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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727482/atypical-preference-for-infant-directed-speech-as-an-early-marker-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-literature-review-and-directions-for-further-research
#1
Marisa G Filipe, Linda Watson, Selene G Vicente, Sónia Frota
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) refer to a complex group of neurodevelopmental disorders causing difficulties with communication and interpersonal relationships, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. As early identification, diagnosis, and intervention provide better long-term outcomes, early markers of ASD have gained increased research attention. This review examines evidence that auditory processing enhanced by social interest, in particular auditory preference of speech directed towards infants and young children (i...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724519/antidepressants-during-pregnancy-and-autism-in-offspring-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Dheeraj Rai, Brian K Lee, Christina Dalman, Craig Newschaffer, Glyn Lewis, Cecilia Magnusson
Objectives To study the association between maternal use of antidepressants during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring.Design Observational prospective cohort study with regression methods, propensity score matching, sibling controls, and negative control comparison.Setting Stockholm County, Sweden.Participants 254 610 individuals aged 4-17, including 5378 with autism, living in Stockholm County in 2001-11 who were born to mothers who did not take antidepressants and did not have any psychiatric disorder, mothers who took antidepressants during pregnancy, or mothers with psychiatric disorders who did not take antidepressants during pregnancy...
July 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719227/simvastatin-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-risperidone-in-treatment-of-autism-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Fatemeh Shirzad, Mohammad-Ali Karkhaneh-Yousefi, Rasoul Khezri, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Providing novel treatments for autism has been a subject of long-standing research. Based on etiopathological findings, we aim at assessing potential therapeutic effects of statins, here simvastatin, on autism symptoms for the first time. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group 10-week clinical trial, 70 drug-free children aged 4 to 12 years old with diagnosis of autistic disorder based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, who had an Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) scale irritability subscale score of ≥12, were equally randomized to receive either simvastatin (20-40 mg/day) or placebo as an adjunct to risperidone (1-2 mg/day) whereas administration of both drugs was started simultaneously from baseline...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716514/toe-walking-when-do-we-need-to-worry
#4
Olga M Morozova, Thomas F Chang, Mackenzie E Brown
Toe walking refers to the lack of heel strike during the stance phase of the gait cycle. It is a common variation of normal gait development in children. Persistent toe walking past 2-3 years of age warrants further evaluation as toe walking can be associated with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and autism spectrum disorders. The diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking is a diagnosis of exclusion used for children with persistent toe walking and no associated medical condition. Despite variable pathophysiology, the treatment of toe walking has similarities across diagnoses as it is focused on the maintenance of range of motion through the ankle...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715237/the-under-and-over-identification-of-autism-factors-associated-with-diagnostic-referral
#5
Isaac C Smith, Deanna Swain, Haley G Murphy, Thomas H Ollendick, Susan W White
As reported prevalence and public awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have grown in recent years, clinicians will likely see increased referrals for suspected ASD. The current study sought to elucidate factors associated with referral for possible ASD, as well as diagnostic outcome among youth referred for suspected ASD. Youth referred for psychological evaluations at an outpatient clinic (N = 69, 6-18 years, 48 male) were categorized into four groups: referred for suspected ASD and diagnosed as such, referred for ASD and not diagnosed as such, not referred for ASD but diagnosed as such, and neither referred for nor diagnosed with ASD...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714100/why-is-it-so-hard-to-reach-agreement-on-terminology-the-case-of-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#6
Dorothy V M Bishop
A recent project entitled CATALISE used the Delphi method to reach a consensus on terminology for unexplained language problems in children. 'Developmental language disorder' (DLD) was the term agreed by a panel of 57 experts. Here I reflect on points of difficulty that arose when attempting to reach a consensus, using qualitative information from comments made by panel members to illustrate the kinds of argument used. One issue of debate was the use of labels, in particular the term 'disorder', which was seen as having both pros and cons...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712019/maternal-body-mass-index-before-pregnancy-as-a-risk-factor-for-adhd-and-autism-in-children
#7
Christina Hebsgaard Andersen, Per Hove Thomsen, Ellen Aagaard Nohr, Sanne Lemcke
The risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be influenced by environmental factors such as maternal obesity before pregnancy. Previous studies investigating those associations have found divergent results. We aim to investigate in a large birth cohort this association further in children with ADHD, ASD and comorbid ADHD and ASD. Our study population consisted of 81,892 mother-child pairs participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Information about pre-pregnancy weight and height was collected in week 16 of pregnancy; the analysis was divided into groups based on BMI...
