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Childhood overweight

Gerhard Ruedl, Dominik Franz, Anika Frühauf, Martin Kopp, Martin Niedermeier, Clemens Drenowatz, Klaus Greier
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and physical fitness play an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence and reduce the risk of becoming overweight or obese in adulthood. AIM: To evaluate the development of physical fitness in overweight and non-overweight primary school children from the first to third grades. METHODS: Using a longitudinal study design, body height and weight as well as physical fitness of primary school children from Tyrol, Austria were measured five times during a period of 2...
April 17, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Ľubica Tichá, Valéria Regecová, Katarína Šebeková, Darina Sedláková, Jana Hamade, Ľudmila Podracká
The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the prevalence and time trends of overweight/obesity in Slovak children by applying WHO, IOTF, and the national criteria; (2) to compare the prevalence between selected European countries; and (3) to evaluate the central obesity by the waist-to-height ratio. The survey was performed within the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. The weight, height, waist, and hip were measured in 2795 children at the age of 7-7.99 years (50.1% boys; 55.5% in rural areas)...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Alison L Miller, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association...
April 14, 2018: Obesity
Claudia Strugnell, Liliana Orellana, Joshua Hayward, Lynne Millar, Boyd Swinburn, Steven Allender
Background: Tracking population trends in childhood obesity and identifying target areas for prevention requires accurate prevalence data. This study quantified the magnitude of non-participation bias for mean Body Mass Index-z scores and overweight/obesity prevalence associated with low (opt-in) compared to high (opt-out) participation consent methodologies. Methods: Data arose from all Local Government Areas (LGAs) participating in the Healthy Together Victoria Childhood Obesity Study, Australia. Primary schools were randomly selected in 2013 and 2014 and all Grades 4 and 6 students (aged approx...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tjaša Hertiš, Tadej Petek, Nataša Marčun Varda
Introduction: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of prehypertensive and elevated blood pressure in the hypertensive range (elevated BP) and obtain some anthropometric measures in Slovene children and adolescents. Methods: In the cross-sectional study lasting one year, we measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers, as well as height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences in schools. Data from regular check-ups (oscillometric measurements) were also added to increase the sample size...
June 2018: Zdravstveno Varstvo
T Utesch, D Dreiskämper, R Naul, K Geukes
Both the physical self-concept and actual motor competence are important for healthy future physical activity levels and consequently decrease overweight and obesity in childhood. However, children scoring high on motor competence do not necessarily report high levels of physical self-concept and vice versa, resulting in respective (in-) accuracy also referred to as (non-) veridicality. This study examines whether children's accuracy of physical self-concept is a meaningful predictive factor for their future physical activity...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Young-Gyun Seo, Min-Kyu Choi, Jae-Heon Kang, Hye-Ja Lee, Han Byul Jang, Sang Ick Park, Young Soo Ju, Kyung Hee Park
OBJECTIVE: The early identification of predictors related to cardiovascular disease risk factor clustering (CVD-RFC) can help prevent chronic disease. We aimed to identify the risk factors for CVD-RFC in adolescents. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study design was used to obtain data included in these analyses from school-aged children who participated in the Korean Child-Adolescent Study 2008-2014. A total of 1309 children aged 6-15 years were enrolled...
April 12, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Bonita Falkner
Primary hypertension is not just an adult disorder. Current US population data on children and adolescents demonstrate a prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension combined of over 10%. Recent reports from prospective cohort studies describe an association of high BP in childhood with hypertension in young adulthood. Excess adiposity is strongly associated with higher BP in childhood and increases risk for hypertension in adulthood. In addition to overweight/obesity, other exposures that raise the risk for high BP include low birthweight, dietary sodium, and stress...
April 10, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Jennifer A Woo Baidal, Erin E Elbel, Joel E Lavine, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken, Elsie M Taveras
OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship of early to mid-childhood adiposity measures with mid-childhood alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 635 children in the Project Viva cohort. Research staff measured weight, height, skinfolds thicknesses, and waist and hip circumferences at early (median 3.2 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years) visits. At mid-childhood, we collected blood for ALT analysis. We used established sex-specific ALT cut-offs to define elevated ALT...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Liselotte Schäfer Elinder, Emma Patterson, Gisela Nyberg, Åsa Norman
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews conclude that interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children obtain stronger effects when parents are involved. Parenting practices and parent-child interactions shape children's health-related behaviours. The Healthy School Start Plus intervention aims to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity and prevent obesity in children through parental support in disadvantaged areas with increased health needs, delivered by teachers and school nurses...
