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Vowel perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111339/combined-vocal-exercises-for-rehabilitation-after-supracricoid-laryngectomy-evaluation-of-different-execution-times
#1
Hevely Saray Lima Silveira, Marcia Simões-Zenari, Marco Aurélio Kulcsar, Claudio Roberto Cernea, Kátia Nemr
INTRODUCTION: The supracricoid partial laryngectomy allows the preservation of laryngeal functions with good local cancer control. OBJECTIVE: To assess laryngeal configuration and voice analysis data following the performance of a combination of two vocal exercises: the prolonged /b/vocal exercise combined with the vowel /e/ using chest and arm pushing with different durations among individuals who have undergone supracricoid laryngectomy. METHODS: Eleven patients undergoing partial laryngectomy supracricoid with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP) were evaluated using voice recording...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092613/individual-variability-as-a-window-on-production-perception-interactions-in-speech-motor-control
#2
Matthias K Franken, Daniel J Acheson, James M McQueen, Frank Eisner, Peter Hagoort
An important part of understanding speech motor control consists of capturing the interaction between speech production and speech perception. This study tests a prediction of theoretical frameworks that have tried to account for these interactions: If speech production targets are specified in auditory terms, individuals with better auditory acuity should have more precise speech targets, evidenced by decreased within-phoneme variability and increased between-phoneme distance. A study was carried out consisting of perception and production tasks in counterbalanced order...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051305/acoustic-change-complex-in-background-noise-phoneme-level-and-timing-effects
#3
Curtis J Billings, Leslie D Grush, Nashrah Maamor
The effects of background noise on speech-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) can provide insight into the physiology of the auditory system. The purpose of this study was to determine background noise effects on neural coding of different phonemes within a syllable. CAEPs were recorded from 15 young normal-hearing adults in response to speech signals /s/, /ɑ/, and /sɑ/. Signals were presented at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The effects of SNR and context (in isolation or within syllable) were analyzed for both phonemes...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027494/discriminating-non-native-segmental-length-contrasts-under-increased-task-demands
#4
Yuki Asano
The present study examines how vulnerable perception of second language prosody is to increased task demands. German learners of Japanese, German non-learners without exposure to Japanese, and Japanese native listeners were tested in their ability to discriminate consonant length contrasts (compared to vowel length contrasts that served as a control condition). Memory load was increased by a longer inter-stimulus interval (2500 ms compared to 300 ms) and the demand on attention control was enhanced through the addition of the acoustic complexity of the stimuli (i...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964051/effect-of-early-dialectal-exposure-on-adult-perception-of-phonemic-vowel-length
#5
Hui Chen, Xu Rattanasone, Felicity Cox, Katherine Demuth
Attunement to native phonological categories and the specification of relevant phonological features in the lexicon occur early in development for monolingual and monodialectal speakers. However, few studies have investigated whether and how early exposure to two dialects of a language might influence the development of phonological categories, especially when a phonemic contrast exists only in one dialect. This study compared perceptual sensitivity to mispronunciations in phonemic vowel length in Australian English adult listeners with and without early exposure to another English dialect that did not have this contrast...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942630/effect-of-vowel-context-on-the-recognition-of-initial-consonants-in-kannada
#6
Mohan Kumar Kalaiah, Jayashree S Bhat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of vowel context on the recognition of Kannada consonants in quiet for young adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 17 young adults with normal hearing in both ears participated in the study. The stimuli included consonant-vowel syllables, spoken by 12 native speakers of Kannada. Consonant recognition task was carried out as a closed-set (fourteen-alternative forced-choice)...
September 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915781/f2-slope-as-a-perceptual-cue-for-the-front-back-contrast-in-standard-southern-british-english
#7
Kateřina Chládková, Silke Hamann, Daniel Williams, Sam Hellmuth
Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present study first reports acoustic measurements that confirm this pattern for the English variety of Standard Southern British English (SSBE), where /uː/ has shifted from the back to the front area of the vowel space and is now realized with higher midpoint F2 values than several decades ago...
