Read by QxMD icon Read

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, John C Piacentini, James J McGough, Sandra K Loo, James T McCracken
Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed...
March 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Freja Herborg, Thorvald F Andreassen, Frida Berlin, Claus J Loland, Ulrik Gether
Genetic factors are known to significantly contribute to the etiology of psychiatric diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum and bipolar disorders, but the underlying molecular processes remain largely elusive. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has received continuous attention as a potential risk factor for psychiatric disease, as it is critical for dopamine homeostasis and serves as principal target for ADHD medications. Constrain metrics for the DAT-encoding gene solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) indicate that missense mutations are under strong negative selection, pointing to pathophysiological outcomes when DAT function is compromised...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Peter D Hibbert, Adam Jaffe, Les White, Christopher T Cowell, Mark F Harris, William B Runciman, Andrew R Hallahan, Gavin Wheaton, Helena M Williams, Elisabeth Murphy, Charlotte J Molloy, Louise K Wiles, Shanthi Ramanathan, Gaston Arnolda, Hsuen P Ting, Tamara D Hooper, Natalie Szabo, John G Wakefield, Clifford F Hughes, Annette Schmiede, Chris Dalton, Sarah Dalton, Joanna Holt, Liam Donaldson, Ed Kelley, Richard Lilford, Peter Lachman, Stephen Muething
Importance: The quality of routine care for children is rarely assessed, and then usually in single settings or for single clinical conditions. Objective: To estimate the quality of health care for children in Australia in inpatient and ambulatory health care settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multistage stratified sample with medical record review to assess adherence with quality indicators extracted from clinical practice guidelines for 17 common, high-burden clinical conditions (noncommunicable [n = 5], mental health [n = 4], acute infection [n = 7], and injury [n = 1]), such as asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tonsillitis, and head injury...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Morgan Walls, Howard Cabral, Emily Feinberg, Michael Silverstein
OBJECTIVE: Depression is highly prevalent among caregivers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association between caregiver depressive symptom trajectories and changes in child ADHD symptoms. METHODS: We analyzed data from a randomized trial of 2 ADHD care management systems for children aged 6 to 12 years and their caregivers (n = 156 dyads). Child ADHD symptoms were measured using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale (SNAP-IV)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Ruth E K Stein, Ellen J Silver, Marilyn C Augustyn, Nathan J Blum, Pamela High, Nancy J Roizen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how insurance status affects elements of evaluation at developmental behavioral (DB) pediatric sites. OBJECTIVE: To compare DB referrals, evaluation, and treatment for children with Medicaid and private insurance. DESIGN/METHODS: Fifty-six developmental behavioral pediatricians at 12 sites recorded anonymous data on structured forms for ≤15 consecutive referrals. Children with Medicaid (n = 309) and private insurance (n = 393) were compared on sociodemographic factors, referral concerns, evaluation elements, and resulting diagnoses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Alison S Poulton, Bruce Armstrong, Ralph K Nanan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common and may require treatment in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and perinatal outcomes of women with any history of stimulant treatment for ADHD. METHODS: We used health records of the New South Wales (NSW, Australia) population to compare perinatal outcomes of women treated with stimulants (dexamphetamine or methylphenidate) for ADHD from 1982 to 2012 who gave birth between 1994 and 2012, with perinatal outcomes of women with no known ADHD or stimulant treatment (comparison cohort)...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
Tim L Wigal, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Nelson Handal, Sharon B Wigal, Ioulietta Mulligan, Virginia Schmith, Eric Konofal
BACKGROUND: Mazindol is under investigation for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because of its alertness-enhancing properties. A novel controlled-release (CR) formulation of mazindol was developed to allow once-daily dosing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mazindol CR in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-week trial. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed with ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Structured Interview (MINI) and with an ADHD Rating Scale, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition (ADHD-RS-DSM5) score ≥ 28 were randomized to receive placebo or 1-3 mg/day of mazindol for 6 weeks...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
Fernanda Nunes, Daniela Pochmann, Amanda Staldoni Almeida, Daniela Melo Marques, Lisiane de Oliveira Porciúncula
Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Karen Müller Smith
GABAergic interneuron loss, maturational delay or imbalance of glutamatergic to GABAergic signaling has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Tourette syndrome and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In schizophrenia, decreases in parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (Sst) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) RNA have been observed and seem to indicate a failure in maturation in PV and Sst neurons. In Tourette syndrome, which has a high level of comorbid ADHD, reduced numbers of parvalbumin expressing neurons have been observed in the basal ganglia of affected patients...
