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Autism diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943835/investigating-brain-connectomic-alterations-in-autism-using-the-reproducibility-of-independent-components-derived-from-resting-state-functional-mri-data
#1
Mohammed A Syed, Zhi Yang, Xiaoping P Hu, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Significance: Autism is a developmental disorder that is currently diagnosed using behavioral tests which can be subjective. Consequently, objective non-invasive imaging biomarkers of Autism are being actively researched. The common theme emerging from previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies is that Autism is characterized by alterations of fMRI-derived functional connections in certain brain networks which may provide a biomarker for objective diagnosis. However, identification of individuals with Autism solely based on these measures has not been reliable, especially when larger sample sizes are taken into consideration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939027/simulating-interaction-using-gaze-contingent-eye-tracking-to-measure-the-reward-value-of-social-signals-in-toddlers-with-and-without-autism
#2
Angelina Vernetti, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Teodora Gliga
Several accounts have been proposed to explain difficulties with social interaction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), amongst which atypical social orienting, decreased social motivation or difficulties with understanding the regularities driving social interaction. This study uses gaze-contingent eye-tracking to tease apart these accounts by measuring reward related behaviours in response to different social videos. Toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD took part in this study at age 2 and were categorised at age 3 as low risk controls (LR), high-risk with no ASD diagnosis (HR-no ASD), or with a diagnosis of ASD (HR-ASD)...
August 12, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937448/autism-diagnosis-the-local-context-matters
#3
Nancy E Lanphear
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937447/community-general-pediatricians-perspectives-on-providing-autism-diagnoses-in-ontario-canada-a-qualitative-study
#4
Melanie Penner, Gillian A King, Laura Hartman, Evdokia Anagnostou, Michelle Shouldice, Charlotte Moore Hepburn
OBJECTIVE: Community general pediatricians (CGPs) are a potential resource to increase capacity for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessments. The objective of this study was to explore factors influencing CGPs' perspectives on and practices of providing ASD diagnoses. METHODS: This qualitative study used a constructivist modified grounded theory approach. Participants included CGPs who had attended ASD educational events or had referred a child with suspected ASD to a tertiary rehabilitation center...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934990/x-linked-ichthyosis-associated-with-psychosis-and-behavioral-abnormalities-a-case-report
#5
Amna Malik, Ahmed Bait Amer, Mohammed Salama, Bander Haddad, Muhammad T Alrifai, Mohammed Al Balwi, William Davies, Wafaa Eyaid
BACKGROUND: X-linked ichthyosis is a dermatological condition caused by deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase. Previously, X-linked ichthyosis/steroid sulfatase deficiency has been associated with developmental and neurological phenotypes. Here, we show for the first time, that X-linked ichthyosis may be comorbid with an additional psychiatric phenotype (psychosis). CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an 11-year-old Saudi Arabian boy with X-linked ichthyosis associated with psychosis, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder, inattentive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934215/tracing-the-temporal-stability-of-autism-spectrum-diagnosis-and-severity-as-measured-by-the-autism-diagnostic-observation-schedule-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Łucja Bieleninik, Maj-Britt Posserud, Monika Geretsegger, Grace Thompson, Cochavit Elefant, Christian Gold
BACKGROUND: Exploring ways to improve the trajectory and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder is prevalent in research, but less is known about the natural prognosis of autism spectrum disorder and course of symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the temporal stability of autism spectrum disorder and autism diagnosis, and the longitudinal trajectories of autism core symptom severity. We furthermore sought to identify possible predictors for change. METHODS: We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library up to October 2015 for prospective cohort studies addressing the autism spectrum disorder/autism diagnostic stability, and prospective studies of intervention effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932599/longitudinal-study-of-sensory-features-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Lucia Perez Repetto, Emmanuelle Jasmin, Eric Fombonne, Erika Gisel, Mélanie Couture
BACKGROUND: Between 45 and 95% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) present sensory features that affect their daily functioning. However, the data in the scientific literature are not conclusive regarding the evolution of sensory features in children with ASD. The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensory features of children within the age of 3-4 (T1) when they received their ASD diagnosis and two years later (T2) when they started school. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess sensory features in 34 children with ASD over time...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929805/-it-feels-like-something-difficult-is-coming-back-to-haunt-me-an-exploration-of-meltdowns-associated-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder-from-a-parental-perspective
