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Airway ultrasonography

C T Lau, A Kan, N Shek, P Tam, K K Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is an increasingly recognized disease with potential mortality. Owing to limited published studies, the true incidence is yet to be determined. We carried out this prospective study with the aim to estimate its true incidence on a population basis. METHODS: An antenatal ultrasonography program was implemented since 2009. Fetuses with suspected intra-thoracic lesions were monitored by regular follow-ups...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Amit Kumar Mittal, Namrata Gupta
In the era of evidence-based medicine, ultrasonography has emerged as an important and indispensable tool in clinical practice in various specialties including critical care. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has a wide potential in various surgical and clinical situations for timely and easy detection of an impending crisis such as pulmonary edema, endobronchial tube migration, pneumothorax, atelectasis, pleural effusion, and various other causes of desaturation before it clinically ensues to critical level. Although ultrasonography is frequently used in nerve blocks, airway handling, and vascular access, LUS for routine intraoperative monitoring and in crisis management still necessitates recognition...
July 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Kazuhiro Kajiwara, Tomohiro Tanemoto, Chie Nagata, Aikou Okamoto
Agnathia is a rare disease characterized by the absence of a mandible. Few cases of prenatally diagnosed isolated agnathia have been reported. We present a case report and review of the literature of prenatally diagnosed agnathia. A 38-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) was referred to our hospital at 28 weeks and 3 days of gestation for fetal evaluation because of polyhydramnios and suspected facial anomalies. Three-dimensional ultrasonography and MRI indicated agnathia. Premature rupture of the membranes occurred before the parents could reach a decision on the postnatal treatment...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
M S Kristensen, W H Teoh, S S Rudolph
Inability to identify the cricothyroid membrane by inspection and palpation contributes substantially to the high failure rate of cricothyrotomy. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for application of airway ultrasonography for identification of the cricothyroid membrane compared with the clinical techniques. We identified the best-documented techniques for bedside use, their success rates, and the necessary training for airway-ultrasound-naïve clinicians. After a short but structured training, the cricothyroid membrane can be identified using ultrasound in difficult patients by previously airway-ultrasound naïve anaesthetists with double the success rate of palpation...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Jack Diep, David Kam, Farrah Munir, Steven M Shulman, Glen Atlas
Otocephaly complex is a rare and usually lethal syndrome characterized by a set of malformations consisting of microstomia, mandibular hypoplasia/agnathia, and ventromedial malposition of the ears. Those cases that have been diagnosed prenatally have used an ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure to establish a definitive airway. However, prenatal diagnosis continues to be challenging, primarily because of poor diagnostic sensitivity associated with ultrasonography. We present a case of a newborn with an unanticipated otocephaly complex requiring emergent airway management...
July 15, 2016: A & A Case Reports
Nobuhisa Yamazaki, Masakazu Kawabe, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Watanabe, Masaharu Nakade
A 61-year-old man had been diagnosed as lung cancer (cT4N2M0, stage IIIB) and radiochemotherapy was performed. After the treatment, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was done to identify the histrogical type and to detect the oncogenic driver mutation. After EBUS-TBNA, he developed a high grade fever and the findings of the chest computed tomography (CT) suggested the infection of puncture site in mediastinum. Symptoms disappeared once by oral and intravenous antibiotics, but the infection recurred again...
May 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Raquel Català, Raimon Ferré, Anna Cabré, Josefa Girona, María Porto, Anna Texidó, Lluís Masana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis in OSA patients and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). PATIENTS AND METHOD: We included 125 patients with suspected OSA. After polysomnography, 107 patients were diagnosed with OSA; 58 of these met the criteria for CPAP treatment...
July 1, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Eric J Morley, Scott Johnson, Evan Leibner, Jawad Shahid
The majority of blunt chest injuries are minor contusions or abrasions; however, life-threatening injuries, including tension pneumothorax, hemothorax, and aortic rupture can occur and must be recognized early. This review focuses on the diagnosis, management, and disposition of patients with blunt injuries to the ribs and lung. Utilization of decision rules for chest x-ray and computed tomography are discussed, along with the emerging role of bedside lung ultrasonography. Management controversies presented include the limitations of needle thoracostomy us¬ing standard needle, chest tube placement, and chest tube size...
June 2016: Emergency Medicine Practice
Gregor M Dunham, Christopher R Ingraham, Jeffrey H Maki, Sandeep S Vaidya
Vascular anomalies are a diverse group of pathologic conditions. They have different manifestations, natural histories, and treatments. Compared with other vascular malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are considered the most symptomatic and difficult to manage. AVMs inherently progress and have a high rate of recurrence after treatment. Imaging helps provide an accurate and early diagnosis, which can then be used to direct appropriate management, with embolization evolving as the primary therapy...
