caregiver-child dyads (Mmental age  = 14 months). Fifty dyads included a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Analyses revealed sequential associations between child play and caregiver follow-in (FI) utterances (utterances related to the child's attentional focus) were stronger in the ASD as compared to the typically developing (TD) group. FI utterances were more likely to elicit functional play than caregiver-focused utterances, and more so in the ASD group...
May 26, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548543/systematic-review-of-clinical-guidance-documents-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnostic-assessment-in-select-regions
#2
Melanie Penner, Evdokia Anagnostou, Lana Y Andoni, Wendy J Ungar
Clinical guidance documents play an important role in ensuring access to high-quality autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment practices. The objective was to perform a systematic review of professional association and government clinical guidance documents for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment, analyzing their quality and content. The government search was limited to English-speaking, single-payer, publicly funded health systems. A quality appraisal was conducted by two appraisers using the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation, second edition tool...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548194/-heritability-and-genetic-comorbidity-of-attention-deficit-disorder-with-hyperactivity
#3
Giannina Puddu, Paula Rothhammer, Ximena Carrasco, Francisco Aboitiz, Francisco Rothhammer
This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547882/re-adjusting-the-cut-off-score-of-the-korean-version-of-the-childhood-autism-rating-scale-for-high-functioning-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Hyuk-Jin Kwon, Hee-Jeong Yoo, Joo-Hyun Kim, Dong-Hyun Noh, Hyun-Jung Sunwoo, Ye Seul Jeon, Sang-Youn Lee, Ye-Ul Jo, Gui-Young Bong
AIM: The current cut-off score of the Korean version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale(K-CARS) does not seem sensitive enough to precisely diagnose high-functioning autism. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off score of K-CARS for diagnosing high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD). METHODS: A total of 329 participants were assessed by the Korean versions of the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (K-ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (K-ADOS), and K-CARS...
May 26, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547408/predictors-of-parent-teacher-agreement-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-typically-developing-siblings
#5
Elizabeth A Stratis, Luc Lecavalier
This study evaluated the magnitude of informant agreement and predictors of agreement on behavior and emotional problems and autism symptoms in 403 children with autism and their typically developing siblings. Parent-teacher agreement was investigated on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Agreement between parents and teachers fell in the low to moderate range. Multiple demographic and clinical variables were considered as predictors, and only some measures of parent broad autism traits were associated with informant agreement...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545994/the-impact-of-atypical-sensory-processing-on-social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Melissa D Thye, Haley M Bednarz, Abbey J Herringshaw, Emma B Sartin, Rajesh K Kana
Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545751/what-is-the-male-to-female-ratio-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Rachel Loomes, Laura Hull, William Polmear Locke Mandy
OBJECTIVE: To derive the first systematically calculated estimate of the relative proportion of boys and girls with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through a meta-analysis of prevalence studies conducted since the introduction of the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. METHOD: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. The Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched, and study quality was rated using a risk-of-bias tool...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544911/arianna-a-research-environment-for-neuroimaging-studies-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#8
Alessandra Retico, Silvia Arezzini, Paolo Bosco, Sara Calderoni, Alberto Ciampa, Simone Coscetti, Stefano Cuomo, Luca De Santis, Dario Fabiani, Maria Evelina Fantacci, Alessia Giuliano, Enrico Mazzoni, Pietro Mercatali, Giovanni Miscali, Massimiliano Pardini, Margherita Prosperi, Francesco Romano, Elena Tamburini, Michela Tosetti, Filippo Muratori
The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna...
May 17, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544637/prevalence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-autistic-symptoms-in-a-school-based-cohort-of-children-in-kolkata-india
#9
Alokananda Rudra, Matthew K Belmonte, Parmeet Kaur Soni, Saoni Banerjee, Shaneel Mukerji, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
Despite housing ∼18% of the world's population, India does not yet have an estimate of prevalence of autism. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of autism in a selected population of school-children in India. N = 11,849 children (mean age = 5.9 [SD = 1.3], 39.5% females) were selected from various school types from three boroughs in Kolkata, India. Parents/caregivers and teachers filled in the social and communication disorders checklist (SCDC). Children meeting cutoff on parent-reported SCDC were followed up with the social communication questionnaire (SCQ)...
May 25, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544626/countering-evidence-denial-and-the-promotion-of-pseudoscience-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Isabel M Smith, Noni E MacDonald
This commentary introduces a framework within which clinical and research experts in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can address public instances of evidence denial and promotion of pseudoscience related to ASD. This is a generalized extension of work by a World Health Organization (WHO) group dedicated to reducing the influence of Vocal Vaccine Deniers through educating advocates in how to effectively defuse their arguments. The WHO guidelines were informed by conceptual work on the "denialism" phenomenon, and by studies in psychology, communication, vaccine science, and public health...
