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Corey Fyfe, Gabrielle LeBlanc, Brianna Close, Patrice Nordmann, Jacques Dumas, Trudy H Grossman
Polymyxin antibiotics are considered a last line of defense in the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant and extensively-drug resistant Gram-negative pathogens.….
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Matthew E Falagas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Konstantinos Z Vardakas
INTRODUCTION: A real concern in the medical community is the increasing resistance of bacteria, especially that of Gram-negative types. New antibiotics are currently under clinical development, promising to tackle severe infections caused, especially, by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and broaden the armamentarium of clinicians. AREAS COVERED: We searched PUBMED and GOOGLE databases. Combinations of already approved β-lactams or monobactams with new β-lactamase inhibitors [imipenem-cilastatin/MK-7655 (relebactam), meropenem/RPX7009 (vaborbactam), ceftaroline/avibactam, aztreonam/avibactam], new β-lactams (S-649266, BAL30072), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (finafloxacin) and tetracyclines (eravacycline) were included in the review...
August 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Joshua T Thaden, Jason M Pogue, Keith S Kaye
Antimicrobial resistance has been identified by the World Health Organization as "one of the three greatest threats to human health." Gram negative bacteria in particular drive this alarming trend. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter species are of particular importance as they are associated with poor clinical outcomes and are common causes for a variety of infections including bacteremia, urinary tract infection, intra-abdominal infections and pneumonia...
July 6, 2016: Virulence
Marguerite L Monogue, Abrar K Thabit, Yukihiro Hamada, David P Nicolau
Members of the tetracycline class are frequently classified as bacteriostatic. However, recent findings have demonstrated an improved antibacterial killing profile, often achieving ≥3 log10 bacterial count reduction, when such antibiotics have been given for periods longer than 24 h. We aimed to study this effect with eravacycline, a novel fluorocycline, given in an immunocompetent murine thigh infection model over 72 h against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates (eravacycline MICs = 0...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Abrar K Thabit, Marguerite L Monogue, David P Nicolau
We assessed the pharmacokinetic profile of eravacycline, a novel antibiotic of the tetracycline class, and determined the dose in an immunocompetent murine thigh infection model that would provide free-drug exposure similar to that observed in humans after the administration of 1 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) every 12 h (q12h). Eravacycline demonstrated a nonlinear protein-binding profile. The 2.5-mg/kg i.v. q12h dose in mice resulted in an area under the concentration-time curve for the free, unbound fraction of the drug of 1...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yunliang Zhang, Xiaoyan Lin, Karen Bush
Eravacycline is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic of the tetracycline class being developed for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Eravacycline has activity against many key Gram-negative pathogens, including Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, including strains that are multidrug-resistant. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates from 2010 to 2013 (n=110) were characterized for carbapenemase genes by PCR and sequencing...
August 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
David M Livermore, Shazad Mushtaq, Marina Warner, Neil Woodford
Eravacycline and comparators were tested against carbapenem- and tigecycline-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter isolates received at the United Kingdom's national reference laboratory. Eravacycline MICs correlated closely with those of tigecycline but mostly were around 2-fold lower; both molecules retained full activity against isolates with high-level tetracycline and minocycline resistance. MIC90s of eravacycline and tigecycline were raised ca. 2-fold for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae compared with carbapenem-susceptible controls, probably reflecting subsets of isolates with increased efflux...
June 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Fan Liu, Andrew G Myers
Tetracyclines have proven to be safe and effective antibiotics over decades but to date all approved members of the class have been discovered and manufactured by chemical modification of fermentation products, which greatly limits the number of new structures that can be explored as future medicines. This review summarizes research leading to the development of a platform synthetic technology that enabled the discovery of the clinical candidate eravacycline, as well as other promising new tetracycline antibiotics, and provides the basis for a practical route for their manufacture...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Ling-Shan Syue, Yen-Hsu Chen, Wen-Chien Ko, Po-Ren Hsueh
The continuing increase in multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) worldwide has created new challenges in treating complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). A number of novel antimicrobial agents have been developed against resistant pathogens. To target extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens, novel β-lactam antibiotics, such as ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, aztreonam/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and S-649266, are antimicrobial alternatives for cIAIs. Two new drugs, eravacycline and plazomicin, have activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K...
