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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876362/psychotropic-prescriptions-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-in-an-outpatient-clinic
#1
Christopher Izehinosen Okpataku, David Tawani
INTRODUCTION: There is an unpredictable pattern in the prescription of antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia, particularly in resource-limited settings in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychotropic prescriptions given to patients with schizophrenia in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital and to describe the choices and trends of these prescriptions. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of prescriptions for adults with schizophrenia...
July 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872668/efficacy-of-oral-pharmacological-treatments-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Riccardo Masson, Emanuela Pagliano, Giovanni Baranello
AIM: To evaluate the actual evidence of efficacy of oral pharmacological treatments in the management of dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A systematic review was performed according to the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology. Articles were searched for in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Database of Reviews of Effectiveness, OTSeeker, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, REHABDATA, and ClinicalTrials...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716772/chewing-induced-facial-dystonia-a-rare-presentation-of-task-specific-dystonia
#3
Chandramohan Sharma, Banshi Lal Kumawat, Ankur Garg, Kaushik Kumar Rana
This case is an addition to scarce literature available for a rare condition, chewing-induced task-specific dystonia. The patient was a 63-year-old woman who presented with a 4-year history of progressive difficulty in eating food only during chewing associated with abnormal facial grimaces without any difficulty in drinking, swallowing, speaking or singing. Examination revealed dystonia of facial muscles every time she chewed but absent during drinking and speaking. As movements were consistent and reproducible with the specific task, other differential diagnosis like motor tics, psychogenic disorder, tardive dystonia and parkinsonism syndrome were excluded leading to a diagnosis of task-specific facial dystonia triggered by chewing...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596119/alterations-of-m1-and-m4-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-genetically-dystonic-dt-sz-hamster-and-moderate-antidystonic-efficacy-of-m1-and-m4-anticholinergics
#4
Melanie Hamann, Jagoda Plank, Franziska Richter, Christoph Bode, Sinisa Smiljanic, Meaghan Creed, José N Nobrega, Angelika Richter
Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt(sz) hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594097/functional-activity-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-and-cerebellum-relates-to-cervical-dystonia-symptoms
#5
Roxana G Burciu, Christopher W Hess, Stephen A Coombes, Edward Ofori, Priyank Shukla, Jae Woo Chung, Nikolaus R McFarland, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia, causing abnormal movements of the neck and head. In this study, we used noninvasive imaging to investigate the motor system of patients with CD and uncover the neural correlates of dystonic symptoms. Furthermore, we examined whether a commonly prescribed anticholinergic medication in CD has an effect on the dystonia-related brain abnormalities. Participants included 16 patients with CD and 16 healthy age-matched controls. We collected functional MRI scans during a force task previously shown to extensively engage the motor system, and diffusion and T1-weighted MRI scans from which we calculated free-water and brain tissue densities...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546310/heterozygous-gnal-mice-are-a-novel-animal-model-with-which-to-study-dystonia-pathophysiology
#6
Assunta Pelosi, Fabien Menardy, Daniela Popa, Jean-Antoine Girault, Denis Hervé
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions and its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G-protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, where it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knock-out mice (Gnal(+/-)) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442355/effects-of-muscarinic-receptor-antagonists-on-cocaine-discrimination-in-wild-type-mice-and-in-muscarinic-receptor-m1-m2-and-m4-receptor-knockout-mice
#7
Lauren Joseph, Morgane Thomsen
Muscarinic M1/M4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors (M1(-/-), M2(-/-), M4(-/-)), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374697/-a-differential-approach-to-the-improvement-of-prevention-and-correction-of-neuroleptic-side-extrapyramidal-disorders-with-pantogam-activ-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
A S Tiganov, G P Panteleeva, L I Abramova, P V Bologov, P S Kananovich, M A Omel'chenko, I Yu Nikiforova
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of pantogam active (PA) in prevention and correction of neurological side-effects during the course neuroleptic treatment of acute endogenous psychoses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty schizophrenic patients (mean age 33 years) with acute psychosis were examined. All patients received 28-day course treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics. Two equal groups were studied: patients of the first group were treated with trihexyphenidyl (THP) in dose of 0,002-0,012 mg and patients of the second group received in addition PA in dose 0,9 mg/day...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102288/acetylcholine-acts-through-m3-muscarinic-receptor-to-activate-the-egfr-signaling-and-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation
#9
Huangfei Yu, Hongwei Xia, Qiulin Tang, Huanji Xu, Guoqing Wei, Ying Chen, Xinyu Dai, Qiyong Gong, Feng Bi
Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4 R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773692/pretreatment-and-prophylaxis-against-nerve-agent-poisoning-are-undesirable-behavioral-side-effects-unavoidable
#10
REVIEW
Trond Myhrer, Pål Aas
The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737314/analyzing-gene-expression-profiles-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-via-bioinformatics-methods
#11
Liming Wang, L Zhu, R Luan, L Wang, J Fu, X Wang, L Sui
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695244/cardiac-arrhythmia-in-wilson-s-disease-an-oversighted-and-overlooked-entity
#12
Bhupender Kumar Bajaj, Ankur Wadhwa, Richa Singh, Saurabh Gupta
Wilson's disease is a multisystem disorder which manifests with hepatic, neurological, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal, and cardiac symptoms. The hepatic and neurological manifestations often overshadow the other system involvement including cardiac symptoms and signs, which may prove fatal. We report a case of a young female who presented with progressive parkinsonian features and dystonia for around 4 months followed 2 months later by the complaint of episodes of light-headedness. She was diagnosed to have Wilson's disease based on the presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring and laboratory parameters of copper metabolism...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411393/long-term-trihexyphenidyl-exposure-alters-neuroimmune-response-and-inflammation-in-aging-rat-relevance-to-age-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Yuqi Huang, Zhe Zhao, Xiaoli Wei, Yong Zheng, Jianqiang Yu, Jianquan Zheng, Liyun Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown an association between long-term anticholinergic (AC) drug exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, which has been primarily investigated in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term AC exposure as a risk factor for developing neurodegenerative disorders and the exact mechanisms and potential for disease progression remain unclear. Here, we have addressed the issue using trihexyphenidyl (THP), a commonly used AC drug in PD patients, to determine if THP can accelerate AD-like neurodegenerative progression and study potential mechanisms involved...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281791/sialorrhea-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#14
REVIEW
Bruno Leonardo Scofano Dias, Alexandre Ribeiro Fernandes, Heber de Souza Maia Filho
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on sialorrhea in children with cerebral palsy. SOURCE OF DATA: Non-systematic review using the keywords "sialorrhea" and "child" carried out in the PubMed(®), LILACS(®), and SciELO(®) databases during July 2015. A total of 458 articles were obtained, of which 158 were analyzed as they were associated with sialorrhea in children; 70 had content related to sialorrhea in cerebral palsy or the assessment and treatment of sialorrhea in other neurological disorders, which were also assessed...
