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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651192/efficient-photocatalytic-degradation-of-toxic-dyes-from-aqueous-environment-using-gelatin-zr-iv-phosphate-nanocomposite-and-its-antimicrobial-activity
#1
Manita Thakur, Gaurav Sharma, Tansir Ahamad, Ayman A Ghfar, Deepak Pathania, Mu Naushad
In the present study, gelatin-Zr(IV) phosphate nanocomposite (GT/ZPNC) was synthesized by sol-gel method by mixing the gelatin gel into the inorganic part Zr (IV) phosphate (ZP). The GT/ZPNC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micron scope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photodegradation activity of GT/ZPNC was explored for the removal of methylene blue (MB) and fast green (FG) dyes from aqueous solution...
June 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651094/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-to-a-commercial-citrus-fruit-extract
#2
Pedro J G de Nova, Ana Carvajal, Miguel Prieto, Pedro Rubio
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the main etiological agent of swine dysentery (SD). Nowadays, treatment and control of SD is increasingly difficult due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance together with the restrictions on the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate, as an alternative in the control of this disease, the antimicrobial activity and the main mechanism of action of BIOCITRO, a citrus extract commercialized as raw material and used as feed additive, against B...
June 20, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#3
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650938/outbreak-caused-by-escherichia-coli-o18-k1-h7-sequence-type-95-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-barcelona-spain
#4
Emma Sáez-López, Jordi Bosch, Maria Dolors Salvia, Dietmar Fernández-Orth, Virginio Cepas, Mario Ferrer-Navarro, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Jordi Vila, Sara M Soto
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of late-onset neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to characterize an outbreak of neonatal sepsis occurring in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from April to August 2013. METHODS: After presentation of the index case, all E. coli isolates from previously hospitalized neonates, health care workers, and neonates admitted to the NICU from April to October 2013 were tested for K1 antigen positivity and epidemiologically compared by pulse-field gel electrophoresis...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650788/comparison-of-the-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-the-endovac-system-and-conventional-needle-irrigation-in-primary-molar-root-canals
#5
Burak Buldur, Arife Kapdan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the EndoVac system and conventional needle irrigation to eliminate E faecalis in primary molar root canals. STUDY DESIGN: 60 extracted human primary second molar roots were instrumented up to an apical size .04/35 and randomly divided into two groups; Group 1: conventional needle (n=30) and Group 2: EndoVac (n=30), and four subgroups (two experimental subgroups; (a) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (n=20), (b) ozonated water (OW) + EDTA (n=20), and control groups (c) 5...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650745/longer-duration-antimicrobial-therapy-does-not-prevent-treatment-failure-in-high-risk-patients-with-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#6
Taryn E Hassinger, Christopher A Guidry, Ori D Rotstein, Therese M Duane, Heather L Evans, Charles H Cook, Patrick J O'neill, John E Mazuski, Reza Askari, Lena M Napolitano, Nicholas Namias, Preston R Miller, E Patchen Dellinger, Raul Coimbra, Christine S Cocanour, Kaysie L Banton, Joseph Cuschieri, Kimberley Popovsky, Robert G Sawyer
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested the length of treatment of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) can be shortened without detrimental effects on patient outcomes. However, data from high-risk patient populations are lacking. We hypothesized that patients at high risk for treatment failure will benefit from a longer course of antimicrobial therapy. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the Study to Optimize Peritoneal Infection Therapy (STOP-IT) trial were evaluated retrospectively to identify risk factors associated with treatment failure, which was defined as the composite outcome of recurrent IAI, surgical site infection, or death...
June 26, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650693/healthy-bovines-as-reservoirs-of-major-pathogenic-lineages-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-portugal
#7
Teresa Conceição, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa
The nosocomial prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Portugal is close to 50% and remains one of the highest in Europe. MRSA reservoirs in the animal setting in Portugal have been very poorly investigated, namely among animal husbandry. A total of 52 samples (nasal, inguinal region, and milk) were obtained from bovine animals and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, SCCmec typing, and multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of mecA and mecC genes, and virulence determinants...
June 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650672/campylobacter-species-isolated-from-pigs-in-grenada-exhibited-novel-clones-genotypes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-sequence-types
#8
Victor A Amadi, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Charmarthy Subbarao, Isaac Kashoma, Gireesh Rajashekara, Ravindra Sharma, Harry Hariharan, Diana Stone
Infections caused by Campylobacter species pose a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, in Grenada, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals, including pigs, remain mostly unknown. In this study, we identified the sequence types (STs) of Campylobacter from young healthy pigs in Grenada and compared the results with previous studies in Grenada and other countries. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and diversity of the Campylobacter clones were evaluated. Ninety-nine Campylobacter isolates (97 Campylobacter coli and 2 Campylobacter jejuni) were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing...
