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Vowel perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337239/background-suppression-and-its-relation-to-foreground-processing-of-speech-versus-non-speech-streams
#1
Xiaochen Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Jingjing Chen, Qin Gong
Since sound perception takes place against a background with a certain amount of noise, both speech and non-speech processing involve extraction of target signals and suppression of background noise. Previous works on early processing of speech phonemes largely neglected how background noise is encoded and suppressed. This study aimed to fill in this gap. We adopted an oddball paradigm where speech (vowels) or non-speech stimuli (complex tones) were presented with or without a background of amplitude-modulated noise and analyzed cortical responses related to foreground stimulus processing, including mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b, and P300, as well as neural representations of the background noise, i...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317325/motor-cortex-compensates-for-lack-of-sensory-and-motor-experience-during-auditory-speech-perception
#2
Judith Schmitz, Eleonora Bartoli, Laura Maffongelli, Luciano Fadiga, Nuria Sebastian-Galles, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Listening to speech has been shown to activate motor regions, as measured by corticobulbar excitability. In this experiment, we explored if motor regions are also recruited during listening to non-native speech, for which we lack both sensory and motor experience. By administering Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) over the left motor cortex we recorded corticobulbar excitability of the lip muscles when Italian participants listened to native-like and non-native German vowels. Results showed that lip corticobulbar excitability increased for a combination of lip use during articulation and non-nativeness of the vowels...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289077/evaluating-hearing-aid-amplification-using-idiosyncratic-consonant-errors
#3
Ali Abavisani, Jont B Allen
The goal of this study is to provide a metric for evaluating a given hearing-aid insertion gain using a consonant recognition based measure. The basic question addressed is how treatment impacts phone recognition at the token level, relative to a flat insertion gain, at the most-comfortable-level (MCL). These tests are directed at fine-tuning a treatment, with the ultimate goal of improving speech perception, and to identify when a hearing level gain-based treatment degrades phone recognition. Eight subjects with hearing loss were tested under two conditions: flat-gain and a treatment insertion gain, based on subject's hearing level...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280406/the-role-of-perception-in-the-typology-of-geminate-consonants-effects-of-manner-of-articulation-segmental-environment-position-and-stress
#4
Olga Dmitrieva
The present study seeks to answer the question of whether consonant duration is perceived differently across consonants of different manners of articulation and in different contextual environments and whether such differences may be related to the typology of geminates. The results of the cross-linguistic identification experiment suggest higher perceptual acuity in labeling short and long consonants in sonorants than in obstruents. Duration categories were also more consistently and clearly labeled in the intervocalic than in the preconsonantal environment, in the word-initial than in the word-final position, and after stressed vowels than between unstressed vowels...
March 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279898/the-roles-of-vowel-fronting-lengthening-and-listener-variables-in-the-perception-of-vocal-femininity
#5
Irina A Shport
Purpose: The goal of this study was to test whether fronting and lengthening of lax vowels influence the perception of femininity in listeners whose dialect is characterized as already having relatively fronted and long lax vowels in male and female speech. Method: Sixteen English words containing the /ɪ ɛ ʊ ɑ/ vowels were produced by a male speaker with 2 degrees of vowel fronting. Then, the vowel duration was manipulated in 3 steps. Thirty-nine listeners from the Southern United States judged how feminine each word sounded to them on an interval scale...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246484/testing-native-language-neural-commitment-at-the-brainstem-level-a-cross-linguistic-investigation-of-the-association-between-frequency-following-response-and-speech-perception
#6
Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang
A current topic in auditory neurophysiology is how brainstem sensory coding contributes to higher-level perceptual, linguistic and cognitive skills. This cross-language study was designed to compare frequency following responses (FFRs) for lexical tones in tonal (Mandarin Chinese) and non-tonal (English) language users and test the correlational strength between FFRs and behavior as a function of language experience. The behavioral measures were obtained in the Garner paradigm to assess how lexical tones might interfere with vowel category and duration judgement...
