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Autism Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458075/lateral-inhibition-in-the-autism-spectrum-an-ssvep-study-of-visual-cortical-lateral-interactions
#1
Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Myles Jones, Vance Zemon, Elizabeth Milne
Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder (Geschwind 2009; Port et al. 2014). An important mediator of circuit level brain activity is lateral inhibition, and a number of authors have suggested that lateral inhibition may be atypical in ASD. However, evidence regarding putative atypical lateral connections in ASD is mixed. Here we employed a steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm to further investigate lateral connections within a group of high functioning adults with ASD...
February 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457465/further-evaluation-of-a-practitioner-model-for-increasing-eye-contact-in-children-with-autism
#2
John T Rapp, Jennifer L Cook, Raluca Nuta, Carissa Balagot, Kayla Crouchman, Claire Jenkins, Sidrah Karim, Chelsea Watters-Wybrow
Cook et al. recently described a progressive model for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to provide eye contact with an instructor following a name call. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only, contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, generalization assessments, and maintenance evaluations. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which modifications to the model were needed to train 15 children with ASD to engage in eye contact...
February 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456827/impairment-of-social-behaviors-in-arhgef10-knockout-mice
#3
Dai-Hua Lu, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Huang-Ju Tu, Houng-Chi Liou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Wen-Mei Fu
Background: Impaired social interaction is one of the essential features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our previous copy number variation (CNV) study discovered a novel deleted region associated with ASD. One of the genes included in the deleted region is ARHGEF10 . A missense mutation of ARHGEF10 has been reported to be one of the contributing factors in several diseases of the central nervous system. However, the relationship between the loss of ARHGEF10 and the clinical symptoms of ASD is unclear...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456357/role-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-conferring-protection-in-children-at-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-from-a-sibling-case-control-study
#4
Harshini Manohar, Madhavapuri Pravallika, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Background: Gut microflora influences neural development through complex mechanisms. Feeding practices, especially breastfeeding influence gut microbiome and thereby play a pivotal role in immune and neural development. Current understandings of the role of healthy distal gut microflora in the development of immune and neural systems provide insights into immunological mechanisms as one of the possible etiologies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown that optimal breastfeeding is associated with lower odds of being at-risk for ASD and children with ASD are suboptimally breastfed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456277/differential-attention-to-faces-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-associations-with-later-social-and-language-ability
#5
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Hana Moustapha, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
A growing body of literature has begun to explore social attention in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with hopes of identifying early differences that are associated with later ASD or other aspects of development. The present study used eye-tracking to familiar (mother) and unfamiliar (stranger) faces in two groups of 6-month-old infants: infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk controls; LRC), and infants at high risk for ASD (HRA), by virtue of having an older sibling with ASD...
2018: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455555/employment-status-is-related-to-sleep-problems-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-no-comorbid-intellectual-impairment
#6
Emma K Baker, Amanda L Richdale, Agnes Hazi
Both sleep problems and unemployment are common in adults with autism spectrum disorder; however, little research has explored this relationship in this population. This study aimed to explore factors that may be associated with the presence of an International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition defined sleep disorder in adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ > 80). A total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder and 36 controls were included in the study. Participants completed a 14-day actigraphy assessment and questionnaire battery...
February 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455363/predicting-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-domain-adaptive-cross-site-evaluation
#7
Runa Bhaumik, Ashish Pradhan, Soptik Das, Dulal K Bhaumik
The advances in neuroimaging methods reveal that resting-state functional fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent data sharing projects help us replicating the robustness of these biomarkers in different acquisition conditions or preprocessing steps across larger numbers of individuals or sites. It is necessary to validate the previous results by using data from multiple sites by diminishing the site variations. We investigated partial least square regression (PLS), a domain adaptive method to adjust the effects of multicenter acquisition...
February 17, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455076/from-child-autistic-symptoms-to-parental-affective-symptoms-a-family-process-model
#8
Kevin Ka Shing Chan, Chun Bun Lam, Naska Chung Wa Law, Ryan Yat Ming Cheung
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but limited research has investigated why parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and increased risks of mental health problems. We responded to this gap in the literature by examining the associations between child autistic symptoms and parental affective symptoms, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. Guided by a family process theory, we hypothesized that child autistic symptoms would be positively associated with parental depressive and anxiety symptoms, and that these associations would be mediated by parents' concerns about their children's characteristics (future-related worry), parental roles (parenting stress), marital relationships (marital conflicts), and family conditions (family economic pressure)...
