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Antimicrobials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813096/cytotoxicity-and-bacterial-membrane-destabilization-induced-by-annona-squamosa-l-extracts
#1
Nícolas C C Pinto, Jucélia B Silva, Laura M Menegati, Maria Clara M R Guedes, Lucas B Marques, Thiago P DA Silva, Rossana C N DE Melo, Elaine M DE Souza-Fagundes, Marcos J Salvador, Elita Scio, Rodrigo L Fabri
This study aimed to further investigate the cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and several bacterial strains of Annona squamosa and its mode of action. Methanol extracts of A. squamosa leaves (ASL) and seeds (ASS) were used. ASL showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. faecalis with MIC values of 78, 78 and 39 µg/mL respectively. Moreover, ASL exhibited significant biofilm disruption, rapid time dependent kinetics of bacterial killing, increased membrane permeability and significantly reduced the cell numbers and viability...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813014/antibacterial-properties-of-nonwoven-wound-dressings-coated-with-manuka-honey-or-methylglyoxal
#2
Sophie E L Bulman, Giuseppe Tronci, Parikshit Goswami, Chris Carr, Stephen J Russell
Manuka honey (MH) is used as an antibacterial agent in bioactive wound dressings via direct impregnation onto a suitable substrate. MH provides unique antibacterial activity when compared with conventional honeys, owing partly to one of its constituents, methylglyoxal (MGO). Aiming to investigate an antibiotic-free antimicrobial strategy, we studied the antibacterial activity of both MH and MGO (at equivalent MGO concentrations) when applied as a physical coating to a nonwoven fabric wound dressing. When physically coated on to a cellulosic hydroentangled nonwoven fabric, it was found that concentrations of 0...
August 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813003/self-assessment-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-primary-care-self-reported-practice-using-the-target-primary-care-self-assessment-tool
#3
Rebecca Owens, Leah Ffion Jones, Michael Moore, Dirk Pilat, Cliodna McNulty
Multifaceted antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions including: antibiotic guidance, reviews of antibiotic use using audits, education, patient facing materials, and self-assessment, are successful in improving antimicrobial use. We aimed to measure the self-reported AMS activity of staff completing a self-assessment tool (SAT). The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP)/Public Health England (PHE) SAT enables participants considering an AMS eLearning course to answer 12 short questions about their AMS activities...
August 16, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813002/application-of-surfactant-micelle-entrapped-eugenol-for-prevention-of-growth-of-the-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-ground-beef
#4
Tamra N Tolen, Songsirin Ruengvisesh, Thomas M Taylor
Beef safety may be compromised by O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination. The capacity of surfactant micelles loaded with the plant-derived antimicrobial eugenol to reduce STEC on beef trimmings that were later ground and refrigerated for five days at 5 ± 1 °C was tested to determine their utility for beef safety protection. STEC-inoculated trimmings were treated with free eugenol, micelle-encapsulated eugenol, 2% lactic acid (55 °C), sterile distilled water (25 °C), or left untreated (control)...
August 16, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812948/age-related-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-involves-the-mads-domain-transcription-factor-short-vegetative-phase-and-direct-action-of-salicylic-acid-on-pseudomonas-syringae
#5
Daniel C Wilson, Christine J Kempthorne, Philip Carella, David K Liscombe, Robin Cameron
Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits a developmentally regulated disease-resistance response known as Age-Related Resistance (ARR), a process that requires intercellular accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), which is thought to act as an antimicrobial agent. ARR is characterized by enhanced resistance to some pathogens at the late adult-vegetative and reproductive stages. While the transition to flowering does not cause the onset of ARR, both processes involve the MADS-domain transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812924/susceptibility-testing-and-reporting-of-new-antibiotics-with-a-focus-on-tedizolid-an-international-working-group-report
#6
Mark H Wilcox, Natalia Dmitrieva, Ana Cristina Gales, Irina Petukhova, Suleiman Al-Obeid, Flavia Rossi, Joseph M Blondeau
Inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics are among the most important factors in resistance development, and effective antibiotic stewardship measures are needed to optimize outcomes. Selection of appropriate antimicrobials relies on accurate and timely antimicrobial susceptibility testing. However, the availability of clinical breakpoints and in vitro susceptibility testing often lags behind regulatory approval by several years for new antimicrobials. A Working Group of clinical/medical microbiologists from Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Russia and the UK recently examined issues surrounding antimicrobial susceptibility testing for novel antibiotics...
August 16, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812768/chemical-nutritive-composition-and-a-wide-range-of-bioactive-properties-of-honey-mushroom-armillaria-mellea-vahl-fr-kummer
#7
Marina Kostić, Marija Smiljković, Jovana Petrović, Jasmina Glamočlija, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Ana Ćirić, Marina Soković
A. mellea fruiting bodies collected from nature were chemically characterized and shown to be rich in carbohydrates (81.25 g per 100 g dw), ash, fat and proteins (8.84 g per 100 g dw, 1.97 g per 100 g dw and 1.81 g per 100 g dw, respectively). Mannitol was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. δ-Tocopherol was the dominant form of tocopherols with 42.41 μg per 100 g dw. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, followed by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. A methanolic extract prepared from these samples was tested for antioxidant, quorum sensing and antimicrobial assays, as well as for its cytotoxicity effects...