May 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543302/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-ipad-based-application-to-complement-early-behavioural-intervention-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Andrew J O Whitehouse, Joanna Granich, Gail Alvares, Margherita Busacca, Matthew N Cooper, Alena Dass, Thi Duong, Rajes Harper, Wendy Marshall, Amanda Richdale, Tania Rodwell, David Trembath, Pratibha Vellanki, Dennis W Moore, Angelika Anderson
BACKGROUND: Technology-based interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few have been evaluated within the context of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). This RCT evaluated the efficacy of one technology-based early intervention programme (Therapy Outcomes By You; TOBY) in young children with ASD. METHODS: TOBY is an app-based learning curriculum designed for children and parents as a complement to early behavioural intervention. Eighty children (16 female) were recruited to this RCT within 12 months of receiving a diagnosis of ASD (M age = 3...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542618/early-and-late-stage-processing-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-an-erp-study
#12
Shanshan Wang, Chunjuan Yang, Yijun Liu, Zhi Shao, Todd Jackson
This research assessed event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during the processing of different kinds of visual stimuli among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (n = 15) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 19). Within a simple visual oddball paradigm, participating children passively viewed fruit and vegetable images that were used as standard stimuli in addition to images of these foods with their usual colors modified to create novel stimuli and cartoon depictions of these images (i.e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542465/employers-perception-of-the-costs-and-the-benefits-of-hiring-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-open-employment-in-australia
#13
Melissa Scott, Andrew Jacob, Delia Hendrie, Richard Parsons, Sonya Girdler, Torbjörn Falkmer, Marita Falkmer
Research has examined the benefits and costs of employing adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the perspective of the employee, taxpayer and society, but few studies have considered the employer perspective. This study examines the benefits and costs of employing adults with ASD, from the perspective of employers. Fifty-nine employers employing adults with ASD in open employment were asked to complete an online survey comparing employees with and without ASD on the basis of job similarity. The findings suggest that employing an adult with ASD provides benefits to employers and their organisations without incurring additional costs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542365/delusion-proneness-displays-comorbidity-with-traits-of-autistic-spectrum-disorders-and-adhd
#14
Anaïs Louzolo, Petter Gustavsson, Lars Tigerström, Martin Ingvar, Andreas Olsson, Predrag Petrovic
There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting a significant comorbidity between psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, research on psychosis-proneness in otherwise healthy individuals has been a promising way to better understand the mechanisms underlying psychosis. As both ADHD and ASD symptoms show a normal distribution in the general population, such trait comorbidity may confound studies on psychosis-proneness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541969/why-sex-education-matters-for-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Anya Curtis
A proactive approach may prevent inappropriate behaviors, sexual victimization.
June 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541279/do-the-data-really-support-ordering-fragile-x-testing-as-a-first-tier-test-without-clinical-features
#16
Veronique Weinstein, Pranoot Tanpaiboon, Kimberly A Chapman, Nicholas Ah Mew, Sean Hofherr
PurposeCurrent guidelines recommend first-tier chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) and fragile X syndrome (FX) testing for males with isolated intellectual disabilities/learning delay (ID/LD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).MethodsMales in our clinic with ID/LD or ASD (310) were analyzed for positive results from CMA and/or FX testing.ResultsCMA detected abnormalities in 29% of males with ID/LD and only 9% of males with ASD (including variants of uncertain significance and absence of heterozygosity). When males with ID/LD were tested for FX, the detection rate was 2...
May 25, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540866/electrophysiological-signatures-of-atypical-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-networks-in-autism
#17
Guofa Shou, Matthew W Mosconi, Jun Wang, Lauren E Ethridge, John A Sweeney, Lei Ding
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal local and long-range brain connectivity have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet the nature of these abnormalities and their functional relevance at distinct cortical rhythms remains unknown. Investigations of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) and their coherence across whole brain networks hold promise for determining whether patterns of functional connectivity abnormalities vary across frequencies and networks in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to probe atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in ASD from resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) data via characterizing the whole brain network...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540593/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-anorexia-nervosa-an-updated-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Heather Westwood, Kate Tchanturia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing interest in the relationship between anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review aimed to synthesise the most recent research on this topic to identify gaps in current knowledge, directions for future research and reflect on implications for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Eight studies assessing the presence of ASD in AN were identified in the literature along with three studies examining the impact of symptoms of ASD on treatment outcome...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540549/the-association-between-air-pollutants-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Chunyan Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Kui Deng, Vanessa Zhou, Xiaohua Zhou, Yan Hou
Autism spectrum disorders are a member of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) that have been increasing dramatically since described by Leo Kanner in 1943. In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing air pollution exposures and autism has grown correspondingly, but the association is still unclear. Whether air pollutants play a causal role and which substances are related with autism requires further study. We systematically reviewed the literature from 2005 to 2016 in MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), Web of Science, and PubMed and summarized the association between different air pollutants and autism...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540452/can-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-use-virtual-reality-driving-simulation-training-to-evaluate-and-improve-driving-performance-an-exploratory-study
#20
Daniel J Cox, Timothy Brown, Veerle Ross, Matthew Moncrief, Rose Schmitt, Gary Gaffney, Ron Reeve
Investigate how novice drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differ from experienced drivers and whether virtual reality driving simulation training (VRDST) improves ASD driving performance. 51 novice ASD drivers (mean age 17.96 years, 78% male) were randomized to routine training (RT) or one of three types of VRDST (8-12 sessions). All participants followed DMV behind-the-wheel training guidelines for earning a driver's license. Participants were assessed pre- and post-training for driving-specific executive function (EF) abilities and tactical driving skills...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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