March 19, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Satoshi Nobusako, Ayami Sakai, Taeko Tsujimoto, Takashi Shuto, Yuki Nishi, Daiki Asano, Emi Furukawa, Takuro Zama, Michihiro Osumi, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka, Akio Nakai
The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Nicole Ali, Gabrielle Rigney, Shelly K Weiss, Cary A Brown, Evelyn Constantin, Roger Godbout, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Osman Ipsiroglu, Graham J Reid, Sarah Shea, Isabel M Smith, Machiel Van der Loos, Penny V Corkum
Insomnia, which is related to daytime deficits and is a common problem for children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is often successfully treated with behavioral strategies. However, there are barriers to accessing these treatments, and there has been little research examining what these interventions need to be usable and effective. The goal of this study was to gain consensus from experts in the field on the key components of an eHealth, parent-implemented, intervention program aimed at improving sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Stephen P Becker, Matthew A Jarrett, Aaron M Luebbe, Annie A Garner, G Leonard Burns, Michael J Kofler
OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. METHODS: 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Megan E Narad, Megan Kennelly, Nanhua Zhang, Shari L Wade, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Jeffery N Epstein, Brad G Kurowski
Importance: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), children often experience impairment when faced with tasks and situations of increasing complexity. Studies have failed to consider the potential for attention problems to develop many years after TBI or factors that may predict the development of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (SADHD). Understanding these patterns will aid in timely identification of clinically significant problems and appropriate initiation of treatment with the hope of limiting additional functional impairment...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Amanda C Martyn, Krisztian Toth, Robert Schmalzigaug, Nathan G Hedrick, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Ryohei Yasuda, William C Wetsel, Richard T Premont
The signaling scaffold protein GIT1 is expressed widely throughout the brain, but its function in vivo remains elusive. Mice lacking GIT1 have been proposed as a model for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, due to alterations in basal locomotor activity as well as paradoxical locomotor suppression by the psychostimulant amphetamine. Since we had previously shown that GIT1-knockout mice have normal locomotor activity, here we examined GIT1-deficient mice for ADHD-like behavior in more detail, and find neither hyperactivity nor amphetamine-induced locomotor suppression...
2018: PloS One
Allison R Fleming, Mary Edwin, Jeffrey A Hayes, Benjamin D Locke, Allison J Lockard
Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Victoria O'Callaghan, Richard Parker, Natalie Mills, Katherine M Kirk, Jan Scott, Anna Vinkhuyzen, Daniel F Hermens, Penelope A Lind, Tracey A Davenport, Jane M Burns, Melissa Connell, Brendan P Zietsch, James Scott, Margaret J Wright, Sarah E Medland, John McGrath, Nicholas G Martin, Ian B Hickie, Nathan A Gillespie
PURPOSE: The Nineteen and Up study (19Up) assessed a range of mental health and behavioural problems and associated risk factors in a genetically informative Australian cohort of young adult twins and their non-twin siblings. As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). PARTICIPANTS: Twins and their non-twin siblings from Queensland, Australia; mostly from European ancestry...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
I Hyun Ruisch, Jan K Buitelaar, Jeffrey C Glennon, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy factors have been implicated in offspring oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. Literature still holds notable limitations, such as studying only a restricted set of pregnancy factors, use of screening questionnaires which assess broadly defined outcome measures, and lack of control for disruptive behavior comorbidity and genetic confounds. We aimed to address these gaps by prospectively studying a broad range of pregnancy factors in relation to both offspring ODD and CD symptomatology in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parent and Children...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"