May 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Justin S Fulkerson, Heather M Moore, Tristan S Anderson, Robert F Lowe
To evaluate the utility of ultrasound for detection of the difficult intubation in a preoperative setting. PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL Plus Full Text, and Google Scholar searches using ["difficult airway" OR "difficult intubation" OR "difficult laryngoscopy" OR "difficult ventilation"] AND [ultrasonography OR sonography OR ultrasound] without date limitations. Abstracts without publications, case reports, letters, textbooks, unrelated topics, or foreign language articles were excluded. Ancestry references were included from the reviewed articles...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
J H Park, J Y Kim, J M Lee, Y H Kim, H W Jeong, H K Kil
BACKGROUND: During anaesthetic induction with a facemask, the inconsistent inspiratory flow with manual ventilation (MV) raises the peak airway pressure (PAP), which can be significantly higher than PAP during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). In this study, PAP was compared between MV and PCV at the same tidal volume of 8-10 ml/kg during facemask ventilation for anaesthetic induction in children. The occurrence of gastric insufflation (GI) was evaluated with ultrasonography and stethoscopic auscultation...
September 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Ewa Basiewicz-Slaczka, Bogumiła Wołoszczuk-Gebicka, Sadeq Yaqoub, Andrzej Kamiński
UNLABELLED: The predicitive values of fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are well established as antenatal outcome predictors in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CHD). Postnatal outcome predictors remain elusive. THE AIM: To evaluate the value of the oxygenation index (OI) as a predictor of postnatal survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 58 newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, treated in the same centre (a university hospital) between February 2006 and March 2014 were involved in the retrospective study...
July 2015: Developmental Period Medicine
Shreesh S Kolekar, Tejas Chincholi, Nitin Nangare, Ritvij Patankar
For congenital teratomas, oropharyngeal cavity is one of the rarest sites (2% of all teratomas). They are rarely picked up by prenatal ultrasonography. Postnatally, newborns present with respiratory distress and at this point role of pediatricians is very crucial in establishing secure airway after which they need to be carefully evaluated and surgically managed. We present a female neonate with palatal teratoma which was treated successfully with surgery.
January 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Hai-Mei Lun, Shang-Yong Zhu, Ruo-Chuan Liu, Jian-Gu Gong, Yao-Li Liu
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe the relationship between the scanning planes and appearance of the upper airway on sonography and to demonstrate the reliability and reproducibility of sonographic measurements of the upper airway. METHODS: Airway sonoanatomy was recognized by comparing the airway images and the corresponding cadaver's anatomical specimens. Systemic sonographic examination of 267 healthy volunteers was conducted to obtain the sonographic measurement of airway lumen...
March 2016: Ultrasound Quarterly
Robert Stuntz, Robert Clontz
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency physicians are using free open access medical education (FOAM) resources at an increasing rate. The extent to which FOAM resources cover the breadth of emergency medicine core content is unknown. We hypothesize that the content of FOAM resources does not provide comprehensive or balanced coverage of the scope of knowledge necessary for emergency medicine providers. Our objective is to quantify emergency medicine core content covered by FOAM resources and identify the predominant FOAM topics...
May 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Hung-Yang Chang, Kun-Shan Cheng, Hou-Ling Lung, Sung-Tse Li, Chien-Yu Lin, Hung-Chang Lee, Ching-Hsiao Lee, Hsiao-Fang Hung
Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) have proven to be effective modes of noninvasive respiratory support in preterm infants. Although they are increasingly used in neonatal intensive care, their hemodynamic consequences have not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic changes between NIPPV and NCPAP in preterm infants.This prospective observational study enrolled clinically stable preterm infants requiring respiratory support received NCPAP and nonsynchronized NIPPV at 40/minute for 30 minutes each, in random order...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kang Wu, Xiaofen Su, Guihua Li, Nuofu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects of carbocysteine in OSAS patients. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with 1500 mg carbocysteine daily, and the other was treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at night. Before treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment, all patients underwent polysomnography and completed questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
Rakesh Garg, Anju Gupta
Airway evaluation and its management remains an ever emerging clinical science. Present airway management tools are static and do not provide dynamic airway management option. Visualized procedures like ultrasound (US) provide point of care real time dynamic views of the airway in perioperative, emergency and critical care settings. US can provide dynamic anatomical assessment which is not possible by clinical examination alone. US aids in detecting gastric contents and the nature of gastric contents (clear fluid, thick turbid or solid) as well...
November 16, 2015: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Zachary R Abramson, Zachary S Peacock, Harris L Cohen, Asim F Choudhri
Recent advances in prenatal imaging have made possible the in utero diagnosis of cleft lip and palate and associated deformities. Postnatal diagnosis of cleft lip is made clinically, but imaging still plays a role in detection of associated abnormalities, surgical treatment planning, and screening for or surveillance of secondary deformities. This article describes the clinical entities of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) and isolated cleft palate and documents their prenatal and postnatal appearances at radiography, ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and computed tomography (CT)...
November 2015: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Swapnil Y Parab, Jigishu V Divatia, Apurva Chogle
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Traditional clinical methods like auscultation or inspection have been found to be inaccurate in confirmation of double-lumen tube (DLT) position. Lung ultrasonography (USG) reliably identifies the tidal movement (lung sliding) and the collapse of the lung (lung pulse). We intended to check whether the accuracy of clinical methods can be improved by the addition of USG in confirmation of left DLT (LDLT) position. METHODS: A single centred, prospective, comparative study was conducted involving 70 patients undergoing thoracic surgeries requiring the use of LDLT...
August 2015: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
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