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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107705/incorporation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-nanostructured-lipid-membrane-mimetic-bilayer-cubosomes
#1
Thomas G Meikle, Alexandru Zabara, Lynne J Waddington, Frances Separovic, Calum J Drummond, Charlotte E Conn
The inverse bicontinuous lipidic cubic phase offers a simple and robust membrane mimetic with the ability to encapsulate peptides, potentially increasing bioavailability, while also offering a platform from which functionalized, targeted nanoparticles can be developed. Herein we have investigated the use of a number of cubic phase nanoparticle systems with encapsulated antimicrobial peptides gramicidin A', melittin, and alamethicin. The optimal peptide loading ranges, over which cubic symmetry was retained, were determined using small angle X-ray scattering...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107652/symbiont-derived-antimicrobials-contribute-to-the-control-of-the-lepidopteran-gut-microbiota
#2
Yongqi Shao, Bosheng Chen, Chao Sun, Keishi Ishida, Christian Hertweck, Wilhelm Boland
Insects develop efficient antimicrobial strategies to flourish in a bacterial world. It has long been proposed that native gut microbiota is an important component of host defense; however, the responsible species have rarely been isolated to elucidate the mechanism of action. Here we show that the dominant symbiotic bacterium Enterococcus mundtii associated with the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis actively secretes a stable class IIa bacteriocin (mundticin KS) against invading bacteria, but not against other gut residents, facilitating the normal development of host gut microbiota...
January 19, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107412/nasal-carriage-of-staphylococcus-aureus-among-children-in-the-ashanti-region-of-ghana
#3
Daniel Eibach, Michael Nagel, Benedikt Hogan, Clinton Azuure, Ralf Krumkamp, Denise Dekker, Mike Gajdiss, Melanie Brunke, Nimako Sarpong, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. METHODS: Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107178/influence-of-structure-of-lactones-with-the-methylcyclohexene-and-dimethylcyclohexene-ring-on-their-biotransformation-and-antimicrobial-activity
#4
Katarzyna Wińska, Małgorzata Grabarczyk, Wanda Mączka, Barbara Żarowska, Gabriela Maciejewska, Mirosław Anioł
The aim of this article is influence of the structure of lactones with the methylcyclohexene and dimethylcyclohexene ring on their biotransformation and antimicrobial activity. This work was based on the general remark that even the smallest change in the structure of a compound can affect its biological properties. The results of the biotransformation of four bicyclic unsaturated lactones with one or two methyl groups in the cyclohexene ring was tested using fifteen fungal strains (Fusarium species, Penicillium species, Absidia species, Cunninghamella japonica, and Pleurotus ostreatus) and five yeast strains (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodorula marina, Rhodorula rubra, Candida viswanathii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae)...
January 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106876/inhibition-of-innate-immune-cytosolic-surveillance-by-an-m-tuberculosis-phosphodiesterase
#5
Ruchi Jain Dey, Bappaditya Dey, Yue Zheng, Laurene S Cheung, Jie Zhou, David Sayre, Pankaj Kumar, Haidan Guo, Gyanu Lamichhane, Herman O Sintim, William R Bishai
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection leads to cytosolic release of the bacterial cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) c-di-AMP and a host-generated CDN, cGAMP, both of which trigger type I interferon (IFN) expression in a STING-dependent manner. Here we report that M. tuberculosis has developed a mechanism to inhibit STING activation and the type I IFN response via the bacterial phosphodiesterase (PDE) CdnP, which mediates hydrolysis of both bacterial-derived c-di-AMP and host-derived cGAMP. Mutation of cdnP attenuates M...
February 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106760/asymmetric-total-synthesis-of-ieodomycin-b
#7
Shuangjie Lin, Jianting Zhang, Zhibin Zhang, Tianxiang Xu, Shuangping Huang, Xiaoji Wang
Ieodomycin B, which shows in vitro antimicrobial activity, was isolated from a marine Bacillus species. A novel asymmetric total synthetic approach to ieodomycin B using commercially available geraniol was achieved. The approach involves the generation of 1,3-trans-dihydroxyl at C-3 and C-5 positions via a Crimmins-modified Evans aldol reaction and a chelation-controlled Mukaiyama aldol reaction of a p-methoxybenzyl-protected aldehyde, as well as the generation of a lactone ring in a deprotection-lactonization one-pot reaction...