February 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453959/indices-of-repetitive-behaviour-are-correlated-with-patterns-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
J M Traynor, K A R Doyle-Thomas, L C Hanford, N E Foster, A Tryfon, K L Hyde, E Anagnostou, A C Evans, L Zwaigenbaum, G B C Hall, NeuroDevNet Asd Imaging Group
The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural networks. Resting-state fMRI scans from thirty subjects with ASD and thirty-two age-matched, typically developing control subjects were analysed. Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity analyses were used to examine resting-state connectivity in a number of cortical and subcortical neural networks. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between repetitive behaviour scores from the Repetitive Behaviour Scale - Revised and intrinsic functional connectivity in ASD subjects...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453711/prevalence-of-dsm-5-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-school-based-children-aged-3-12-years-in-shanghai-china
#10
Zhijuan Jin, You Yang, Shijian Liu, Hong Huang, Xingming Jin
We estimated the prevalence of ASD in a population-based sample comprising children aged 3-12 years (N = 74,252) in Shanghai. This included a high-risk group sampled from special education schools and a low-risk group randomly sampled from general schools. First, we asked parents and then teachers to complete the Social Communication Questionnaire for participating children. Children who screened positive based on both parental and teachers' reports were comprehensively assessed. ASD was identified based on DSM-5 criteria...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453709/prediction-of-autism-at-3-years-from-behavioural-and-developmental-measures-in-high-risk-infants-a-longitudinal-cross-domain-classifier-analysis
#11
G Bussu, E J H Jones, T Charman, M H Johnson, J K Buitelaar
We integrated multiple behavioural and developmental measures from multiple time-points using machine learning to improve early prediction of individual Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) outcome. We examined Mullen Scales of Early Learning, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and early ASD symptoms between 8 and 36 months in high-risk siblings (HR; n = 161) and low-risk controls (LR; n = 71). Longitudinally, LR and HR-Typical showed higher developmental level and functioning, and fewer ASD symptoms than HR-Atypical and HR-ASD...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453708/exploring-the-effectiveness-of-a-peer-mediated-model-of-the-peers-curriculum-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#12
Nicole L Matthews, Beatriz C Orr, Katrina Warriner, Mary DeCarlo, Mia Sorensen, Jessica Laflin, Christopher J Smith
This study compared immediate and 4-month outcomes among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder randomly assigned to the PEERS curriculum (n = 10), a peer mediated PEERS curriculum (n = 12), or a delayed treatment control group (n = 12). Findings suggest a modest advantage in social skills knowledge and social functioning for participants in the peer-mediated PEERS curriculum relative to Traditional PEERS, and gains in social skills knowledge, social functioning, and reductions in loneliness were maintained in one or both treatment groups at a 4-month follow-up...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453707/brief-report-when-large-becomes-slow-zooming-out-visual-attention-is-associated-to-orienting-deficits-in-autism
#13
Luca Ronconi, Maria Devita, Massimo Molteni, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Previous studies independently demonstrated impairments in rapid orienting/disengagement and zooming-out of spatial attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These attentional mechanisms, however, are not completely independent. Aiming at a more complete picture of spatial attention deficits in ASD, we examined the relationship between orienting and zooming in participants with ASD and typically developing peers. We modified a classical spatial cuing task, presenting two small or large cues in the two visual hemifields and subsequently cueing attention to one of them...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453706/family-experiences-with-the-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-system-barriers-and-facilitators-of-efficient-diagnosis
#14
M Martinez, K C Thomas, C S Williams, R Christian, E Crais, R Pretzel, S R Hooper
This paper examines family experiences with the efficiency of ASD diagnosis. Children were age 8 or younger with ASD (n = 450). Outcomes were delay from first parent concern to diagnosis, shifting diagnoses, and being told child did not have ASD. Predictors were screening, travel distance, and problems finding providers. Logit models were used to examine associations. Screening was associated with reduced delay in diagnosis; problems finding providers were associated with greater delay. Screening, travel distance, and delay in diagnosis were associated with shifting diagnoses and being told child did not have ASD...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453704/brief-report-reliability-of-the-participation-and-sensory-environment-questionnaire-home-scales
#15
Beth Pfeiffer, Aimee Piller, Laura Slugg, Chengshi Shiu
The Participation and Sensory Environment Questionnaire: Home Scales (P-SEQ): Home Scales is a parent report tool designed to assess the impact of the sensory environment on participation in daily activities in the home of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. A cross-sectional study was completed to determine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and examine item distribution. A total of 304 parents of children between the ages of 2 and 7 years of age completed the P-SEQ: Home Scales...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453208/parent-reported-prevalence-and-persistence-of-19-common-child-health-conditions
#16
Tracy Liu, Raghu Lingam, Kate Lycett, Fiona K Mensah, Joshua Muller, Harriet Hiscock, Md Hamidul Huque, Melissa Wake
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence and persistence of 19 common paediatric conditions from infancy to 14-15 years. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Parallel cohorts assessed biennially from 2004 to 2014 from ages 0-1 and 4-5 years to 10-11 and 14-15 years, respectively, in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 19 health conditions: 17 parent-reported, 2 (overweight/obesity, obesity) directly assessed...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453023/implications-of-altered-maternal-cytokine-concentrations-on-infant-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#17
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452340/congenital-abnormalities-of-the-male-reproductive-system-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Ran S Rotem, Gabriel Chodick, Michael Davidovitch, Russ Hauser, Brent A Coull, Marc G Weisskopf
Androgens have an extensive influence on brain development in regions of the brain that are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their etiological involvement remains unclear. Hypospadias (abnormal positioning of the urethral opening) and cryptorchidism (undescended testes) are 2 relatively common male birth defects that are strongly associated with prenatal androgen deficiencies. Having either disorder is a proxy indicator of atypical gestational androgen exposure, yet the association between these disorders and autism has not been extensively studied...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452336/invited-commentary-male-reproductive-system-congenital-malformations-and-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Laura A Schieve, Stuart K Shapira
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent developmental disorder. Studies indicate that while ASD etiology has a genetic component, the risk is polygenic, with gene-environment interactions being likely. The prenatal period is a critical exposure window for nongenetic risk factors. Previous studies have found positive associations between congenital malformations (all types) and ASD; a few also found specific associations between genitourinary system malformations and ASD; and one study found an association between hypospadias and ASD...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451074/negative-emotional-face-perception-is-diminished-on-a-very-early-level-of-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Anna Lorenzen, Fabian Grabe, Lioba Baving
Deficits in facial affect recognition (FAR) are often reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) due to inappropriate visual search strategies. It is unclear, however, whether or not deficits in subliminal FAR are still present in autism when visual focus is controlled. Thirteen persons with ASD and 13 healthy participants took part in this experiment. Supraliminal FAR was assessed using a standardized, computer-aided test. Subliminal FAR was obtained by an emotional face priming paradigm. By using an eye-tracking technique, it was assured that the initial visual focus was on the eyes of the prime...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
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