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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#1
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763510/trihexyphenidyl-for-dystonia-in-cerebral-palsy
#2
REVIEW
Adrienne R Harvey, Louise B Baker, Dinah Susan Reddihough, Adam Scheinberg, Katrina Williams
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy occurs in up to 2.1 of every 1000 live births and encompasses a range of motor problems and movement disorders. One commonly occurring movement disorder amongst those with cerebral palsy is dystonia: sustained or intermittent involuntary muscle spasms and contractions that cause twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. The involuntary contractions are often very painful and distressing and cause significant limitations to activity and participation...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620695/misuse-of-trihexyphenidyl-artane-on-r%C3%A3-union-island
#3
Romain Torrents, Jean Francois Ferré, Annie Konareff, Patrice Hemery, Kenneth Sherwin, Christian Lassalle, Nicolas Simon, Sami Scerra
BACKGROUND: Trihexyphenidyl (THP) is an anticholinergic drug misused to procure hallucination, sedation, and anxiolysis. The aim of this cohort was to show and describe, within a public health risk management policy, the risks of a long-standing but relatively unknown addiction: THP addiction. METHODS: On Réunion island, a cohort with systematic data collection has been set up by addictologists working in the Centres for Addiction Prevention and Treatment, in the university hospital, and in general practices who have active lists of patients misusing THP...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405267/pharmacological-and-neurosurgical-interventions-for-managing-dystonia-in-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#4
Darcy Fehlings, Leah Brown, Adrienne Harvey, Kate Himmelmann, Jean-Pierre Lin, Alexander Macintosh, Jonathan W Mink, Elegast Monbaliu, James Rice, Jessica Silver, Lauren Switzer, Ilana Walters
AIM: To systematically review evidence for pharmacological/neurosurgical interventions for managing dystonia in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) to inform a care pathway. METHOD: Searches included studies with a minimum of five participants with dystonia in CP receiving oral baclofen, benzodiazepines (clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam), clonidine, gabapentin, levodopa, trihexyphenidyl, botulinum toxin, intrathecal baclofen (ITB), or deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
April 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391078/prescribing-pattern-for-parkinson-s-disease-in-indian-community-before-referral-to-tertiary-center
#5
Pratibha Surathi, Nitish Kamble, Ketaki Swapnil Bhalsing, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: Several factors determine the choice of medications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to analyze the pattern of prescription of drugs in patients with PD before attending a tertiary-care center. METHODS: The study included chart review of 800 PD patients attending the Department of Neurology of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences in Bangalore, India. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 51...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288226/progressive-delayed-hemidystonia-following-clinically-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Swaleha N Nadaf, Rahul T Chakor, Kaumil Vipul Kothari, Haresh Bharote
A 16-year-old boy presented with progressive left hemidystonia over 3 years. The possibilities of symptomatic hemidystonia due to focal lesions such as infarct (vasculitis), tumours, tuberculoma, arteriovenous malformations or heredodegenerative disorders such as Wilson disease were considered. Imaging showed a peculiar scar involving right basifrontal region extending upto anterior, centromedian and dorsomedial nuclei of thalamus due to blowout fracture of roof of orbit. This scar was responsible for progressive left hemidystonia...
December 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284830/successful-use-of-risperidone-trihexyphenidyl-and-paroxetine-in-pregnancy
#7
Sandeep Kumar Goyal, Atul Goel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282345/-drug-induced-akathisia
#8
Toshiya Inada
Akathisia consists of subjective inner restlessness, such as awareness of the inability to remain seated, restless legs, fidgetiness, and the desire to move constantly, and of objective increased motor phenomena, such as body rocking, shifting from foot to foot, stamping in place, crossing and uncrossing legs, pacing around. Although the broad definition of akathisia includes the inner and motor restlessness observed in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, and restless legs syndrome, here we exclusively focus on the narrow definition of antipsychotic-induced akathisia...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225908/an-unusual-presentation-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-deficiency
#9
Linn E Katus, Steven J Frucht
Background: Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) has largely been associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the GCH1 gene leading to GTP cyclohydrolase 1 deficiency. More recently, a deficiency in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has been recognized to cause DRD. This is a rare disorder resulting from genetic mutations in the TH gene on chromosome 11. The phenotype ranges from DRD with complete resolution on levodopa to infantile parkinsonism and encephalopathy only partially responsive to levodopa...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876362/psychotropic-prescriptions-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-in-an-outpatient-clinic
#10
Christopher Izehinosen Okpataku, David Tawani
INTRODUCTION: There is an unpredictable pattern in the prescription of antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia, particularly in resource-limited settings in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the psychotropic prescriptions given to patients with schizophrenia in an outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital and to describe the choices and trends of these prescriptions. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of prescriptions for adults with schizophrenia...