September 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875456/phonemes-lexical-access-and-beyond
#8
Nina Kazanina, Jeffrey S Bowers, William Idsardi
Phonemes play a central role in traditional theories as units of speech perception and access codes to lexical representations. Phonemes have two essential properties: they are 'segment-sized' (the size of a consonant or vowel) and abstract (a single phoneme may be have different acoustic realisations). Nevertheless, there is a long history of challenging the phoneme hypothesis, with some theorists arguing for differently sized phonological units (e.g. features or syllables) and others rejecting abstract codes in favour of representations that encode detailed acoustic properties of the stimulus...
September 5, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863619/vowel-recognition-at-fundamental-frequencies-up-to-1%C3%A2-khz-reveals-point-vowels-as-acoustic-landmarks
#9
Daniel Friedrichs, Dieter Maurer, Stuart Rosen, Volker Dellwo
The phonological function of vowels can be maintained at fundamental frequencies (fo) up to 880 Hz [Friedrichs, Maurer, and Dellwo (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL36-EL42]. Here, the influence of talker variability and multiple response options on vowel recognition at high fos is assessed. The stimuli (n = 264) consisted of eight isolated vowels (/i y e ø ε a o u/) produced by three female native German talkers at 11 fos within a range of 220-1046 Hz. In a closed-set identification task, 21 listeners were presented excised 700-ms vowel nuclei with quasi-flat fo contours and resonance trajectories...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852917/perceptual-training-of-second-language-vowels-does-musical-ability-play-a-role
#10
Payam Ghaffarvand Mokari, Stefan Werner
The present study attempts to extend the research on the effects of phonetic training on the production and perception of second-language (L2) vowels. We also examined whether success in learning L2 vowels through high-variability intensive phonetic training is related to the learners' general musical abilities. Forty Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English participated in a pre-test/training/post-test setting. Discrimination and production tests were used in pre- and post-tests. The participants' musical ability was evaluated through three musical aptitude tests...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844651/gender-perception-after-raising-vowel-fundamental-and-formant-frequencies-considerations-for-oral-resonance-research
#11
Sally J K Gallena, Betsy Stickels, Emily Stickels
OBJECTIVES: Voice feminization therapy for male-to-female transgender women typically targets increasing fundamental frequency (F0). Increasing vowel formant frequencies (FFs) has also been proposed. To better understand formant conditions that shift listeners' perception of gender from male to "not-male," individual and combined vowel FFs were incrementally raised, whereas F0 was held constant at a gender-ambiguous level. METHODS: The study used a prospective, experimental group design...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833760/distinct-patterns-of-discrimination-and-orienting-for-temporal-processing-of-speech-and-nonspeech-in-chinese-children-with-autism-an-event-related-potential-study
#12
Dan Huang, Luodi Yu, Xiaoyue Wang, Yuebo Fan, Suiping Wang, Yang Zhang
Although many studies have reported domain-general impaired duration perception for speech and nonspeech sounds in children with autism, it remained unclear whether this phenomenon is universally applicable regardless of language background. In some languages such as Finnish and Japanese, vowel duration serves a phonemic role that can signify semantic distinction, and in others (e.g., Mandarin Chinese), vowel duration does not carry this phonemic function. The present event-related potential study investigated neural sensitivity to duration contrasts in speech and nonspeech contexts in Mandarin-speaking children with autism and a control group of age-matched typically developing (TD) children...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829808/deficits-of-congenital-amusia-beyond-pitch-evidence-from-impaired-categorical-perception-of-vowels-in-cantonese-speaking-congenital-amusics
#13
Caicai Zhang, Jing Shao, Xunan Huang
Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of fine-grained pitch processing in music and speech. However, it remains unclear whether amusia is a pitch-specific deficit, or whether it affects frequency/spectral processing more broadly, such as the perception of formant frequency in vowels, apart from pitch. In this study, in order to illuminate the scope of the deficits, we compared the performance of 15 Cantonese-speaking amusics and 15 matched controls on the categorical perception of sound continua in four stimulus contexts: lexical tone, pure tone, vowel, and voice onset time (VOT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803269/the-callosal-relay-model-of-interhemispheric-communication-new-evidence-from-effective-connectivity-analysis
#14
Saskia Steinmann, Jan Meier, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel, Gregor Leicht, Christoph Mulert
Interhemispheric auditory connectivity via the corpus callosum has been demonstrated to be important for normal speech processing. According to the callosal relay model, directed information flow from the right to the left auditory cortex has been suggested, but this has not yet been proven. For this purpose, 33 healthy participants were investigated with 64-channel EEG while performing the dichotic listening task in which two different consonant-vowel syllables were presented simultaneously to the left (LE) and right ear (RE)...