December 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209730/enhanced-identification-of-long-versus-short-voice-onset-time-consonant-vowel-syllables-in-a-dichotic-listening-task
#7
Deborah Moncrieff, Lauren Dubyne
Purpose: This study investigated the influence of voice onset time (VOT) on the perception of consonant-vowel (CV) signals during a dichotic listening (DL) task. Method: Sixty-two young adults with normal hearing were tested with the English language version of the Hugdahl Dichotic CV (DCV) Test. They were asked to identify 1 CV syllable during 3 DL conditions: free recall (report the syllable heard most clearly), forced right (report the syllable in the right ear), and forced left (report the syllable in the left ear)...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208951/functional-and-spatial-segregation-within-the-inferior-frontal-and-superior-temporal-cortices-during-listening-articulation-imagery-and-production-of-vowels
#8
Alessandra Cecilia Rampinini, Giacomo Handjaras, Andrea Leo, Luca Cecchetti, Emiliano Ricciardi, Giovanna Marotta, Pietro Pietrini
Classical models of language localize speech perception in the left superior temporal and production in the inferior frontal cortex. Nonetheless, neuropsychological, structural and functional studies have questioned such subdivision, suggesting an interwoven organization of the speech function within these cortices. We tested whether sub-regions within frontal and temporal speech-related areas retain specific phonological representations during both perception and production. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivoxel pattern analysis, we showed functional and spatial segregation across the left fronto-temporal cortex during listening, imagery and production of vowels...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205443/digitized-evaluation-of-speech-intelligibility-using-vowels-in-maxillectomy-patients
#9
Yuka I Sumita, Mariko Hattori, Mai Murase, Mahmoud E Elbashti, Hisashi Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Among the functional disabilities that patients face following maxillectomy, speech impairment is a major factor influencing quality of life. Proper rehabilitation of speech, which may include prosthodontic and surgical treatment and speech therapy, requires accurate evaluation of speech intelligibility (SI). A simple, less time-consuming yet accurate evaluation is desirable both for maxillectomy patients and the various clinicians providing maxillofacial treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the utility of digital acoustic analysis of vowels for the prediction of SI in maxillectomy patients, based on a comprehensive understanding of speech production in the vocal tract of maxillectomy patients and its perception...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195458/predicting-effects-of-hearing-instrument-signal-processing-on-consonant-perception
#10
Johannes Zaar, Nicola Schmitt, Ralph-Peter Derleth, Mishaela DiNino, Julie G Arenberg, Torsten Dau
This study investigated the influence of hearing-aid (HA) and cochlear-implant (CI) processing on consonant perception in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Measured data were compared to predictions obtained with a speech perception model [Zaar and Dau (2017). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141, 1051-1064] that combines an auditory processing front end with a correlation-based template-matching back end. In terms of HA processing, effects of strong nonlinear frequency compression and impulse-noise suppression were measured in 10 NH listeners using consonant-vowel stimuli...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195437/a-revised-metric-for-calculating-acoustic-dispersion-applied-to-stop-inventories
#11
Ivy Hauser
Dispersion Theory [DT; Liljencrants and Lindblom (1972). Language 12(1), 839-862] claims that acoustically dispersed vowel inventories should be typologically common. Dispersion is often quantified using triangle area between three mean vowel formant points. This approach is problematic; it ignores distributions, which affect speech perception [Clayards, Tanenhaus, Aslin, and Jacobs (2008). Cognition 108, 804-809]. This letter proposes a revised metric for calculating dispersion which incorporates covariance...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195416/non-native-phonetic-learning-is-destabilized-by-exposure-to-phonological-variability-before-and-after-training
#12
Pamela Fuhrmeister, Emily B Myers
Phonological variability is a key factor in many phonetic training studies, but it is unclear whether variability is universally helpful for learners. The current study explored variability and sleep consolidation in non-native phonetic learning. Two groups of participants were trained on a non-native contrast in one vowel context (/u/) and differed in whether they were also tested on an untrained context (/i/). Participants exposed to two vowels during the test were less accurate in perception of trained speech sounds and showed no overnight improvement...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179910/meaning-in-meaninglessness-the-propensity-to-perceive-meaningful-patterns-in-coincident-events-and-randomly-arranged-stimuli-is-linked-to-enhanced-attention-in-early-sensory-processing
#13
Christian Rominger, Günter Schulter, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss, Ilona Papousek
Perception of objectively independent events or stimuli as being significantly connected and the associated proneness to perceive meaningful patterns constitute part of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which are associated with altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Since perceiving meaningful patterns is to some extent already prevalent in the general population, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the propensity to experience meaningful patterns in co-occurring events and random stimuli may be associated with similar altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception...