January 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106736/development-and-sequential-analysis-of-a-new-multi-agent-anti-acne-formulation-based-on-plant-derived-antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-compounds
#8
Crina Saviuc, Bianca Ciubucă, Gabriela Dincă, Coralia Bleotu, Veronica Drumea, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Marcela Popa, Gratiela Gradisteanu Pircalabioru, Luminita Marutescu, Veronica Lazăr
The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential of natural, plant-derived compounds has been reported in many studies. Emerging evidence indicates that plant-derived essential oils and/or their major compounds may represent a plausible alternative treatment for acne, a prevalent skin disorder in both adolescent and adult populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and subsequently analyze the antimicrobial activity of a new multi-agent, synergic formulation based on plant-derived antimicrobial compounds (i...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106297/different-dynamics-and-pathway-of-disulfide-bonds-reduction-of-two-human-defensins-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study
#9
Liqun Zhang
Human defensins are a class of antimicrobial peptides that are crucial components of the innate immune system. Both human α defensin type 5(HD5) and human β defensin type 3 (hBD-3) have 6 cysteine residues which form 3 pairs of disulfide bonds under oxidizing condition. Disulfide bond linking is important to the protein structure stabilization, and the disulfide bond linking and breaking order has been shown to influence protein function. In this project, microsecond long molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structure and dynamics of HD5 and hBD-3 wildtype and analogs which have all 3 disulfide bonds released under reducing conditions...
January 20, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106125/baba-dependent-binding-of-helicobacter-pylori-to-human-gastric-mucins-cause-aggregation-that-inhibits-proliferation-and-is-regulated-via-arss
#10
Emma C Skoog, Médea Padra, Anna Åberg, Pär Gideonsson, Ikenna Obi, Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Anna Arnqvist, Sara K Lindén
Mucins in the gastric mucus layer carry a range of glycan structures, which vary between individuals, can have antimicrobial effect or act as ligands for Helicobacter pylori. Mucins from various individuals and disease states modulate H. pylori proliferation and adhesin gene expression differently. Here we investigate the relationship between adhesin mediated binding, aggregation, proliferation and adhesin gene expression using human gastric mucins and synthetic adhesin ligand conjugates. By combining measurements of optical density, bacterial metabolic activity and live/dead stains, we could distinguish bacterial aggregation from viability changes, enabling elucidation of mechanisms behind the anti-prolific effects that mucins can have...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106081/shigatoxin-encoding-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-24b-modulates-bacterial-metabolism-to-raise-antimicrobial-tolerance
#11
G S Holt, J K Lodge, A J McCarthy, A K Graham, G Young, S H Bridge, A K Brown, M Veses-Garcia, C V Lanyon, A Sails, H E Allison, D L Smith
How temperate bacteriophages play a role in microbial infection and disease progression is not fully understood. They do this in part by carrying genes that promote positive evolutionary selection for the lysogen. Using Biolog phenotype microarrays and comparative metabolite profiling we demonstrate the impact of the well-characterised Shiga toxin-prophage ϕ24B on its Escherichia coli host MC1061. As a lysogen, the prophage alters the bacterial physiology by increasing the rates of respiration and cell proliferation...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105928/computer-aided-identification-of-a-hevein-like-antimicrobial-peptide-of-bell-pepper-leaves-for-biotechnological-use
#12
Patrícia Dias Games, Elói Quintas Gonçalves daSilva, Meire de Oliveira Barbosa, Hebréia Oliveira Almeida-Souza, Patrícia Pereira Fontes, Marcos Jorge deMagalhães-Jr, Paulo Roberto Gomes Pereira, Maura Vianna Prates, Gloria Regina Franco, Alessandra Faria-Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar Campos, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides from plants present mechanisms of action that are different from those of conventional defense agents. They are under-explored but have a potential as commercial antimicrobials. Bell pepper leaves ('Magali R') are discarded after harvesting the fruit and are sources of bioactive peptides. This work reports the isolation by peptidomics tools, and the identification and partially characterization by computational tools of an antimicrobial peptide from bell pepper leaves, and evidences the usefulness of records and the in silico analysis for the study of plant peptides aiming biotechnological uses...
December 15, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105799/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-a-piscidin-gene-in-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#13
Jing Yang, Xin-Jiang Lu, Fang-Chao Chai, Jiong Chen
The piscidin family, which includes potent antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum activity, plays an important role in the innate immune system of fish. In this study, we cloned piscidin-5-like type 3 (Lcpis5lt3) in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Multiple alignments with other known piscidins revealed amino acid conservation throughout the fish, especially at the signal peptide (22 amino acids). The phylogenetic tree confirmed that Lcpis5lt3 and large yellow croaker piscidin-5-like proteins were grouped together to form a branch...