August 12, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799983/discrimination-of-voice-pitch-and-vocal-tract-length-in-cochlear-implant-users
#15
Etienne Gaudrain, Deniz Başkent
OBJECTIVES: When listening to two competing speakers, normal-hearing (NH) listeners can take advantage of voice differences between the speakers. Users of cochlear implants (CIs) have difficulty in perceiving speech on speech. Previous literature has indicated sensitivity to voice pitch (related to fundamental frequency, F0) to be poor among implant users, while sensitivity to vocal-tract length (VTL; related to the height of the speaker and formant frequencies), the other principal voice characteristic, has not been directly investigated in CIs...
August 9, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769836/familiarity-and-voice-representation-from-acoustic-based-representation-to-voice-averages
#16
Maureen Fontaine, Scott A Love, Marianne Latinus
The ability to recognize an individual from their voice is a widespread ability with a long evolutionary history. Yet, the perceptual representation of familiar voices is ill-defined. In two experiments, we explored the neuropsychological processes involved in the perception of voice identity. We specifically explored the hypothesis that familiar voices (trained-to-familiar (Experiment 1), and famous voices (Experiment 2)) are represented as a whole complex pattern, well approximated by the average of multiple utterances produced by a single speaker...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764439/comparing-malleability-of-phonetic-category-between-i-and-u
#17
Reiko Kataoka, Hahn Koo
This study reports differential category retuning effect between [i] and [u]. Two groups of American listeners were exposed to ambiguous vowels ([i/u]) within words that index a phoneme /i/ (e.g., athl[i/u]t) (i-group) or /u/ (e.g., aftern[i/u]n) (u-group). Before and after the exposure these listeners categorized sounds from a [bip]-[bup] continuum. The i-group significantly increased /bip/ responses after exposure, but the u-group did not change their responses significantly. These results suggest that the way mental representation handles phonetic variation may influence malleability of each category, highlighting the complex relationship among distribution of sounds, their mental representation, and speech perception...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726592/effect-of-extreme-adaptive-frequency-compression-in-bimodal-listeners-on-sound-localization-and-speech-perception
#18
Lidwien C E Veugen, Josef Chalupper, Lucas H M Mens, Ad F M Snik, A John van Opstal
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to improve access to high-frequency interaural level differences (ILD), by applying extreme frequency compression (FC) in the hearing aid (HA) of 13 bimodal listeners, using a cochlear implant (CI) and conventional HA in opposite ears. DESIGN: An experimental signal-adaptive frequency-lowering algorithm was tested, compressing frequencies above 160 Hz into the individual audible range of residual hearing, but only for consonants (adaptive FC), thus protecting vowel formants, with the aim to preserve speech perception...
September 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715718/when-speaker-identity-is-unavoidable-neural-processing-of-speaker-identity-cues-in-natural-speech
#19
Alba Tuninetti, Kateřina Chládková, Varghese Peter, Niels O Schiller, Paola Escudero
Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language...
November 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701977/foreign-languages-sound-fast-evidence-from-implicit-rate-normalization
#20
Hans Rutger Bosker, Eva Reinisch
Anecdotal evidence suggests that unfamiliar languages sound faster than one's native language. Empirical evidence for this impression has, so far, come from explicit rate judgments. The aim of the present study was to test whether such perceived rate differences between native and foreign languages (FLs) have effects on implicit speech processing. Our measure of implicit rate perception was "normalization for speech rate": an ambiguous vowel between short /a/ and long /a:/ is interpreted as /a:/ following a fast but as /a/ following a slow carrier sentence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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