#8
Indiana Montaque, Rudi Dallos, Becky McKenzie
The research explored the experience and understandings expressed by parents of children with autism concerning 'meltdowns', which are commonly described as distressing, escalating episodes of conflicts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six parents of children with a diagnosis of autism regarding their experience of 'meltdowns'. Parents were asked to track the process of the meltdowns as well as to describe their experiences. Three over-arching themes emerged which encapsulated their experience: Living in Dread: Anxiety and fear of escalating patterns, Attempting to Correct for Negative Childhood Experiences and Condemnation from the Self and Others...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923376/visuo-spatial-construction-trajectories-in-fragile-x-syndrome-fxs-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-evidence-of-cognitive-heterogeneity-within-neurodevelopmental-conditions
#9
Carrie J Ballantyne, María Núñez, Kallia Manoussaki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There have been discrepancies reported in visuo-spatial construction ability in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and those with a comorbid diagnosis of FXS and ASD (AFXS). This study aimed to provide a better understanding of the visuo-spatial processing styles in these heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: Navon-type tasks were used to assess visuo-spatial construction ability across 5 groups of children: typically developing, FXS, AFXS, ASD children who scored low-moderate (HFA) and ASD children that scored severe (LFA) on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)...
September 15, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922545/neural-responses-to-linguistic-stimuli-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Kayla H Finch, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
Atypical neural responses to language have been found in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in their unaffected siblings. However, given that language difficulties are often seen in these children, it is difficult to interpret whether these neural differences are a result of the diagnosis of ASD or impairments in their language abilities. In this current study, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from four groups of 36-month-olds: low-risk control (LRC), high-risk for ASD defined as having an older sibling with ASD (HRA) but who do not have ASD or milder autism-like symptoms (HRA-Typ), HRA children who do not have ASD but exhibit milder autism-like symptoms (HRA-Atyp), and HRA children diagnosed with ASD (ASD)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919924/comparison-of-parent-report-and-direct-assessment-of-child-skills-in-toddlers
#11
Lauren E Miller, Kayla A Perkins, Yael G Dai, Deborah A Fein
BACKGROUND: There are unique challenges associated with measuring development in early childhood. Two primary sources of information are used: parent report and direct assessment. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses, particularly when used to identify and diagnose developmental delays. The present study aimed to evaluate consistency between parent report and direct assessment of child skills in toddlers with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) across receptive language, expressive language, and fine motor domains...
September 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914082/characterizing-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-receiving-publicly-funded-mental-health-services
#12
Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Nicole Stadnick, Colby Chlebowski, Mary Baker-Ericzén, William Ganger
Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912708/remodeling-pearson-s-correlation-for-functional-brain-network-estimation-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-identification
#13
Weikai Li, Zhengxia Wang, Limei Zhang, Lishan Qiao, Dinggang Shen
Functional brain network (FBN) has been becoming an increasingly important way to model the statistical dependence among neural time courses of brain, and provides effective imaging biomarkers for diagnosis of some neurological or psychological disorders. Currently, Pearson's Correlation (PC) is the simplest and most widely-used method in constructing FBNs. Despite its advantages in statistical meaning and calculated performance, the PC tends to result in a FBN with dense connections. Therefore, in practice, the PC-based FBN needs to be sparsified by removing weak (potential noisy) connections...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910929/-cross-sectional-survey-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-aged-0-6-years-in-hainan-province
#14
L Li, X L Li, W X Wu, X F Cai, X L Fan, X H Wei, T T Sun
Objective: To understand the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children aged 0-6 years old and influencing factors in Hainan province. Methods: A total of 37 862 children aged 0-6 years were selected from 18 counties in Hainan province for a screening by using questionnaire of"warning signs in child development", then field diagnosis was made, and general descriptive statistic analysis was conducted. The prevalence of ASD and related factors were analyzed with χ(2) test and unconditional logistic regression model...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905160/school-age-outcomes-of-children-diagnosed-early-and-later-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Megan Louise Erin Clark, Zoe Vinen, Josephine Barbaro, Cheryl Dissanayake
Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder is considered best practice, increasing access to early intervention. Yet, many children are diagnosed after 3-years. The current study investigated the school age outcomes of children who received an early and later diagnosis of ASD. The cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed early (n = 48), were compared to children diagnosed after 3-years (n = 37). Children diagnosed early accessed more intervention, demonstrated better verbal and overall cognition at school age, were more likely to attend mainstream school and required less ongoing support than children diagnosed later...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903722/eeg-power-at-3%C3%A2-months-in-infants-at-high-familial-risk-for-autism
#16
April R Levin, Kandice J Varcin, Heather M O'Leary, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in brain development during infancy may precede the behavioral manifestation of developmental disorders. Infants at increased risk for autism are also at increased risk for other developmental disorders, including, quite commonly, language disorders. Here we assess the extent to which electroencephalographic (EEG) differences in infants at high versus low familial risk for autism are present by 3 months of age, and elucidate the functional significance of EEG power at 3 months in predicting later development...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900778/early-gesture-and-vocabulary-development-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Jana M Iverson, Jessie B Northrup, Nina B Leezenbaum, Meaghan V Parladé, Erin A Koterba, Kelsey L West
This study examined longitudinal growth in gestures and words in infants at heightened (HR) versus low risk (LR) for ASD. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory was administered monthly from 8 to 14 months and at 18 and 24 months to caregivers of 14 HR infants diagnosed with ASD (HR-ASD), 27 HR infants with language delay (HR-LD), 51 HR infants with no diagnosis (HR-ND), and 28 LR infants. Few differences were obtained between LR and HR-ND infants, but HR-LD and HR-ASD groups differed in initial skill levels and growth patterns...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900771/health-concerns-and-health-service-utilization-in-a-population-cohort-of-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Jonathan A Weiss, Barry Isaacs, Heidi Diepstra, Andrew S Wilton, Hilary K Brown, Caitlin McGarry, Yona Lunsky
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have many health needs that place demands on the health service sector. This study used administrative data to compare health profiles in young adults 18-24 years of age with ASD to peers with and without other developmental disability. Young adults with ASD were more likely to have almost all the examined clinical health issues and health service use indicators compared to peers without developmental disability. They were more likely to have at least one psychiatric diagnosis, and visit the family physician, pediatrician, psychiatrist, and emergency department for psychiatric reasons, compared to peers with other developmental disability...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900768/maternal-and-paternal-infertility-disorders-and-treatments-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-findings-from-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#19
Laura A Schieve, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Shericka Harris, Craig Newschaffer, Julie Daniels, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Lisa A Croen, Gayle C Windham
Previous studies of associations between ASD and conception using assisted reproductive technology (ART) are inconsistent and few studies have examined associations with other infertility treatments or infertility disorders. We examined associations between ASD and maternal/paternal infertility disorders and numerous maternal treatments among 1538 mother-child pairs in the Study to Explore Early Development, a population-based case-control study. ASD was associated with any female infertility diagnosis and several specific diagnoses: blocked tubes, endometriosis, uterine-factor infertility, and polycystic ovarian syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894950/autism-spectrum-disorder-an-early-and-frequent-feature-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis
#20
Bianca M L Stelten, Olivier Bonnot, Hidde H Huidekoper, Francjan J van Spronsen, Peter M van Hasselt, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Ron A Wevers, Aad Verrips
BACKGROUND: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of metabolism (IEM) due to mutations in the CYP27A1 gene. The clinical picture ranges from being nearly asymptomatic in early childhood, up to severe disability at adult age. Infantile-onset diarrhea and juvenile-onset cataract are the earliest symptoms in childhood. In the current study, we evaluated the presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a large cohort of CTX patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective patient file study in 77 genetically confirmed Dutch CTX patients to determine the frequency of ASD...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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