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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944959/antimicrobial-activity-of-lysozyme-isoforms-key-molecular-features
#1
Melanie Derde, Véronique Vié, Astrid Walrant, Sandrine Sagan, Valérie Lechevalier, Catherine Guérin-Dubiard, Stéphane Pezennec, Marie-Françoise Cochet, Gilles Paboeuf, Maryvonne Pasco, Florence Baron, Michel Gautier, Sophie Jan, Françoise Nau
Increasing bacterial resistance towards antibiotics has stimulated research for novel antimicrobials. Proteins acting on bacterial membranes could be a solution. Lysozyme has been proven active against E. coli by disruption of both outer and cytoplasmic membranes, with dry-heating increasing lysozyme activity. Dry-heated lysozyme (DH-L) is a mixture of isoforms (isoaspartyl, native-like and succinimide lysozymes), giving rise to two questions: what effects does each form have, and which physicochemical properties are critical as regards the antibacterial activity? These issues were investigated by fractionating DH-L, analyzing structural properties of each fraction, and testing each fraction in vivo on bacteria and in vitro on membrane models...
September 25, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944821/transplantation-of-periodontal-ligament-cell-sheets-expressing-human-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-defensin%C3%A2-3-promotes-anti%C3%A2-inflammation-in-a-canine-model-of-periodontitis
#2
Minwen Zhu, Bo Miao, Jianhua Zhu, Haiyan Wang, Zengtong Zhou
Periodontitis is a chronic oral inflammatory disease caused by microorganisms. Human β‑defensin‑3 (HBD‑3) is an endogenous antimicrobial peptide that inhibits a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Cell sheet technology has been widely applied in tissue and organ reconstructions. In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the anti‑inflammatory effect of periodontal tissue engineered by HBD‑3 gene‑modified periodontal ligament cell (PDLC) sheets, and to identify a suitable method of promoting the regeneration of periodontal tissues...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944770/targeting-microbial-biofilms-current-and-prospective-therapeutic-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Hyun Koo, Raymond N Allan, Robert P Howlin, Paul Stoodley, Luanne Hall-Stoodley
Biofilm formation is a key virulence factor for a wide range of microorganisms that cause chronic infections. The multifactorial nature of biofilm development and drug tolerance imposes great challenges for the use of conventional antimicrobials and indicates the need for multi-targeted or combinatorial therapies. In this Review, we focus on current therapeutic strategies and those under development that target vital structural and functional traits of microbial biofilms and drug tolerance mechanisms, including the extracellular matrix and dormant cells...
September 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944710/high-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-clinical-samples-in-northeast-of-brazil
#4
Miguel Araújo Rios Neto, Vaneska Magalhães Rios, Luiza Franco Corá, Marcela Machado Fonseca, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Fernanda Machado Fonseca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944387/synthetic-polypeptides-from-polymer-design-to-supramolecular-assembly-and-biomedical-application
#5
REVIEW
Ziyuan Song, Zhiyuan Han, Shixian Lv, Chongyi Chen, Li Chen, Lichen Yin, Jianjun Cheng
Synthetic polypeptides from the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) are one of the most important biomaterials. The unique features of these synthetic polypeptides, including their chemical diversity of side chains and their ability to form secondary structures, enable their broad applications in the field of gene delivery, drug delivery, bio-imaging, tissue engineering, and antimicrobials. In this review article, we summarize the recent advances in the design of polypeptide-based supramolecular structures, including complexes with nucleic acids, micelles, vesicles, hybrid nanoparticles, and hydrogels...
September 25, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944225/conserved-inhibition-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release-by-clinical-candida-albicans-biofilms
#6
John F Kernien, Chad J Johnson, Jeniel E Nett
Candida albicans biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to host defenses and antifungal drugs. Although neutrophils are the primary responder to C. albicans during invasive candidiasis, biofilms resist killing by neutrophils. Prior investigation, with the commonly used laboratory strain SC5314, linked this phenotype to the impaired release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are structures of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins involved in extracellular microbial killing...