July 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872668/efficacy-of-oral-pharmacological-treatments-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Riccardo Masson, Emanuela Pagliano, Giovanni Baranello
AIM: To evaluate the actual evidence of efficacy of oral pharmacological treatments in the management of dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: A systematic review was performed according to the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology. Articles were searched for in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Database of Reviews of Effectiveness, OTSeeker, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, REHABDATA, and ClinicalTrials...
December 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716772/chewing-induced-facial-dystonia-a-rare-presentation-of-task-specific-dystonia
#12
Chandramohan Sharma, Banshi Lal Kumawat, Ankur Garg, Kaushik Kumar Rana
This case is an addition to scarce literature available for a rare condition, chewing-induced task-specific dystonia. The patient was a 63-year-old woman who presented with a 4-year history of progressive difficulty in eating food only during chewing associated with abnormal facial grimaces without any difficulty in drinking, swallowing, speaking or singing. Examination revealed dystonia of facial muscles every time she chewed but absent during drinking and speaking. As movements were consistent and reproducible with the specific task, other differential diagnosis like motor tics, psychogenic disorder, tardive dystonia and parkinsonism syndrome were excluded leading to a diagnosis of task-specific facial dystonia triggered by chewing...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596119/alterations-of-m1-and-m4-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-genetically-dystonic-dt-sz-hamster-and-moderate-antidystonic-efficacy-of-m1-and-m4-anticholinergics
#13
Melanie Hamann, Jagoda Plank, Franziska Richter, Christoph Bode, Sinisa Smiljanic, Meaghan Creed, José N Nobrega, Angelika Richter
Striatal cholinergic dysfunction has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In the dt(sz) hamster, a phenotypic model of paroxysmal dystonia, M1 antagonists exerted moderate antidystonic efficacy after acute systemic administration. In the present study, we examined the effects of the M4 preferring antagonist tropicamid and whether long-term systemic or acute intrastriatal injections of the M1 preferring antagonist trihexyphenidyl are more effective in mutant hamsters. Furthermore, M1 and M4 receptors were analyzed by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594097/functional-activity-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-and-cerebellum-relates-to-cervical-dystonia-symptoms
#14
Roxana G Burciu, Christopher W Hess, Stephen A Coombes, Edward Ofori, Priyank Shukla, Jae Woo Chung, Nikolaus R McFarland, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia, causing abnormal movements of the neck and head. In this study, we used noninvasive imaging to investigate the motor system of patients with CD and uncover the neural correlates of dystonic symptoms. Furthermore, we examined whether a commonly prescribed anticholinergic medication in CD has an effect on the dystonia-related brain abnormalities. Participants included 16 patients with CD and 16 healthy age-matched controls. We collected functional MRI scans during a force task previously shown to extensively engage the motor system, and diffusion and T1-weighted MRI scans from which we calculated free-water and brain tissue densities...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546310/heterozygous-gnal-mice-are-a-novel-animal-model-with-which-to-study-dystonia-pathophysiology
#15
Assunta Pelosi, Fabien Menardy, Daniela Popa, Jean-Antoine Girault, Denis Hervé
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions and its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G-protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, where it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knock-out mice (Gnal+/-) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442355/effects-of-muscarinic-receptor-antagonists-on-cocaine-discrimination-in-wild-type-mice-and-in-muscarinic-receptor-m1-m2-and-m4-receptor-knockout-mice
#16
Lauren Joseph, Morgane Thomsen
Muscarinic M1/M4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors (M1(-/-), M2(-/-), M4(-/-)), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374697/-a-differential-approach-to-the-improvement-of-prevention-and-correction-of-neuroleptic-side-extrapyramidal-disorders-with-pantogam-activ-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
A S Tiganov, G P Panteleeva, L I Abramova, P V Bologov, P S Kananovich, M A Omel'chenko, I Yu Nikiforova
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of pantogam active (PA) in prevention and correction of neurological side-effects during the course neuroleptic treatment of acute endogenous psychoses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty schizophrenic patients (mean age 33 years) with acute psychosis were examined. All patients received 28-day course treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics. Two equal groups were studied: patients of the first group were treated with trihexyphenidyl (THP) in dose of 0,002-0,012 mg and patients of the second group received in addition PA in dose 0,9 mg/day...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102288/acetylcholine-acts-through-m3-muscarinic-receptor-to-activate-the-egfr-signaling-and-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation
#18
Huangfei Yu, Hongwei Xia, Qiulin Tang, Huanji Xu, Guoqing Wei, Ying Chen, Xinyu Dai, Qiyong Gong, Feng Bi
Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4 R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773692/pretreatment-and-prophylaxis-against-nerve-agent-poisoning-are-undesirable-behavioral-side-effects-unavoidable
#19
REVIEW
Trond Myhrer, Pål Aas
The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737314/analyzing-gene-expression-profiles-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-via-bioinformatics-methods
#20
Liming Wang, L Zhu, R Luan, L Wang, J Fu, X Wang, L Sui
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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