August 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812621/erratum-competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#8
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812552/competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#9
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
The increasing availability of genotype-phenotype maps for different combinations of mutations has empowered evolutionary biologists with the tools to interrogate the predictability of adaptive evolution, especially in the context of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Large microbial populations are known to generate competing beneficial mutations, but determining how these mutations contribute to the adaptive trajectories that are most likely to be followed remains a challenge. Despite a recognition that there may also be competition between successive alleles on the same trajectory, prior studies have not fully considered how this impacts adaptation rates along, or likelihood of following, individual trajectories...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#10
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812009/the-bacteriological-quality-safety-and-antibiogram-of-salmonella-isolates-from-fresh-meat-in-retail-shops-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#11
Melkamnesh Azage, Mulugeta Kibret
The habit of raw meat consumption in addition to the poor hygienic standards and lack of knowledge contribute to food-borne diseases outbreaks. The objective of this research was to assess the bacterial quality and safety of fresh meat from retail Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A total of 30 fresh meat samples were collected from butcher shops. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and enumerate bacteria. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates...
2017: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811792/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-of-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-peshawar
#12
Abdul Samad, Tanveer Ahmed, Afaq Rahim, Abdul Khalil, Iftikhar Ali
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from January to December 2014 in Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar. A total of 615 sputum samples were collected from both in and out-patients. Sputum samples were collected as per standard procedure and were inoculated on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate agar...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811751/bioactive-potential-of-3d-printed-oleo-gum-resin-disks-b-papyrifera-c-myrrha-and-s-benzoin-loading-nanooxides-tio2-p25-cu2o-and-moo3
#13
Diogo José Horst, Sergio Mazurek Tebcherani, Evaldo Toniolo Kubaski, Rogério de Almeida Vieira
This experimental study investigates the bioactive potential of filaments produced via hot melt extrusion (HME) and intended for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing purposes. The oleo-gum-resins from benzoin, myrrha, and olibanum in pure state and also charged with 10% of metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2, P25, Cu2O, and MoO3, were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
2017: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811680/the-antimicrobial-peptide-human-beta-defensin-3-is-induced-by-platelet-released-growth-factors-in-primary-keratinocytes
#14
Andreas Bayer, Justus Lammel, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Jochen Cremer, Holger Jahr, Franziska Rademacher, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811617/cell-surface-binding-uptaking-and-anticancer-activity-of-l-k6-a-lysine-leucine-rich-peptide-on-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells
#15
Che Wang, Shaodan Dong, Lin Zhang, Ying Zhao, Lili Huang, Xiange Gong, He Wang, Dejing Shang
Cell surface binding and internalization are critical for the specific targeting and biofunctions of some cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with anticancer activities. However, the detailed cellular process for CAPs interacting with cancer cells and the exact molecular basis for their anticancer effects are still far from being fully understood. In the present study, we examined the cell surface binding, uptaking and anti-cancer activity of L-K6, a lysine/leucine-rich CAP, in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811611/the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-six-essential-oils-and-their-cyto-genotoxicity-to-human-hel-12469-cells
#16
Andrea Puškárová, Mária Bučková, Lucia Kraková, Domenico Pangallo, Katarína Kozics
Six essential oils (from oregano, thyme, clove, lavender, clary sage, and arborvitae) exhibited different antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antimicrobial activity was shown against pathogenic (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis) and environmental bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Arthrobacter protophormiae, Pseudomonas fragi) and fungi (Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus fumigatus)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811193/a-novel-detection-procedure-for-mutations-in-the-23s-rrna-gene-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-with-peptide-nucleic-acid-mediated-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#17
Jun Sakai, Takuya Maeda, Norihito Tarumoto, Kazuhisa Misawa, Shinsuke Tamura, Kazuo Imai, Toshiyuki Yamaguchi, Satoshi Iwata, Takashi Murakami, Shigefumi Maesaki
Rapid and easy detection of a single nucleotide point mutation of bacterial genes, which is directly linked to drug susceptibility, is essential for the proper use of antimicrobial agents. Here, we established a detection method using a peptide nucleic acid mediated loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay for macrolide (ML)-susceptible Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This assay specifically detected the absence of missense mutations encoding the central loop of domain V in the gene encoding 23S rRNA, which can reduce the affinity for MLs and subsequently generate ML-resistant strains of M...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810864/molecular-determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-meat-in-addis-ababa-and-bishoftu-ethiopia
#18
Yohannes Equar Messele, Reta Duguma Abdi, Shimels Tikuye Yalew, Desiye Tesfaye Tegegne, Bezina Arega Emeru, Gebremeskel Mamu Werid
BACKGROUND: Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. METHODS: Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810849/in-vitro-antiplasmodial-activity-and-prophylactic-potentials-of-extract-and-fractions-of-trema-orientalis-linn-stem-bark
#19
John Oludele Olanlokun, Oluwole Moses David, Anthony Jide Afolayan
BACKGROUND: Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention...
August 15, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810827/validation-of-%C3%AE-lactam-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-predictions-for-pneumococcal-isolates-with-newly-encountered-penicillin-binding-protein-pbp-sequences
#20
Yuan Li, Benjamin J Metcalf, Sopio Chochua, Zhongya Li, Robert E Gertz, Hollis Walker, Paulina A Hawkins, Theresa Tran, Lesley McGee, Bernard W Beall
BACKGROUND: Genomic sequence-based deduction of antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has great potential to enhance the speed and sensitivity of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We previously developed a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) typing system and two methods (Random Forest (RF) and Mode MIC (MM)) that accurately predicted β-lactam MICs for pneumococcal isolates carrying a characterized PBP sequence type (phenotypic β-lactam MICs known for at least one isolate of this PBP type)...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
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