September 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943868/microbial-shifts-in-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-salmonella-infected-chickens-in-response-to-enrofloxacin
#7
Jun Li, Haihong Hao, Guyue Cheng, Chunbei Liu, Saeed Ahmed, Muhammad A B Shabbir, Hafiz I Hussain, Menghong Dai, Zonghui Yuan
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w.) were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943762/evaluation-on-antimicrobial-activity-of-psoraleae-semen-extract-controlling-the-growth-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#8
Sejeong Kim, Soomin Lee, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Jeeyeon Lee, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Joonbae Hong, Yohan Yoon, Kyoung-Hee Choi
This study investigated bacterial growth-inhibitory effect of 69 therapeutic herbal plants extracts on 9 bacterial strains using a disc diffusion assay. Especially, the antimicrobial activity of Psoraleae semen, which showed different activity on pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated by MIC (minimal inhibition concentration) and biofilm formation assay. The effect of Psoraleae semen extract on bacterial cell membranes was examined by measurement of protein leakage (optical density at 280 nm) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943633/vancomycin-induced-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-and-acute-renal-failure-due-to-tubulointerstitial-nephritis
#9
Chandra Shekar Pingili, Emmanuel E Okon
BACKGROUND Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and sepsis are commonly treated with intravenous vancomycin. However, vancomycin treatment is associated adverse reactions, including skin rashes and nephrotoxicity. We present a case of acute renal failure due to acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with a diffuse leukocytoclastic vasculitic skin eruption following intravenous vancomycin treatment. CASE REPORT A 79-year-old Caucasian male patient was treated with intravenous vancomycin for MRSA bacteremia...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943562/ceftriaxone-induced-neurotoxicity-in-a-patient-after-pancreas-kidney-transplantation
#10
Hideharu Hagiya, Koji Miyawaki, Norihisa Yamamoto, Hisao Yoshida, Akihiro Kitagawa, Tadafumi Asaoka, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazunori Tomono
Ceftriaxone is a widely used third-generation cephalosporin showing advantageous pharmacokinetic properties and a broad antimicrobial spectrum. We herein report a case of ceftriaxone-induced neurotoxicity in a 56-year-old man on hemodialysis. Seven days after initiating high-dose ceftriaxone, the patient developed impaired consciousness along with facial myoclonus and sporadic phonation. The symptoms clearly disappeared shortly after withdrawal of the drug. Ceftriaxone is considered a safe antibiotic for patients with renal insufficiency, since it is excreted via both haptic and renal pathways...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943526/functional-profiling-and-strategic-antimicrobial-manipulation-of-a-universal-nutrition-sensing-network-to-regulate-microbial-virulence-antibiotic-tolerance-and-stress-protection
#11
E Wc Chan, M Tk Au, R Cy Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943374/epstein-barr-virus-and-cytomegalovirus-mononucleosis-important-causes-of-febrile-illness-in-returned-travellers
#12
Temi Lampejo, Jonathan Lambourne, Margaret Armstrong, Anna Checkley, Eleni Nastouli
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing the cause of fever in the returned traveller is challenging. Efforts often focus on identifying 'exotic' pathogens. Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections cause clinical features that overlap with many exotic pathogens. The age-matched seroprevalence of both EBV and CMV is greater in tropical then temperate areas. We describe the clinical and laboratory features of returned travellers diagnosed with primary CMV and EBV syndromes. METHODS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed primary EBV and CMV infections who had attended the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (HTD), London between 1st October 2011 and 1st October 2016 were identified...
September 21, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943329/dietary-manganese-promotes-staphylococcal-infection-of-the-heart
#13
Lillian J Juttukonda, Evelien T M Berends, Joseph P Zackular, Jessica L Moore, Matthew T Stier, Yaofang Zhang, Jonathan E Schmitz, William N Beavers, Christiaan D Wijers, Benjamin A Gilston, Thomas E Kehl-Fie, James Atkinson, Mary K Washington, R Stokes Peebles, Walter J Chazin, Victor J Torres, Richard M Caprioli, Eric P Skaar
Diet, and specifically dietary metals, can modify the risk of infection. However, the mechanisms by which manganese (Mn), a common dietary supplement, alters infection remain unexplored. We report that dietary Mn levels dictate the outcome of systemic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of bacterial endocarditis. Mice fed a high Mn diet display alterations in Mn levels and localization within infected tissues, and S. aureus virulence and infection of the heart are enhanced. Although the canonical mammalian Mn-sequestering protein calprotectin surrounds staphylococcal heart abscesses, calprotectin is not released into the abscess nidus and does not limit Mn in this organ...
September 20, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943204/considerations-for-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-head-and-neck-cancer-surgery
#14
Michael P Veve, Susan L Davis, Amy M Williams, John E McKinnon, Tamer A Ghanem
Peri/post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (POABP) has become standard practice for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction, but few data exist on optimal POABP regimens. Current surgical prophylaxis guideline recommendations fail to account for the complexity of microvascular reconstruction relative to other head and neck procedures, specifically regarding wound classification and antibiotic duration. Selection of POABP spectrum is also controversial, and must balance the choice between too narrow, risking subsequent infection, or too broad, and possible unwanted effects (e...