November 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241685/electromyographic-evidence-in-support-of-a-knock-in-mouse-model-of-dyt1-dystonia
#15
Mark P DeAndrade, Amy Trongnetrpunya, Fumiaki Yokoi, Chad C Cheetham, Ning Peng, J Michael Wyss, Mingzhou Ding, Yuqing Li
INTRODUCTION: DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder characterized by abnormal, often repetitive, movements and postures. Its hallmark feature is sustained or intermittent contractions of muscles involving co-contractions of antagonist muscle pairs. The symptoms are relieved with the anticholinergic drug trihexyphenidyl. The primary mutation is a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) in DYT1/TOR1A, which codes for torsinA. Previous studies showed that (1) heterozygous Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice, which have an analogous mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and altered corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in the brain and (2) these deficits can be rescued by trihexyphenidyl...
November 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017145/repetitive-exercise-dystonia-a-difficult-to-treat-hazard-of-runner-and-non-runner-athletes
#16
Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, J Eric Ahlskog, Andrew McKeon, Melinda S Burnett, Joseph Y Matsumoto, Anhar Hassan, James H Bower
INTRODUCTION: Runner's dystonia has previously been described in small series or case reports as a lower limb, task-specific dystonia. We have occasionally encountered this disorder and recognized the same phenomenon in non-runners regularly engaging in lower limb exercise. We wished to characterize the syndrome further, including outcomes, treatment, and the diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiology. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review and follow-up survey of adults seen at Mayo Clinic (1996-2015) with task-specific dystonia arising after prolonged repetitive lower limb exercise...
June 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997732/linezolid-and-rasagiline-a-culprit-for-serotonin-syndrome
#17
Mohamed Hisham, Mundalipalayam N Sivakumar, V Nandakumar, S Lakshmikanthcharan
A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital for cellulitis. She had a history of diabetes mellitus and parkinsonism on levodopa/carbidopa, rasagiline, ropinirole, trihexyphenidyl, amantadine, metformin, and glipizide. We present here a case of rare incidence of serotonin syndrome associated with linezolid and rasagiline.
January 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992158/risperidone-induced-nocturnal-enuresis-successfully-treated-with-reboxetine
#18
Joseph Mergui, Sol Jaworowski
There are few reports in the literature and scarce research on the topic and the treatment of antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis (NE) despite the significant frequency of these adverse effects.Treatment for antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence has been reported in relation to clozapine with response to numerous pharmacological strategies such as ephedrine, oxybutynin, intranasal desmopressin, trihexyphenidyl, and amitriptyline.We report a case of NE induced by risperidone which has been successfully treated with reboxetine...
May 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26933369/kikuchi-fujimoto-disease-presenting-as-brainstem-encephalitis-with-secondary-blepharospasm
#19
Dushyanth Babu Jasti, S V Naveen Prasad, Thota Naveen, Bhuma Vengamma
Central nervous system involvement in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a very rare clinical manifestation. We report a 15-year-old girl who presented to us with fever, drowsiness, neck swellings, and involuntary closure of both eyelids of 2 days duration. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities in dorsal midbrain and pons. Cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Blepharospasm secondary to infectious etiology is rare...
January 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924167/medication-use-in-childhood-dystonia
#20
Daniel E Lumsden, Margaret Kaminska, Stephen Tomlin, Jean-Pierre Lin
BACKGROUND: Data around current prescription practices in childhood dystonia is limited. Medication use may be limited by side effects, the incidence of which is uncertain. For a large cohort assessed by our supra-regional service we aimed to: i) Review medications used at the point of referral. ii) Determine the prevalence of adverse drug responses (ADR) resulting in discontinuation of drug use. iii) Identify clinical risk factors for ADR. METHODS: Case note review of 278 children with dystonia referred to our service...
July 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
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