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Huangfei Yu, Hongwei Xia, Qiulin Tang, Huanji Xu, Guoqing Wei, Ying Chen, Xinyu Dai, Qiyong Gong, Feng Bi
Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4 R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Trond Myhrer, Pål Aas
The threat of chemical warfare agents like nerve agents requires life saving measures of medical pretreatment combined with treatment after exposure. Pretreatment (pyridostigmine) may cause some side effects in a small number of individuals. A comprehensive research on animals has been performed to clarify effects on behavior. The results from these studies are far from unambiguous, since pyridostigmine may produce adverse effects on behavior in animals in relatively high doses, but not in a consistent way...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Liming Wang, L Zhu, R Luan, L Wang, J Fu, X Wang, L Sui
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Bhupender Kumar Bajaj, Ankur Wadhwa, Richa Singh, Saurabh Gupta
Wilson's disease is a multisystem disorder which manifests with hepatic, neurological, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal, and cardiac symptoms. The hepatic and neurological manifestations often overshadow the other system involvement including cardiac symptoms and signs, which may prove fatal. We report a case of a young female who presented with progressive parkinsonian features and dystonia for around 4 months followed 2 months later by the complaint of episodes of light-headedness. She was diagnosed to have Wilson's disease based on the presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring and laboratory parameters of copper metabolism...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Yuqi Huang, Zhe Zhao, Xiaoli Wei, Yong Zheng, Jianqiang Yu, Jianquan Zheng, Liyun Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have shown an association between long-term anticholinergic (AC) drug exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, which has been primarily investigated in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term AC exposure as a risk factor for developing neurodegenerative disorders and the exact mechanisms and potential for disease progression remain unclear. Here, we have addressed the issue using trihexyphenidyl (THP), a commonly used AC drug in PD patients, to determine if THP can accelerate AD-like neurodegenerative progression and study potential mechanisms involved...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bruno Leonardo Scofano Dias, Alexandre Ribeiro Fernandes, Heber de Souza Maia Filho
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on sialorrhea in children with cerebral palsy. SOURCE OF DATA: Non-systematic review using the keywords "sialorrhea" and "child" carried out in the PubMed(®), LILACS(®), and SciELO(®) databases during July 2015. A total of 458 articles were obtained, of which 158 were analyzed as they were associated with sialorrhea in children; 70 had content related to sialorrhea in cerebral palsy or the assessment and treatment of sialorrhea in other neurological disorders, which were also assessed...
November 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Mark P DeAndrade, Amy Trongnetrpunya, Fumiaki Yokoi, Chad C Cheetham, Ning Peng, J Michael Wyss, Mingzhou Ding, Yuqing Li
INTRODUCTION: DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal-dominant movement disorder characterized by abnormal, often repetitive, movements and postures. Its hallmark feature is sustained or intermittent contractions of muscles involving co-contractions of antagonist muscle pairs. The symptoms are relieved with the anticholinergic drug trihexyphenidyl. The primary mutation is a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) in DYT1/TOR1A, which codes for torsinA. Previous studies showed that (1) heterozygous Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice, which have an analogous mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and altered corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in the brain and (2) these deficits can be rescued by trihexyphenidyl...
November 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, J Eric Ahlskog, Andrew McKeon, Melinda S Burnett, Joseph Y Matsumoto, Anhar Hassan, James H Bower
INTRODUCTION: Runner's dystonia has previously been described in small series or case reports as a lower limb, task-specific dystonia. We have occasionally encountered this disorder and recognized the same phenomenon in non-runners regularly engaging in lower limb exercise. We wished to characterize the syndrome further, including outcomes, treatment, and the diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiology. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review and follow-up survey of adults seen at Mayo Clinic (1996-2015) with task-specific dystonia arising after prolonged repetitive lower limb exercise...
June 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Mohamed Hisham, Mundalipalayam N Sivakumar, V Nandakumar, S Lakshmikanthcharan
A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital for cellulitis. She had a history of diabetes mellitus and parkinsonism on levodopa/carbidopa, rasagiline, ropinirole, trihexyphenidyl, amantadine, metformin, and glipizide. We present here a case of rare incidence of serotonin syndrome associated with linezolid and rasagiline.
January 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Joseph Mergui, Sol Jaworowski
There are few reports in the literature and scarce research on the topic and the treatment of antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis (NE) despite the significant frequency of these adverse effects.Treatment for antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence has been reported in relation to clozapine with response to numerous pharmacological strategies such as ephedrine, oxybutynin, intranasal desmopressin, trihexyphenidyl, and amitriptyline.We report a case of NE induced by risperidone which has been successfully treated with reboxetine...
May 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Dushyanth Babu Jasti, S V Naveen Prasad, Thota Naveen, Bhuma Vengamma
Central nervous system involvement in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a very rare clinical manifestation. We report a 15-year-old girl who presented to us with fever, drowsiness, neck swellings, and involuntary closure of both eyelids of 2 days duration. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities in dorsal midbrain and pons. Cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Blepharospasm secondary to infectious etiology is rare...