July 15, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710305/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-say-barber-biesecker-young-simpson-syndrome
#8
Jessica Merritt, Joseph C Hart, Tracy L LeGrow
Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS), also known as Ohdo syndrome SBBYS type, is a rare genetic disorder characterised by dysmorphic facial features and severe intellectual disability, as well as cardiac, dental and hearing abnormalities. There has been little psychiatric or psychological description of children with SBBYSS, although previous reports noted repetitive self-injurious behaviours, sensitivity to light and noise and severe deficits in communication. In this report, a 4-year-old male with SBBYSS is described with a focus on psychiatric and psychological assessment, including formal testing for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708303/using-medical-exome-sequencing-to-identify-the-causes-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-experience-of-two-clinical-units-and-216-patients
#9
E Chérot, B Keren, C Dubourg, W Carré, M Fradin, A Lavillaureix, A Afenjar, L Burglen, S Whalen, P Charles, I Marey, S Heide, A Jacquette, D Heron, D Doummar, D Rodriguez, Thierry Billette de Villemeur, M-L Moutard, A Guët, J Xavier, D Périsse, D Cohen, F Demurger, C Quélin, C Depienne, S Odent, C Nava, V David, L Pasquier, C Mignot
Though whole exome sequencing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders, it remains expensive for some genetic centers. Commercialized panels comprising all OMIM-referenced genes called "medical exome" constitute an alternative strategy to whole exome sequencing, but its efficiency is poorly known. In this study, we report the experience of two clinical genetic centers using medical exome for diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. We recruited 216 consecutive index patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in two French genetic centers, corresponded to the daily practice of the units and included non-syndromic intellectual disability (n=33), syndromic intellectual disability (n=122), pediatric neurodegenerative disorders (n=7) and autism spectrum disorder (n=54)...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705637/-do-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-have-a-diferent-gait-pattern-relationship-between-idiopathic-toe-walking-and-adhd
#10
Víctor Soto Insuga, Beatriz Moreno Vinués, Rebeca Losada Del Pozo, María Rodrigo Moreno, Marta Martínez González, Raquel Cutillas Ruiz, Carmen Mateos Carmen
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic toe-walking (ITW) is described as a gait pattern with no contact between the heels and the ground in children older than 3years. The diagnosis is clinical, making it necessary to rule out other neurological and orthopaedic conditions. A relationship between ITW and vestibular dysfunction and/or proprioceptive sensibility has been proposed. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism, language and cognitive disorders) often have ITW. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of ITW in children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD)...
July 10, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705096/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adult-outpatients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-uk
#11
Maheshi Wikramanayake, William Mandy, Sonia Shahper, Sukhwinder Kaur, Sangeetha Kolli, Selma Osman, Jemma Reid, Kiri Jefferies Sewell, Naomi Fineberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698772/examining-the-causes-of-autism
#12
David G Amaral
Autism is a broad, complex, and increasingly important brain disorder. New data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that one in sixty-eight children is born with some degree of autism. Autism is also more common in males by a four to one ratio. Making it especially difficult to discuss in finite, conclusive terms is the fact that there is no biological test for autism; diagnosis is based on behavior, and the only verified treatment is intensive behavior therapy. Our author, one of the nation's foremost researchers on autism, examines the prenatal factors that contribute to the disorder...
January 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697590/prevalence-of-fragile-x-syndrome-among-children-receiving-special-education-and-carrier-states-in-first-degree-relatives
#13
B Chandrasekara, S Wijesundera, S S Chong, H N Perera
Introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetically determined developmental disorder. Underlying genotype is cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeat expansions with over 200 repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Children with FXS are most accessible in special education institutions in Sri Lanka, with a total of approximately 6000 registered attendees. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of FXS among special school attendees and to screen first degree relatives of affected children...