November 18, 2016: Zool Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105725/antifungal-peptides-a-potential-new-class-of-antifungals-for-treating-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-caused-by-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans
#14
Siew Mei Samantha Ng, Yi Yong Alvin Yap, Jin Wei Darryl Cheong, Fui Mee Ng, Qiu Ying Lau, Timothy Barkham, Jeanette Woon Pei Teo, Jeffrey Hill, Cheng San Brian Chia
Vulvovaginal candidiasis/candidosis is a common fungal infection afflicting approximately 75% of women globally caused primarily by the yeast Candida albicans. Fluconazole is widely regarded as the antifungal drug of choice since its introduction in 1990 due to its high oral bioavailability, convenient dosing regimen and favourable safety profile. However, its widespread use has led to the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, posing a universal clinical concern. Coupled to the dearth of new antifungal drugs entering the market, it is imperative to introduce new drug classes to counter this threat...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105572/proteome-wide-identification-of-iron-binding-proteins-of-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-undulosa-focus-on-secretory-virulent-proteins
#15
Ankita Sharma, Dixit Sharma, Shailender Kumar Verma
Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) causes Bacterial Leaf Streak disease in the staple food crops such as wheat and barley. The survival strategies of pathogen and host are determined by the complex interactions occurring between the host plants and the pathogenic microbes. Iron binding proteins are important in the plant-microbe interactions as they are indulged in enzyme catalysis, virulence, metabolic and transport activities. In the presented study, we have identified that ~9.8% of Xtu proteome possess iron binding sequence motifs...
January 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105330/genetic-markers-associated-with-resistance-to-beta-lactam-and-quinolone-antimicrobials-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-isolates-from-humans-and-animals-in-central-ethiopia
#16
Tadesse Eguale, Josephine Birungi, Daniel Asrat, Moses N Njahira, Joyce Njuguna, Wondwossen A Gebreyes, John S Gunn, Appolinaire Djikeng, Ephrem Engidawork
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactam and quinolone antimicrobials are commonly used for treatment of infections caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and other pathogens. Resistance to these classes of antimicrobials has increased significantly in the recent years. However, little is known on the genetic basis of resistance to these drugs in Salmonella isolates from Ethiopia. METHODS: Salmonella isolates with reduced susceptibility to beta-lactams (n = 43) were tested for genes encoding for beta-lactamase enzymes, and those resistant to quinolones (n = 29) for mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) as well as plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes using PCR and sequencing...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104898/design-characterization-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-novel-antimicrobial-peptide-derived-from-bovine-lactophoricin
#17
Ji-Sun Kim, Ji-Ho Joeng, Yongae Kim
Lactophoricin (LPcin) which is a part of proteose peptone isolated from bovine milk is a cationic amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide. Its truncated variants and mutated analogs were designed and their antimicrobial activities were evaluated by using various assays like broth dilution methods and disk diffusion methods as well as hemolysis assay. Three analogs of LPcin-C8 (LPcin-YK1), LPcin-T2&6W (LPcin-YK2), and LPcin-T2&6W-C8 (LPcin-YK3) that showed better antibiotic activities than LPcin were selected...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104818/structure-and-activation-of-c1-the-complex-initiating-the-classical-pathway-of-the-complement-cascade
#18
Simon A Mortensen, Bjoern Sander, Rasmus K Jensen, Jan Skov Pedersen, Monika M Golas, Jens C Jensenius, Annette G Hansen, Steffen Thiel, Gregers R Andersen
The complement system is an important antimicrobial and inflammation-generating component of the innate immune system. The classical pathway of complement is activated upon binding of the 774-kDa C1 complex, consisting of the recognition molecule C1q and the tetrameric protease complex C1r2s2, to a variety of activators presenting specific molecular patterns such as IgG- and IgM-containing immune complexes. A canonical model entails a C1r2s2 with its serine protease domains tightly packed together in the center of C1 and an intricate intramolecular reaction mechanism for activation of C1r and C1s, induced upon C1 binding to the activator...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104533/antimicrobial-activity-of-stable-hemiaminals-against-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#19
Teresa Olczak, Michał Śmiga, Anna Kwiecień, Marcin Bielecki, Robert Wróbel, Mariusz Olczak, Zbigniew Ciunik
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major etiologic agent and a key pathogen responsible for the development and progression of chronic periodontitis. Controlling the number of periodontal pathogens is one of the primary actions for maintaining oral health; therefore, active compounds with a capacity to exert antimicrobial activity have received considerable attention as they may represent potential new therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Heterocyclic compounds possessing 1,2,4- or 1,2,3-triazoles are known for several biological activities, including antibacterial properties...
January 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104504/diversity-of-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-producing-bacteria-in-china
#20
Xiaofeng Hu, Xuebing Xu, Xu Wang, Wencheng Xue, Haijian Zhou, Ling Zhang, Qiuxia Ma, Rongtao Zhao, Guozheng Li, Peng Li, Chuanfu Zhang, Yun Shi, Jian Wang, Leili Jia, Rongzhang Hao, Ligui Wang, Dayang Zou, Xuelin Liu, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song, Yansong Sun
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and dissemination of diverse NDM-producing bacteria in China was investigated. METHODS: We collected 1,162 isolates from 8 cities during December 2013∼May 2015 in China. The NDM-positive strains as well as the NDM genotypes in these sample were detected via Vitek 2 compact system (bioMérieux, France), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PCR and an S1- pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay and Southern blot hybridization. The horizontal-transfer capability of the blaNDM gene was assessed by filter mating by using a standard E...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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