January 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Daniel E Lumsden, Margaret Kaminska, Stephen Tomlin, Jean-Pierre Lin
BACKGROUND: Data around current prescription practices in childhood dystonia is limited. Medication use may be limited by side effects, the incidence of which is uncertain. For a large cohort assessed by our supra-regional service we aimed to: i) Review medications used at the point of referral. ii) Determine the prevalence of adverse drug responses (ADR) resulting in discontinuation of drug use. iii) Identify clinical risk factors for ADR. METHODS: Case note review of 278 children with dystonia referred to our service...
July 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Oki Suwarsa, Wulan Yuwita, Hartati Purbo Dharmadji, Endang Sutedja
BACKGROUND: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) with high mortality and have a significant public health impact because of high mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To describe data the epidemiological features, etiology, and treatment of retrospectively reviewed data of all patients with SJS and TEN. METHODS: Retrospective study was conducted in patients with SJS and TEN treated from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 in Dr...
January 2016: Asia Pacific Allergy
Ersin Hatice Karslıoǧlu, Elvan Özalp, Ali Çayköylü
Urinary incontinence, although rarely reported, is one of the most important adverse effects of antipsychotic medication. It can be an embarrassing, distressing, and potentially treatment-limiting. Several antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical varieties, are known to induce urinary incontinence. Many antipsychotic drugs target the neural pathways controlling continence by binding to receptors of some neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, and adrenaline. Pharmacological management of incontinence should be considered if there is a risk of cessation of the antipsychotic therapy or any decline in patients' compliance...
February 29, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Abraham Fisher, Ilya Bezprozvanny, Lili Wu, Daniel A Ryskamp, Nira Bar-Ner, Niva Natan, Rachel Brandeis, Hanoch Elkon, Victoria Nahum, Eitan Gershonov, Frank M LaFerla, Rodrigo Medeiros
We previously developed orthosteric M1 muscarinic agonists (e.g. AF102B, AF267B and AF292), which act as cognitive enhancers and potential disease modifiers. We now report on a novel compound, AF710B, a highly potent and selective allosteric M1 muscarinic and σ1 receptor agonist. AF710B exhibits an allosteric agonistic profile on the M1 muscarinic receptor; very low concentrations of AF710B significantly potentiated the binding and efficacy of carbachol on M1 receptors and their downstream effects (p-ERK1/2, p-CREB)...
2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Samuel J Rose, Xin Y Yu, Ann K Heinzer, Porter Harrast, Xueliang Fan, Robert S Raike, Valerie B Thompson, Jean-Francois Pare, David Weinshenker, Yoland Smith, Hyder A Jinnah, Ellen J Hess
Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission is associated with many different genetic and acquired dystonic disorders. For instance, mutations in genes critical for the synthesis of dopamine, including GCH1 and TH cause l-DOPA-responsive dystonia. Despite evidence that implicates abnormal dopamine neurotransmission in dystonia, the precise nature of the pre- and postsynaptic defects that result in dystonia are not known. To better understand these defects, we generated a knock-in mouse model of l-DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD) mice that recapitulates the human p...
October 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
M Andrea Táboas-Pereira, Cecilia Paredes-Mercado, Xènia Alonso-Curcó, Joaquim Badosa-Pagès, Jordi Muchart, Pilar Póo
INTRODUCTION: Drooling is the inability to retain saliva in the mouth and its progression to the digestive tract, being a common problem in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. Three different treatment options are available. AIM: To assess the effectiveness and safety of trihexyphenidyl, scopolamine and botulinum toxin infiltration in the treatment of drooling in children with neurological disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is an open and prospective type study...
July 16, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
Yizi Cong, Haidong Zou, Guangdong Qiao, Jun Lin, Xingmiao Wang, Xiaohui Li, Yalun Li, Shiguang Zhu
A 32 year old female diagnosed with schizophrenia was treated with sulpiride, trihexyphenidyl and alprazolam for 6 years. A physical examination revealed bilateral nipple retraction and a non-tender mass in the left breast, with little nipple discharge. Tests revealed high levels of carbohydrate antigen 125, serum prolactin and testosterone levels, and ultrasound revealed a number of masses in the bilateral breasts; the largest mass (2.2×1.3 cm) was located in the left breast. A rich blood flow signal was identified around the nodule...
May 2015: Oncology Letters
Hideko Maeda, Risa Tanaka, Hirokazu Nakayama
The solubility of trihexyphenidyl (Thp) was improved by its combination with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and modified β-CDs. The solubility of Thp was found to be increased in the presence of β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD). In particular, the solubility of Thp in conjunction with SBE-β-CD was increased by a factor of 11. The formation constant (K c ) for the Thp/SBE-β-CD inclusion complex was determined to be 2300 L/mol based on fluorometry data...
2015: SpringerPlus
Preeti Sinha, V P Vandana, Nikita Vincent Lewis, M Jayaram, Pamela Enderby
Speech subsystems are susceptible to the effects of several factors including medications. The atypical antipsychotics can also adversely affect the speech because of its action on serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters. The present study aims to analyze the speech characteristics associated with atypical antipsychotic risperidone. Speech of 92 patients on risperidone with or without trihexyphenidyl and/or clonazepam were compared with that of 31 persons who were not on any psychotropic medicines. Compared to control group, maximum phonation duration, sequential motion rate of diadochokinesia was reduced by about 3s and 1syllable/s respectively and s/z ratio was increased by 0...
June 2015: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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