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Autism diagnosis

Amy E Kalkbrenner, Gayle C Windham, Cheng Zheng, Rob McConnell, Nora L Lee, James J Schauer, Brian Thayer, Juhi Pandey, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to further explore associations of perinatal air toxics with ASD and associated quantitative traits in high-risk multiplex families. METHODS: We included participants of a U.S. family-based study [the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE)] who were born between 1994 and 2007 and had address information...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Colin J Palmer, Rebecca P Lawson, Shravanti Shankar, Colin W G Clifford, Geraint Rees
Progress in our understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has recently been sought by characterising how systematic differences in canonical neural computations employed across the sensory cortex might contribute to clinical symptoms in diverse sensory, cognitive, and social domains. A key proposal is that ASD is characterised by reduced divisive normalisation of sensory responses. This provides a bridge between genetic and molecular evidence for an increased ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition in ASD and the functional characteristics of sensory coding that are relevant for understanding perception and behaviour...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Adrian Galiana-Simal, Victoria Muñoz-Martinez, Paloma Calero-Bueno, Maria Vela-Romero, Luis Beato-Fernandez
Autism spectrum disorder diagnosis is currently based on clinical observations and behavioral evaluations exclusively, without any biological determination. Molecular biomarkers are usually obtained from biological fluids, such as blood or urine, generally through invasive and uncomfortable procedures. Patients with autism are characterized by sensory reactivity and behavioral difficulties which make sample collection problematic. Saliva has emerged as a feasible alternative to obtain relevant biological information and is especially indicated in the case of children with autism due to its painless and noninvasive sampling characteristics...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Melanie Penner, Evdokia Anagnostou, Wendy J Ungar
Background: Inefficient diagnostic practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to longer wait times, delaying access to intervention. The objectives were to describe the diagnostic practices of Canadian pediatricians and to identify determinants of longer wait time for ASD diagnosis. Methods: An online survey was conducted through the Canadian Paediatric Society's developmental pediatrics, community pediatrics, and mental health sections. Participants were asked for demographic information, whether they diagnosed ASD, and elements of their diagnostic assessment...
2018: Molecular Autism
Mami Miyasaka, Shogo Kajimura, Michio Nomura
Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Jihong Lee, Sun Haeng Lee, Boram Lee, In Jun Yang, Gyu Tae Chang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinical practice patterns of Korean medicine doctors (KMDs) through questionnaire survey. METHODS: Questionnaires on Korean medicine (KM) treatment for ASD were distributed to 255 KMDs on December 5, 2016. The KMDs were psychiatrists, pediatricians, or general practitioners, who treated patients with ASD. The questionnaire covered items on treatment methods, aims of treatment, KM syndrome differentiation, diagnostic tools, and sociodemographic characteristics...
March 13, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Loren Leclezio, Sugnet Gardner-Lubbe, Petrus J de Vries
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with multisystem involvement. The lifetime prevalence of TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) is in the region of 90% in an apparently unique, individual pattern. This "uniqueness" poses significant challenges for diagnosis, psycho-education, and intervention planning. To date, no studies have explored whether there may be natural clusters of TAND. The purpose of this feasibility study was (1) to investigate the practicability of identifying natural TAND clusters, and (2) to identify appropriate multivariate data analysis techniques for larger-scale studies...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Jessica Overweg, Catharina A Hartman, Petra Hendriks
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children's interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
G N Soke, M J Maenner, D Christensen, M Kurzius-Spencer, L A Schieve
We compared the prevalence of various medical and behavioral co-occurring conditions/symptoms between 4- and 8-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from five sites in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network during the 2010 survey year, accounting for sociodemographic differences. Over 95% of children had at least one co-occurring condition/symptom. Overall, the prevalence was higher in 8- than 4-year-olds for 67% of co-occurring conditions/symptoms examined. Further, our data suggested that co-occurring conditions/symptoms increased or decreased the age at which children were first evaluated for ASD...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Juan C Stagnaro
Since the late 19th century, Argentinean psychiatrists have been developing classifcations of psychiatric disorders. Their work has had local originality and fruitful exchange with international controversies on the subject. The thinking of some Argentinean psychiatrists transcended the borders of the country and was adopted in the South American region, as was the case with the classifcation proposed by José T. Borda. There were also historical anticipations of concepts that were not known in other latitudes: "oligotimia", a category created by Enrique Pichon-Rivière, preceded the characterization of early childhood autism by Leo Kanner...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
M Hariharan, R Sindhu, Vikneswaran Vijean, Haniza Yazid, Thiyagar Nadarajaw, Sazali Yaacob, Kemal Polat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infant cry signal carries several levels of information about the reason for crying (hunger, pain, sleepiness and discomfort) or the pathological status (asphyxia, deaf, jaundice, premature condition and autism, etc.) of an infant and therefore suited for early diagnosis. In this work, combination of wavelet packet based features and Improved Binary Dragonfly Optimization based feature selection method was proposed to classify the different types of infant cry signals...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Iohanna Deckmann, Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Walquiria Nunes, Bruna Rabelo, Rudimar Riesgo, Rogerio Margis, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and language, and restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The etiology of ASD remains unknown and no clinical markers for diagnosis were identified. Environmental factors, including prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), may contribute to increased risk of developing ASD. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression and are frequently linked to biological processes affected in neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marion Rutherford, Kirsty Forsyth, Karen McKenzie, Iain McClure, Aja Murray, Deborah McCartney, Linda Irvine, Anne O'Hare
This study examined waiting times for diagnostic assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in 11 adult services, prior to and following the implementation of a 12 month change program. Methods to support change are reported and a multi-level modelling approach determined the effect of the change program on overall wait times. Results were statistically significant (b = - 0.25, t(136) = - 2.88, p = 0.005). The average time individuals waited for diagnosis across all services reduced from 149.4 days prior to the change program and 119...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Liliana Dell'Osso, Ivan Mirko Cremone, Barbara Carpita, Andrea Fagiolini, Gabriele Massimetti, Letizia Bossini, Antonio Vita, Stefano Barlati, Claudia Carmassi, Camilla Gesi
BACKGROUND: Despite discrete autism-related dimensions, such as deficits in communication, empathy and mentalizing are likely to affect the development of personality and despite they actually frequently occur in borderline patients, no research has so far investigated the relationship between autistic traits and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of autistic traits in subjects with BPD. METHODS: The sample included 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 69 healthy controls...
January 5, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Samantha J Teague, Louise K Newman, Bruce J Tonge, Kylie M Gray
This paper investigates the role of caregiver mental health and parenting practices as predictors of attachment in children with intellectual disability/developmental delay, comparing between children with ASD (n = 29) and children with other developmental disabilities (n = 20). Parents reported that children with ASD had high levels of anxiety and stress, and attachment insecurity in children (less closeness and more conflict in attachment relationships, and more inhibited attachment behaviours) compared with children with other developmental disabilities...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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