June 30, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691502/associations-of-quality-of-life-with-health-related-characteristics-among-children-with-autism
#14
Karen A Kuhlthau, Erin McDonnell, Dan L Coury, Nalin Payakachat, Eric Macklin
We examine whether behavioral, mental health, and physical health characteristics of children with autism are associated with baseline and change in health-related quality of life. We measured health-related quality of life with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 total scores from children enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. We used linear mixed model regressions with random slopes. Predictors of lower health-related quality of life at baseline included demographic and insurance characteristics, diagnosis, higher Child Behavior Checklist internalizing and externalizing scores, sleep problems by Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, seizures, gastrointestinal problems, and mental health problems...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690993/2q37-deletion-syndrome-confirmed-by-high-resolution-cytogenetic-analysis
#15
Eun-Kyung Cho, Jinsup Kim, Aram Yang, Sung Yoon Cho, Dong-Kyu Jin
Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by mild to moderate developmental delay, brachydactyly of the third to fifth digits or toes, short stature, obesity, hypotonia, a characteristic facial appearance, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we report on a patient with 2q37 deletion presenting with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP). Congenital heart malformations have been noted in up to 20% of patients with 2q37 deletions. However, DCMP has not been reported in 2q37 deletion patients previously...
June 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690687/the-role-of-nonverbal-working-memory-in-morphosyntactic-processing-by-children-with-specific-language-impairment-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Susan Ellis Weismer, Meghan M Davidson, Ishanti Gangopadhyay, Heidi Sindberg, Hettie Roebuck, Margarita Kaushanskaya
BACKGROUND: Both children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been shown to have difficulties with grammatical processing. A comparison of these two populations with neurodevelopmental disorders was undertaken to examine similarities and differences in the mechanisms that may underlie grammatical processing. Research has shown that working memory (WM) is recruited during grammatical processing. The goal of this study was to examine morphosyntactic processing on a grammatical judgment task in children who varied in clinical diagnosis and language abilities and to assess the extent to which performance is predicted by nonverbal working memory (WM)...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689330/phenotypic-characteristics-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-a-diverse-sample-of-somali-and-other-children
#17
Amy N Esler, Jennifer Hall-Lande, Amy Hewitt
The potential for culture to impact diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high, yet remains largely unstudied. This study examined differences across racial/ethnic groups in ASD symptoms, cognitive and adaptive skills, and related behaviors in children with ASD that included a unique subgroup, children from the Somali diaspora. Somali children were more likely to have ASD with intellectual disability than children from all other racial/ethnic groups. Few differences were found in the presence of specific symptoms and behaviors across groups once IQ was controlled...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689329/amygdala-volume-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-are-related-to-anxiety
#18
John D Herrington, Brenna B Maddox, Connor M Kerns, Keiran Rump, Julie A Worley, Jennifer C Bush, Alana J McVey, Robert T Schultz, Judith S Miller
Recent studies suggest that longstanding findings of abnormal amygdala morphology in ASD may be related to symptoms of anxiety. To test this hypothesis, fifty-three children with ASD (mean age = 11.9) underwent structural MRI and were divided into subgroups to compare those with at least one anxiety disorder diagnosis (n = 29) to those without (n = 24) and to a typically developing control group (TDC; n = 37). Groups were matched on age and intellectual level. The ASD and anxiety group showed decreased right amygdala volume (controlled for total brain volume) relative to ASD without anxiety (p = ...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688939/mapping-geospatial-gaps-in-early-identification-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Pamela B DeGuzman, Paige Altrui, Marcus Allen, Cornelia Ramsey Deagle, Jessica Keim-Malpass
Despite the known developmental benefits of early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosis before age 5 years is often not achieved. Research suggests that lack of health insurance and living in rural areas and areas of severe provider shortages contribute significantly to these delays. The purpose of this project was to conduct a geospatial evaluation of potential gaps in early ASD diagnosis of uninsured children in Virginia. A secondary purpose was to show the use of geospatial analysis by pediatric nurse practitioners for policy advocacy...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688075/coparenting-competence-in-parents-of-children-with-asd-a-marker-of-coparenting-quality
#20
Chris D May, Jennifer M St George, Richard J Fletcher, Ian Dempsey, Louise K Newman
The coparenting relationship has been linked to parenting stress, parenting self-efficacy and many other concerns associated with the development of children with ASD. Parents of children with ASD (N = 22) were interviewed to explore three domains of their coparenting relationship; (1) adaptation to the emergence of their child's autism, (2) parenting their child with ASD, (3) expectations for their child's developmental outcomes. The concept of coparenting competence, developed during analysis, describes collective perceptions of parenting efficacy...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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