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central sensitivity syndrome

Farzaneh Karimi-Alavijeh, Saeed Jalili, Masoumeh Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome...
May 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Eamonn B Mallon, Harindra E Amarasinghe, Swidbert R Ott
Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) show a dramatic form of socially induced phenotypic plasticity known as phase polyphenism. In the absence of conspecifics, locusts occur in a shy and cryptic solitarious phase. Crowding with conspecifics drives a behavioural transformation towards gregariousness that occurs within hours and is followed by changes in physiology, colouration and morphology, resulting in the full gregarious phase syndrome. We analysed methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms (MS-AFLP) to compare the effect of acute and chronic crowding on DNA methylation in the central nervous system...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tarig Ali-Dinar, Jason E Lang
Obesity is a major risk factor for several conditions including atherosclerotic disease, metabolic syndrome, and upper airway dysfunction. However, the purported link between obesity and asthma has remained more difficult to define, in part due to limitations in past epidemiologic studies and the inherent challenge in accurately defining asthma in children. It is possible that obesity leads to asthma only in the presence of a mediating variable such as an obesity-related conditions such as esophageal reflux or insulin resistance...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Kunyan Zhou, Jing Zhang, Liangzhi Xu, Taixiang Wu, Chi Eung Danforn Lim
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Thomas I Talpalar, Adolfo E Talpalar
Hyperbaric environments induce the high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) characterized by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS) and memory impairment. Human divers and other animals experience the HPNS at pressures beyond 1.1 MPa. High pressure depresses synaptic transmission and alters its dynamics in various animal models. Medial perforant path (MPP) synapses connecting the medial entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation are suppressed by 50% at 10.1MPa. Reduction of synaptic inputs is paradoxically associated with enhanced ability of dentate gyrus (DG)' granule cells (GCs) to generate spikes at high pressure...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Morteza Pourfarzam, Fouzieh Zadhoush, Masoumeh Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is unclear whether diabetic patients with MetS confer elevated CVD risk and outcomes beyond the impact of individual's components of MetS. The aim of this study is to highlight the central role of IR, inflammation, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in T2DM with MetS...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Adil E Bharucha, Tae Hee Lee
Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men...
October 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
K Rammohan, Shyma M Mundayadan, Robert Mathew
CONTEXT: Nummular headache (NH) is a primary disorder characterized by head pain exclusively felt in a small-rounded area typically 2-6 cm in diameter. AIMS: The aim of this review is to study the clinical and epidemiological features of NH in a patient population of South India and to compare this with that of described in the international literature. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, observational study conducted in a tertiary care center...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
John J Wang, Olle Pahlm, Galen S Wagner, James W Warren, B Milan Horáček, John L Sapp
BACKGROUND: Existing criteria recommended by ACC/ESC for identifying patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from the 12-lead ECG perform with high specificity (SP) but low sensitivity (SE). In our previous studies, we found that the SE of acute ischemia detection can be markedly improved without any loss of SP by calculating, from the 12-lead ECG, ST deviation in 3 "optimal" vessel-specific leads (VSLs). To further validate the method, we evaluated the SP performance using a dataset with non-ischemic ST-segment changes...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Ilan S Wittstein
Takotsubo syndrome is a unique clinical condition of acute heart failure and reversible left ventricular dysfunction frequently precipitated by sudden emotional or physical stress. There is growing evidence that exaggerated sympathetic stimulation is central to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Precisely how catecholamines mediate myocardial stunning in takotsubo syndrome remains incompletely understood; but possible mechanisms include epicardial spasm, microvascular dysfunction, direct adrenergic-receptor-mediated myocyte injury, and systemic vascular effects that alter ventricular-arterial coupling...
October 2016: Heart Failure Clinics
V V Tsukanov, O S Rzhavicheva, A V Vasyutin, O V Dunaevskaya, Yu L Tonkikh, E P Bronnikova
AIM: to determine the efficacy and safety of Kolofort in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 52 patients (16 men and 36 women) aged 26 to 59 years were examined over 4 months to rule out organic disease. The diagnosis of IBS was established on the basis of the Rome III diagnostic criteria (2006). Seven patients were diagnosed as having IBS with a preponderance of constipation; 3 had IBS with a preponderance of diarrhea, and 42 had mixed IBS...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
O Tsave, M P Yavropoulou, M Kafantari, C Gabriel, J G Yovos, A Salifoglou
Insulin resistance is identified through numerous pathophysiological conditions, such as Diabetes mellitus II, obesity, hypertension and other metabolic syndromes. Enhancement of insulin action and\or its complete replacement by insulin-enhancing or insulin-mimetic agents seems to improve treatment of metabolic diseases. Over the last decades, intensive research has targeted the investigation of such agents, with chromium emerging as an important inorganic cofactor involved in the requisite metabolic chemistry...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
R Rolke, S Rolke, S Hiddemann, M Mücke, H Cuhls, L Radbruch, F Elsner, V Peuckmann-Post
Cancer pain and pain associated with non-neoplastic diseases can be associated with pain mechanisms, such as a peripheral or central sensitization or deafferentation. The clarification allows indirect conclusions about the underlying mechanisms based on clinical signs, such as allodynia or hyperalgesia. Non-opioid analgesics are the basis of cancer pain therapy according to the World Health Organization (WHO) pain ladder. In the case of severe cancer pain, treatment can be escalated directly from level 1 to level 3...