April 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Alessia Carnelutti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The progressive increase of respiratory tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) has been associated with delays in the prescription of an adequate antibiotic treatment and increased mortality, representing a major concern in both community and hospital settings. When infections because of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are suspected, vancomycin still represents the first choice, although its efficacy has been recently questioned in favor of new drugs, reported to provide better clinical outcomes...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
George G Zhanel, Doris Cheung, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, James A Karlowsky
Eravacycline is an investigational, synthetic fluorocycline antibacterial agent that is structurally similar to tigecycline with two modifications to the D-ring of its tetracycline core: a fluorine atom replaces the dimethylamine moiety at C-7 and a pyrrolidinoacetamido group replaces the 2-tertiary-butyl glycylamido at C-9. Like other tetracyclines, eravacycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis through binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Eravacycline demonstrates broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
April 2016: Drugs
Cheryl R Durand, Mohammad Alsharhan, Kristine C Willett
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), and review eravacycline and other agents in the pipeline for management of cIAI. The increasing incidence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria has led to the need for additional antibiotics with activity against these organisms. There are 2 newly approved antibiotics, ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolazane/tazobactam for treatment of cIAI...
January 19, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Shang-Yi Lin, Chung-Hao Huang, Wen-Chien Ko, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Ren Hsueh
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) is becoming increasingly difficult because of the widespread emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we discuss the effectiveness of several new antibiotics for the treatment of cIAIs, including new β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLICs) and tetracycline-class drugs, recently developed aminoglycosides and quinolones, and novel lipoglycopeptides and oxazolidinones...
2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
W V Kern
After some years of stagnation there have been several new successful developments in the field of antibacterial agents. Most of these new developments have been in conventional antibacterial classes. New drugs among the beta-lactam agents are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) active cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and new combinations of beta-lactam with beta-lactamase inhibitors (ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and meropenem/RPX7009). New developments can also be observed among oxazolidinones (tedizolid, radezolid, cadazolid and MRX-I), macrolides/ketolides (modithromycin and solithromycin), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (nemonoxacin, delafloxacin and avarofloxacin), tetracyclines (omadacycline and eravacycline) as well as among glycopeptides and lipopeptides (oritavancin, telavancin, dalbavancin and surotomycin)...
November 2015: Der Internist
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing rates of life-threatening infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria, such as carbapenemase-producer strains, as well as pathogens that are resistant to all current therapeutic options, have been reported. The number of compounds that are currently being developed is still insufficient to control this global threat. We have reviewed the current available options for the treatment of MDR gram-negative infections, including combination regimens employing older antimicrobials and new compounds...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Esther Bettiol, Stephan Harbarth
Since 2010, awareness of the global threat caused by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has risen considerably and multiple policy and research initiatives have been implemented. Research and development (R&D) of much-needed new antibiotics active against multiresistant pathogens is a key component of all programmes aiming at fighting AMR, but it has been lagging behind owing to scientific, regulatory and economic challenges. Although a few new antibiotics might be available in Switzerland in the next 5 years, these new agents are not based on new mechanisms of action and are not necessarily active against resistant pathogens for which there is the highest unmet medical need, i...
2015: Swiss Medical Weekly
Trudy H Grossman, Timothy M Murphy, Andrew M Slee, Denene Lofland, Joyce A Sutcliffe
Eravacycline is a novel broad-spectrum fluorocycline antibiotic being developed for a wide range of serious infections. Eravacycline was efficacious in mouse septicemia models, demonstrating 50% protective dose (PD50) values of ≤ 1 mg/kg of body weight once a day (q.d.) against Staphylococcus aureus, including tetracycline-resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Streptococcus pyogenes. The PD50 values against Escherichia coli isolates were 1.2 to 4.4 mg/kg q.d. In neutropenic mouse thigh infection models with methicillin-sensitive S...
May 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Trudy H Grossman, William O'Brien, Kathryn O Kerstein, Joyce A Sutcliffe
Eravacycline (formerly TP-434) was evaluated in vitro against pre-established biofilms formed by a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Biofilms were eradicated by 0.5 μg/ml eravacycline, which was within 2-fold of the MIC for planktonic cells. In contrast, colistin and meropenem disrupted biofilms at 32 and 2 μg/ml, respectively, concentrations well above their respective MICs of 0.5 and 0.03 μg/ml. Gentamicin and levofloxacin eradicated biofilms at concentrations within 2-fold of their MICs.
April 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Trudy H Grossman, Chris M Pillar, Daniel F Sahm, Joyce A Sutcliffe
Eravacycline is a fluorocycline antibiotic in phase 3 clinical development for complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections. To support its clinical development, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various susceptibility test parameters on the MIC values for aerobic bacteria. The results showed that eravacycline appears to be largely unaffected by medium age, medium additives, and other nonstandard assay conditions.
April 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Juan Pablo Horcajada, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Carmen Peña, María Carmen Fariñas
The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is an important and very concerning problem. There is an urgent need of new antibimicrobials for treating these infections. Currently there are some options in the pipeline. Several new beta-lactamase and carbapenemase inhibitors as avibactam and MK-7655, combined with old or new betalactams are a very interesting option. Some combinations as ceftazidime-avibactam are in the late stages of clinical development and could reach the market in the next years...
December 2014: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
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