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Autism diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639396/the-influence-of-parental-concern-on-the-utility-of-autism-diagnostic-instruments
#1
Karoline Alexandra Havdahl, Somer L Bishop, Pål Surén, Anne-Siri Øyen, Catherine Lord, Andrew Pickles, Stephen von Tetzchner, Synnve Schjølberg, Nina Gunnes, Mady Hornig, W Ian Lipkin, Ezra Susser, Michaeline Bresnahan, Per Magnus, Nina Stenberg, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Camilla Stoltenberg
The parental report-based Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the clinician observation-based Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) have been validated primarily in U.S. clinics specialized in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in which most children are referred by their parents because of ASD concern. This study assessed diagnostic agreement of the ADOS-2 and ADI-R toddler algorithms in a more broadly based sample of 679 toddlers (age 35-47 months) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort...
June 22, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616855/respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-predicts-restricted-repetitive-behavior-severity
#2
Emma E Condy, Angela Scarpa, Bruce H Friedman
In addition to social communication deficits, restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a key diagnostic feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in ASD has been posited as a mechanism of RRBs; however, most studies investigating ANS activity in ASD have focused on its relation to social functioning. This study used respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) patterns to measure ANS functioning and analyze its relation to RRBs in children with and without an ASD diagnosis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614965/the-co-occurrence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-with-adhd
#3
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D Bramlett, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Children with ADHD frequently present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, yet there is a notable gap in the treatment needs of this subpopulation, including whether the presence of ASD may be associated with more severe ADHD symptoms. METHOD: Data from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome ( n = 2,464) were used to compare children diagnosed with ADHD and ASD with children with ADHD, but not ASD...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613040/chromosomal-microarray-in-clinical-diagnosis-a-study-of-337-patients-with-congenital-anomalies-and-developmental-delays-or-intellectual-disability
#4
Ivona Sansović, Ana-Maria Ivankov, Adriana Bobinec, Mijana Kero, Ingeborg Barišić
AIM: To determine the diagnostic yield and criteria that could help to classify and interpret the copy number variations (CNVs) detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA) technique in patients with congenital and developmental abnormalities including dysmorphia, developmental delay (DD) or intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and congenital anomalies (CA). METHOD: CMA analysis was performed in 337 patients with DD/ID with or without dysmorphism, ASD, and/or CA...
June 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608542/hpa-axis-linkage-in-parent-child-dyads-effects-of-parent-sex-autism-spectrum-diagnosis-and-dyadic-relationship-behavior
#5
Darby E Saxbe, Ofer Golan, Sharon Ostfeld-Etzion, Yael Hirschler-Guttenberg, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Families of preschoolers participated in two dyadic home visits, once with mother (56 dyads) and once with father (59 dyads). Each member of the dyad provided three cortisol samples and participated in several interaction tasks that were behaviorally coded. Approximately half of the children had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), whereas half were typically developing (TD). In a multilevel model, father's cortisol level at each timepoint predicted child cortisol. Father-child linkage was stronger in dyads that showed less reciprocity, in which fathers showed less sensitivity, and in which children showed less self-regulation and more withdrawal...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608419/empathic-responding-in-preschool-aged-children-with-familial-risk-for-autism
#6
Nicole M McDonald, Haley G Murphy, Daniel S Messinger
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show deficits in social and emotional reciprocity, which often include empathic responding. The younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings) are at elevated risk for ASD and for subclinical deficits in social-emotional functioning. Higher levels of empathy in high-risk siblings during the second and third years of life predict fewer ASD symptoms and likelihood of diagnosis. We conducted a multi-method investigation of empathic responding to an examiner's accident in 30 low-risk and 48 high-risk siblings with (n = 12) and without ASD outcomes (n = 36) at 4-6 years of age...
June 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607376/reduced-preference-for-social-rewards-in-a-novel-tablet-based-task-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Liliana Ruta, Francesca Isabella Famà, Giuseppe Massimo Bernava, Elisa Leonardi, Gennaro Tartarisco, Alessandra Falzone, Giovanni Pioggia, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
Atypical responsivity to social rewards has been observed in young children with or at risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). These observations contributed to the hypothesis of reduced social motivation in ASD. In the current study we develop a novel task to test social reward preference using a tablet computer (iPad), where two differently coloured buttons were associated with a social and a nonsocial rewarding image respectively. 63 young children, aged 14-68 months, with and without a diagnosis of ASD took part in the study...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598245/factors-associated-with-stress-in-families-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Angela Sim, Sharmila Vaz, Reinie Cordier, Annette Joosten, Dave Parsons, Cally Smith, Torbjörn Falkmer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify key factors associated with severe stress in families raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to families with one or more children with a diagnosis of ASD. Data from 543 surveys were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Forty-four percent (n = 241) of the caregivers reported severe family stress related to raising a child with ASD...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597185/neural-correlates-of-sensory-hyporesponsiveness-in-toddlers-at-high-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
David M Simon, Cara R Damiano, Tiffany G Woynaroski, Lisa V Ibañez, Michael Murias, Wendy L Stone, Mark T Wallace, Carissa J Cascio
Altered patterns of sensory responsiveness are a frequently reported feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Younger siblings of individuals with ASD are at a greatly elevated risk of a future diagnosis of ASD, but little is known about the neural basis of sensory responsiveness patterns in this population. Younger siblings (n = 20) of children diagnosed with ASD participated in resting electroencephalography (EEG) at an age of 18 months. Data on toddlers' sensory responsiveness were obtained using the Sensory Experiences Questionnaire...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596952/neurodevelopmental-delay-diagnosis-rates-are-increased-in-a-region-with-aerial-pesticide-application
#10
Steven D Hicks, Ming Wang, Katherine Fry, Vignesh Doraiswamy, Eric M Wohlford
A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596906/pattern-of-impairments-and-late-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-a-sub-saharan-african-clinical-population-of-children-in-nigeria
#11
M A Bello-Mojeed, O O Omigbodun, M O Bakare, A O Adewuya
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Studies conducted among Africans living outside the continent indicate that African children are more likely than Caucasian children to have a late diagnosis of ASD. There is a dearth of information on this topic among children with ASD living in Africa. METHODS: To determine the pattern of impairments and age at diagnosis in ASD, sixty Nigerian children with a diagnosis of ASD were recruited from a neurodevelopmental clinic...