April 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
A K Macintyre, L Marryat, S Chambers
BACKGROUND: A significant gap exists in longitudinal evidence on early exposure to artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) and weight outcomes for paediatric populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between ASB/sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption at 4-5 years and risk of overweight and obesity at 7-8 years. METHODS: Data from a nationally representative cohort (n = 2986) in Scotland were analysed using logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposure to ASBs/SSBs at 4-5 years and risk of overweight and obesity at 7-8 years...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Nathalie Le Moullec, Adrian Fianu, Olivier Maillard, Emilie Chazelle, Nadège Naty, Chantal Schneebeli, Patrick Gérardin, Laetitia Huiart, Marie-Aline Charles, François Favier
Evidence from literature is mixed regarding a possible association of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and overweight in the offspring. Sexual dimorphism, or sex disparities in the pathogenesis linking GDM exposure to overweight, could be at play. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between GDM and child overweight at 5-7 years. Six hundred pairs (1:1) of Reunionese liveborn singletons selected from a hospital-based birth registry, matched for sex, gestational age, and birth period, underwent a prospective in-home follow-up and were analyzed with respect to their exposure to GDM...
2018: PloS One
Jing Zhang, Xinyue Li, Nicola Hawley, Zhijie Zheng, Zhen Zou, Linglin Tan, Qian Chen, Hong Shi, Hongyu Zhao, Zhiruo Zhang
BACKGROUND: In China, recent rapid economic growth has been associated with increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. This study aimed to provide the most updated prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among school-age children and adolescents in Shanghai, China, in 2010-2015. METHODS: Annual physical examination data were collected from 66,410, 43,812, 104,887, 113,667, 119,401, and 109,068 school children and adolescents aged 6-17 in Minhang District, Shanghai, in 2010-2015...
April 5, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Lise G Bjerregaard, Britt W Jensen, Lars Ängquist, Merete Osler, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Jennifer L Baker
BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We investigated whether remission of overweight before early adulthood reduces this risk. METHODS: We conducted a study involving 62,565 Danish men whose weights and heights had been measured at 7 and 13 years of age and in early adulthood (17 to 26 years of age). Overweight was defined in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Data on type 2 diabetes status (at age ≥30 years, 6710 persons) were obtained from a national health registry...
April 5, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Alexandra M Binder, Camila Corvalan, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Verónica Mericq, Ana Pereira, Karin B Michels
BACKGROUND: The age of menarche has been associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, as well as cancer risk. The decline in menarcheal age over the past century may be partially attributable to increased exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). METHODS: We assessed the influence of 26 phenol and phthalate biomarkers on the timing of menarche in a longitudinal cohort of Chilean girls. These EDCs were quantified in urine collected prior to the onset of breast development (Tanner 1; B1), and during adolescence (Tanner 4; B4)...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Manou Anselma, Mai Jeanette Maidy Chinapaw, Teatske Maria Altenburg
Children from disadvantaged areas are hard to reach for interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. We conducted a participatory needs assessment, in which researchers collaborated with a community in a disadvantaged area in Amsterdam to gain an understanding of the health-related issues of children within this community. Qualitative data was collected through: three to four participatory group meetings with three groups of 9-12-year-old children ( n = 5-9 per group); nine interviews with professionals working with youth; two interviews with parents and their children; and informal meetings including 31 parents...
March 31, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nermine N Mahfouz, Reham F Fahmy, Maysa S Nassar, Saneya A Wahba
BACKGROUND: Body weight concern and belief in adolescent females are of great importance. They are the keys to successful dietary interventions including dietary habits' modifications to practice a healthy diet. This critical phase of transition from childhood to adulthood is the most sensitive stage of behavioural rectification. AIM: This study was conducted with the aim to figure out the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and the association of body image satisfaction and believe with body mass index in adolescent girls aged 16-18 years...
March 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Dawn M Eichen, Brittany E Matheson, June Liang, David R Strong, Kyung Rhee, Kerri N Boutelle
We examined the relationship between executive function and weight loss among children (8-12 years) and parents enrolled in a behavioral weight-loss program. 150 overweight/obese children and their parents participated in a 6-month family-based weight-loss intervention and completed baseline (month 0), post-treatment (month 6) and 18-month follow-up assessments (month 24), which included Digit Span (DS), Stop Signal Task (SST), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Anthropometrics were additionally measured at mid-treatment (month 3) and 6-month follow-up (month 12)...
March 28, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Andrea Emese Jakab, Erzsébet Valéria Hidvégi, Miklós Illyés, Attila Cziráki, Csaba Bereczki
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is increasing worldwide, and this condition is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the 3-18-year-old population in Szolnok City and the surrounding areas. METHODS: Anthropometric data from healthy, white individuals recruited from nursery, elementary, and secondary schools were used to assess the prevalence of obesity and overweight in Szolnok City and the surrounding area, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, Hungary...
March 29, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Juan Zhang, Xiaoqi Feng, Yi Zhai, Weirong Li, Yue-Bin Lv, Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoming Shi
Few studies have focused on clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among primary school children and potential associations with perceived and actual weight status. An index was constructed from adding up 13 unhealthy behaviours measured by survey responses. Multilevel linear regressions were used to analyse associations between child personal characteristics, perceived and actual weight status with the unhealthy lifestyle index among 11,157 children in primary schools across China. Parental and area factors were also taken into account, including education, weight status, physical activity, urban/rural and area socioeconomic circumstances...
March 26, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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