September 21, 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943144/the-epidemiology-antibiograms-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-critically-ill-patients-with-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#15
Shin-Huei Kuo, Wei-Ru Lin, Jun-You Lin, Chung-Hao Huang, Ya-Ting Jao, Pei-Wen Yang, Jong-Rung Tsai, Wen-Hung Wang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Ching-Tzu Hung, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: For high risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in patients of intensive care units (ICUs) and scarcely epidemiology and therapeutic recommendations in Asia, we aimed to evaluate the annual change in epidemiology, antibiogram, and risk factors for 14-day mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study of ICUs patients with CLABSIs at a medical center in Taiwan (2010-2016), where central line care bundle implemented since 2014, by reviewing clinical data, pathogens, and the antibiogram...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942917/intestinal-epithelial-and-intraepithelial-t-cell-crosstalk-mediates-a-dynamic-response-to-infection
#16
David P Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Bernardo S Reis, Virginia A Pedicord, Julia Farache, Gabriel D Victora, Daniel Mucida
Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are located at the critical interface between the intestinal lumen, which is chronically exposed to food and microbes, and the core of the body. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques and intersectional genetic tools, we investigated the nature of IEL responses to luminal microbes. We observed that TCRγδ IELs exhibit unique microbiota-dependent location and movement patterns in the epithelial compartment. This behavioral pattern quickly changes upon exposure to different enteric pathogens, resulting in increased interepithelial cell (EC) scanning, expression of antimicrobial genes, and glycolysis...
September 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942850/characterization-and-complete-genome-sequences-of-l-rhamnosus-dsm-14870-and-l-gasseri-dsm-14869-contained-in-the-ecovag-%C3%A2-probiotic-vaginal-capsules
#17
Harold Marcotte, Kasper Krogh Andersen, Yin Lin, Fanglei Zuo, Zhu Zeng, Per Göran Larsson, Erik Brandsborg, Gunnar Brønstad, Lennart Hammarström
Lactobacillus rhamnosus DSM 14870 and Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 14869 were previously isolated from the vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) of healthy women and selected for the development of the vaginal EcoVag(®) probiotic capsules. EcoVag(®) was subsequently shown to provide long-term cure and reduce relapse of bacterial vaginosis (BV) as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy. To identify genes potentially involved in probiotic activity, we performed genome sequencing and characterization of the two strains. The complete genome analysis of both strains revealed the presence of genes encoding functions related to adhesion, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, antimicrobial activity, and CRISPR adaptive immunity but absence of antibiotic resistance genes...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942832/chemical-composition-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activity-of-essential-oils-from-etlingera-sayapensis-a-d-poulsen-ibrahim
#18
Behnam Mahdavi, Wan A Yaacob, Laily B Din
OBJECTIVE: To report the chemical composition and bioactivity (including antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) of essential oils from the rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Etlingera sayapensis (E. sayapensis) A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim for the first time. METHODS: First, the essential oils were obtained using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Then, the essential oils compositions were identified by chromatography methods including GC-FID and GC-MS. For the next step, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), β-carotene bleaching (BCB), and ferrous ion chelating ability (FIC) were chosen to evaluate the essential oils antioxidant activity...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942821/medicinal-plant-products-targeting-quorum-sensing-for-combating-bacterial-infections
#19
REVIEW
Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Nadia Dakka, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Jamal Abrini, Youssef Bakri
Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that aim to kill or inhibit bacterial growth. The bacterial resistance against antibiotics is a serious issue for public health. Today, new therapeutic targets other than the bacterial wall were deciphered. Quorum sensing or bacterial pheromones are molecules called auto-inducer secreted by bacteria to regulate some functions such as antibiotic resistance and biofilms formation. This therapeutic target is well-studied worldwide, nevertheless the scientific data are not updated and only recent researches started to look into its potential as a target to fight against infectious diseases...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942664/-clinical-aspects-of-severe-infections-caused-by-antibiotic-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-the-empire-strikes-back
#20
János Sinkó
In our days, growing incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become an eminent public health problem. For survival Gram-negative species possess several different tools to withstand antibiotics: they produce degrading and modifying enzymes, decrease their permeability or expel drug molecules. An increasing proportion of severe nosocomial infections are caused by strains resistant to several antimicrobials (multiresistant, extensively resistant or panresistant species). Development of new antibiotic compounds may serve as a possible solution to this problem...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
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