2017: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595786/increased-risk-for-an-atypical-autism-diagnosis-following-thimerosal-containing-vaccine-exposure-in-the-united-states-a-prospective-longitudinal-case-control-study-in-the-vaccine-safety-datalink
#12
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an organic-mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55% Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative and still added to some vaccines today. Concerns about the toxic effects from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of an atypical autism diagnosis were evaluated in this study. METHODS: A hypothesis-testing, prospective longitudinal, case-control study assessed exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) among cases diagnosed with atypical autism (n=164) and controls (n=15,216)...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593600/developmental-changes-in-empathic-concern-and-self-understanding-in-toddlers-at-genetic-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Susan B Campbell, Elizabeth L Moore, Jessie Northrup, Celia A Brownell
Toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low risk (LR) toddlers were observed at 22, 28, and 34 months during two empathy probes: a crying baby and an adult who pretended to hurt her finger. Toddlers with a later ASD diagnosis showed less empathic concern and self-distress at each age on both empathy probes than LR toddlers. HR toddlers with no diagnosis showed growth in empathic concern between 22 and 34 months in response to the adult's pain, differing from the children with ASD, but not the LR children, by 34 months...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592562/functional-neuroimaging-of-high-risk-6-month-old-infants-predicts-a-diagnosis-of-autism-at-24-months-of-age
#14
Robert W Emerson, Chloe Adams, Tomoyuki Nishino, Heather Cody Hazlett, Jason J Wolff, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, John N Constantino, Mark D Shen, Meghan R Swanson, Jed T Elison, Sridhar Kandala, Annette M Estes, Kelly N Botteron, Louis Collins, Stephen R Dager, Alan C Evans, Guido Gerig, Hongbin Gu, Robert C McKinstry, Sarah Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin Styner, Bradley L Schlaggar, John R Pruett, Joseph Piven
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviors that typically emerge by 24 months of age. To develop effective early interventions that can potentially ameliorate the defining deficits of ASD and improve long-term outcomes, early detection is essential. Using prospective neuroimaging of 59 6-month-old infants with a high familial risk for ASD, we show that functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging correctly identified which individual children would receive a research clinical best-estimate diagnosis of ASD at 24 months of age...
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590041/evaluating-the-importance-of-social-motor-synchronization-and-motor-skill-for-understanding-autism
#15
Paula Fitzpatrick, Veronica Romero, Joseph L Amaral, Amie Duncan, Holly Barnard, Michael J Richardson, R C Schmidt
Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems...
June 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589496/screening-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-geriatric-psychiatry
#16
S M J Heijnen-Kohl, R M Kok, R M H J Wilting, G Rossi, S P J van Alphen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are difficult to detect in old age. This study examined if ASD symptoms in older adults (age > 60) can be detected with the Dutch informant personality questionnaire, (Hetero-Anamnestische Persoonlijkheidsvragenlijst, HAP) in a mental health setting. Patients with ASD (N = 40) were compared to patients with a different psychiatric diagnosis (N = 43; personality disorders excluded). The ASD group had significant higher scores on the scales 'Socially avoidant behavior', 'Rigid behavior' and 'Unpredictable and impulsive behavior'...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586511/factors-affecting-dance-exercise-performance-among-students-at-a-special-needs-school
#17
Yukiko Ito, Izumi Hiramoto, Hideya Kodama
BACKGROUND: In Japan, dance exercise has been introduced as a compulsory element of health and physical education. However, there is a considerable discrepancy in the levels of performance among students with intellectual disabilities (ID) at a special needs school. AIM: To demonstrate factors affecting the performance of dance exercise in students with ID. METHODS: A 4-month dance exercise program was implemented for junior high school students at a special needs school, and performance of 32 students at 22 sessions was assessed quantitatively by amount of calorie use by exercise and the proficiency scores of performances...
June 6, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581542/visual-impairment-and-traits-of-autism-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Magdalena Wrzesińska, Joanna Kapias, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Domagała, Józef Kocur
Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579975/the-eight-and-a-half-year-journey-of-undiagnosed-ad-gene-sequencing-and-funding-of-advanced-genetic-testing-has-led-to-hope-and-new-beginnings
#19
Illana Gozes, Marc C Patterson, Anke Van Dijck, R Frank Kooy, Joseph N Peeden, Jacob A Eichenberger, Angela Zawacki-Downing, Sandra Bedrosian-Sermone
BACKGROUND: Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is one of the most prevalent de novo mutated genes in syndromic autism spectrum disorders, driving a general interest in the gene and the syndrome. AIM: The aim of this study was to provide a detailed developmental case study of ADNP p.Tyr719* mutation toward improvements in (1) diagnostic procedures, (2) phenotypic scope, and (3) interventions. METHODS: Longitudinal clinical and parental reports...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579480/sensory-reactivity-empathizing-and-systemizing-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-and-sensory-processing-disorder
#20
Teresa Tavassoli, Lucy Jane Miller, Sarah A Schoen, Jennifer Jo Brout, Jillian Sullivan, Simon Baron-Cohen
Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD). To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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