November 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172630/lexical-tone-is-perceived-relative-to-locally-surrounding-context-vowel-quality-to-preceding-context
#14
Matthias J Sjerps, Caicai Zhang, Gang Peng
Important speech cues such as lexical tone and vowel quality are perceptually contrasted to the distribution of those same cues in surrounding contexts. However, it is unclear whether preceding and following contexts have similar influences, and to what extent those influences are modulated by the auditory history of previous trials. To investigate this, Cantonese participants labeled sounds from (a) a tone continuum (mid- to high-level), presented with a context that had raised or lowered fundamental frequency (F0) values and (b) a vowel quality continuum (/u/ to /o/), where the context had raised or lowered first formant (F1) values...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163329/dystonic-dysarthria-in-wilson-disease-efficacy-of-zolpidem
#15
Aurélia Poujois, Michaela Pernon, Jean-Marc Trocello, France Woimant
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by copper overload in the liver and the brain. Neurological presentations are mainly related to the accumulation of copper in the basal ganglia, the brainstem, and the cerebellum. Dysarthria is a frequent symptom, with dystonic, spastic, or parkinsonian components and is usually resistant to medical or voice rehabilitation therapies. Here, we report the case of a patient with WD diagnosed at the age of 12, who presented a severe and constant dysarthria from dystonic origin which was unresponsive to benzodiazepines and anticholinergic drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162356/the-perception-of-breathiness-in-the-voices-of-pediatric-speakers
#16
Lisa M Kopf, Mark D Skowronski, Supraja Anand, David A Eddins, Rahul Shrivastav
BACKGROUND: The perception of pediatric voice quality has been investigated using clinical protocols developed for adult voices and acoustic analyses designed to identify important physical parameters associated with normal and dysphonic pediatric voices. Laboratory investigations of adult dysphonia have included sophisticated methods, including a psychoacoustic approach that involves a single-variable matching task (SVMT), characterized by high inter- and intra-listener reliability, and analyses that include bio-inspired models of auditory perception that have provided valuable information regarding adult voice quality...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111339/combined-vocal-exercises-for-rehabilitation-after-supracricoid-laryngectomy-evaluation-of-different-execution-times
#17
Hevely Saray Lima Silveira, Marcia Simões-Zenari, Marco Aurélio Kulcsar, Claudio Roberto Cernea, Kátia Nemr
INTRODUCTION: The supracricoid partial laryngectomy allows the preservation of laryngeal functions with good local cancer control. OBJECTIVE: To assess laryngeal configuration and voice analysis data following the performance of a combination of two vocal exercises: the prolonged /b/vocal exercise combined with the vowel /e/ using chest and arm pushing with different durations among individuals who have undergone supracricoid laryngectomy. METHODS: Eleven patients undergoing partial laryngectomy supracricoid with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP) were evaluated using voice recording...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092613/individual-variability-as-a-window-on-production-perception-interactions-in-speech-motor-control
#18
Matthias K Franken, Daniel J Acheson, James M McQueen, Frank Eisner, Peter Hagoort
An important part of understanding speech motor control consists of capturing the interaction between speech production and speech perception. This study tests a prediction of theoretical frameworks that have tried to account for these interactions: If speech production targets are specified in auditory terms, individuals with better auditory acuity should have more precise speech targets, evidenced by decreased within-phoneme variability and increased between-phoneme distance. A study was carried out consisting of perception and production tasks in counterbalanced order...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051305/acoustic-change-complex-in-background-noise-phoneme-level-and-timing-effects
#19
Curtis J Billings, Leslie D Grush, Nashrah Maamor
The effects of background noise on speech-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) can provide insight into the physiology of the auditory system. The purpose of this study was to determine background noise effects on neural coding of different phonemes within a syllable. CAEPs were recorded from 15 young normal-hearing adults in response to speech signals /s/, /ɑ/, and /sɑ/. Signals were presented at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The effects of SNR and context (in isolation or within syllable) were analyzed for both phonemes...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027494/discriminating-non-native-segmental-length-contrasts-under-increased-task-demands
#20
Yuki Asano
The present study examines how vulnerable perception of second language prosody is to increased task demands. German learners of Japanese, German non-learners without exposure to Japanese, and Japanese native listeners were tested in their ability to discriminate consonant length contrasts (compared to vowel length contrasts that served as a control condition). Memory load was increased by a longer inter-stimulus interval (2500 ms compared to 300 ms) and the demand on attention control was enhanced through the addition of the acoustic complexity of the stimuli (i...
October 1, 2017: Language and Speech
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