October 2016: Der Internist
Eric Diaz, Humberto Morales
We review the anatomy of the spinal cord, providing correlation with key functional and clinically relevant neural pathways, as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Peripherally, the main descending (corticospinal tract) and ascending (gracilis or cuneatus fasciculi and spinothalamic tracts) pathways compose the white matter. Centrally, the gray matter can be divided into multiple laminae. Laminae 1-5 carry sensitive neuron information in the posterior horn, and lamina 9 carries most lower motor neuron information in the anterior horn...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
K Höfner
In 2002, the International Continence Society defined the term overactive bladder (OAB) as a symptom syndrome that is accompanied by urgency with or without urge incontinence, frequency and nocturia. A proven urinary tract infection or other obvious pathologies must be excluded.The pathophysiology of OAB has not been clarified in detail and is the subject of ongoing research, so partially overlapping hypotheses exist. The urothelium-based hypothesis suggests functional changes of urothelial receptors as well as functional changes regarding the sensitivity and coupling of the suburothelial myofibroblasts, which ultimately lead to increasing activity of afferent signals and urgency...
September 6, 2016: Aktuelle Urologie
Anne Forand, Eugénie Koumakis, Alice Rousseau, Yohann Sassier, Clément Journe, Jean-François Merlin, Christine Leroy, Valérie Boitez, Patrice Codogno, Gérard Friedlander, Isabelle Cohen
The liver plays a central role in whole-body lipid and glucose homeostasis. Increasing dietary fat intake results in increased hepatic fat deposition, which is associated with a risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate a role for the phosphate inorganic transporter 1 (PiT1/SLC20A1) in regulating metabolism. Specific knockout of Pit1 in hepatocytes significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, enhanced insulin signaling, and decreased hepatic lipogenesis...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Fatima Yousif Ismail, Ali Fatemi, Michael V Johnston
BACKGROUND: Neuroplasticity refers to the inherently dynamic biological capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to undergo maturation, change structurally and functionally in response to experience and to adapt following injury. This malleability is achieved by modulating subsets of genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms that influence the dynamics of synaptic connections and neural circuitry formation culminating in gain or loss of behavior or function. Neuroplasticity in the healthy developing brain exhibits a heterochronus cortex-specific developmental profile and is heightened during "critical and sensitive periods" of pre and postnatal brain development that enable the construction and consolidation of experience-dependent structural and functional brain connections...
August 9, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Liz Bettini, Ki Moore
The purpose of this review and clinical application article is to offer nurses up-to-date knowledge on peripheral and central sensitization in chronic functional pain syndromes, and to discuss therapies that have shown efficacy in treating various aspects of these disorders. Central sensitization is a result of changes in the peripheral and central nervous system due to noxious stimuli, such as illness or trauma. Once these changes occur, treatment for the associated syndromes requires a multimodal approach that includes behavioral pain psychology, physical therapy, and pharmacological agents that specifically target neuroinflammation, pain modulation, and amplification of pain pathways...
October 2016: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Sergio Carmona, Carlos Martínez, Guillermo Zalazar, Marcela Moro, Angel Batuecas-Caletrio, Leonel Luis, Carlos Gordon
The head impulse, nystagmus type, test of skew (HINTS) protocol set a new paradigm to differentiate peripheral vestibular disease from stroke in patients with acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The relationship between degree of truncal ataxia and stroke has not been systematically studied in patients with AVS. We studied a group of 114 patients who were admitted to a General Hospital due to AVS, 72 of them with vestibular neuritis (based on positive head impulse, abnormal caloric tests, and negative MRI) and the rest with stroke: 32 in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory (positive HINTS findings, positive MRI) and 10 in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory (variable findings and grade 3 ataxia, positive MRI)...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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