June 26, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650591/the-silver-lining-towards-the-responsible-and-limited-usage-of-silver
#9
REVIEW
Kshipra Naik, Meenal Kowshik
Silver has attracted a lot of attention as a powerful, broad spectrum and natural antimicrobial agent since the ancient times because of its non-toxic nature to the human body at low concentrations. It has been used in treatment of various infections and ulcers, storage of water, and prevention of bacterial growth on the surfaces and within materials. However there are numerous medical and health benefits of colloidal or nano silver apart from its microbicidal ability which as yet have not been fully embraced by the medical community...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650559/the-antibacterial-activity-and-modes-of-li-f-type-antimicrobial-peptides-against-bacillus-cereus-in-vitro
#10
Jinzhi Han, Shengming Zhao, Zhi Ma, Ling Gao, Hongxia Liu, Umair Muhammad, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lv, Xiaomei Bie
AIMS: LI-Fs are a family of highly potent cyclic lipodepsipeptide antibiotics with a broad antimicrobial spectrum (Gram-positive bacteria and fungi). In this study, LI-F type antimicrobial peptides (AMP-jsa9) composing of LI-F03a, LI-F03b, LI-F04a, LI-F04b, and LI-F05b were isolated from Paenibacillus polymyxa JSA-9. To better understand the antimicrobial mechanism of AMP-jsa9, the potency and action(s) of AMP-jsa9 against B. cereus were examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Flow cytometry, confocal laser microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation, as well as determination of peptidoglycan and cell wall associated protein, and other methods were used...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650416/redistribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-after-nationwide-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-program-in-children-in-northern-taiwan
#11
Ying-Chun Cho, Nan-Chang Chiu, Chun-Yi Lu, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Fu-Yuan Huang, Luan-Yin Chang, Li-Min Huang, Hsin Chi
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, public health officials in Taiwan monitored a decline in circulating vaccine serotypes and the emergence of non-vaccine serotypes in children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). A gradually expanded PCV13 national immunization program was launched in 2013 in Taiwan. Here we evaluate the changes in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and antimicrobial nonsusceptibility in children during the evolution of vaccination policy...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650313/molecular-mechanisms-and-epidemiology-of-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-middle-east-region
#12
Grace El Moujaber, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal bacterium that normally colonizes the human nasopharyngeal cavity. Once disseminated, it can cause several diseases, ranging from non-invasive infections such as acute otitis media and sinusitis through to invasive infections with higher mortality, including meningitis and septicaemia. Since the identification of the first S. pneumoniae strain with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in the 1960s, antibiotic resistance among S. pneumoniae has increased disturbingly and the mechanisms of resistance have begun to unfold...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650135/endodontic-microleakage-studies-a-comprehensive-review-correlation-between-different-methods-clinical-relevance-and-potential-laboratory-errors
#13
Farnaz Jafari, Saeed Rahimi, Shahriar Shahi, Sanaz Jafari
INTRODUCTION: Creation of a tight seal in endodontically treated root canals is of utmost importance. Clinical and laboratory studies have a great role in the assessment of the sealing ability of endodontic materials. The present review was undertaken to evaluate correlation between different techniques used in microleakage studies in endodontics and the potential laboratory errors. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was run using Medline, Biosis, Cochrane, Embase, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases...
June 23, 2017: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650129/in-vitro-efficacy-and-in-silico-analysis-of-cefixime-ofloxacin-combination-for-salmonella-typhi-from-bloodstream-infection
#14
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Thirumal Kumar D, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, Baby Abirami S, Priyanka Babu, Elakkiya Munusamy, Bhuvaneswari Thukkaram, Raji Ravi, George Priya Doss C, Balaji Veeraraghavan
AIMS: Recently, the cefixime-ofloxacin combination is approved by drug controller general of India (DCGI) to treat typhoid fever. We sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of cefixime-ofloxacin combination against S. Typhi. METHODS AND RESULTS: 283 non-duplicate S. Typhi isolates collected during 2012 to 2014 were included in this study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefixime and ofloxacin was determined by using broth microdilution method. Combinational testing was performed by using checkerboard assay...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650032/antibiotics-from-gram-negative-bacteria-a-comprehensive-overview-and-selected-biosynthetic-highlights
#15
REVIEW
J Masschelein, M Jenner, G L Challis
Covering: up to 2017The overwhelming majority of antibiotics in clinical use originate from Gram-positive Actinobacteria. In recent years, however, Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly recognised as a rich yet underexplored source of novel antimicrobials, with the potential to combat the looming health threat posed by antibiotic resistance. In this article, we have compiled a comprehensive list of natural products with antimicrobial activity from Gram-negative bacteria, including information on their biosynthetic origin(s) and molecular target(s), where known...
June 26, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649859/medical-authority-managerial-power-and-political-will-a-bourdieusian-analysis-of-antibiotics-in-the-hospital
#16
Emma Kirby, Alex Broom, Alexandra Gibson, Jennifer Broom, Trent Yarwood, Jeffrey Post
Antibiotic resistance poses a significant global threat, yet clinically inappropriate antibiotic use within hospitals continues despite the implementation of abatement strategies. Antibiotic use and the viability of existing antibiotic options now sit precariously at the nexus of political will, institutional governance and clinical priorities 'at the bedside'. Yet no study has hitherto explored the perspectives of managers, instead of focusing on clinicians. In this article, drawing on qualitative interviews with hospital managers, we explore accounts of responding to antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance and negotiating clinical and managerial priorities...
June 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649632/three-dimensional-organotypic-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-to-study-salmonella-enterica-colonization-patterns
#17
Jennifer Barrila, Jiseon Yang, Aurélie Crabbé, Shameema F Sarker, Yulong Liu, C Mark Ott, Mayra A Nelman-Gonzalez, Simon J Clemett, Seth D Nydam, Rebecca J Forsyth, Richard R Davis, Brian E Crucian, Heather Quiriarte, Kenneth L Roland, Karen Brenneman, Clarence Sams, Christine Loscher, Cheryl A Nickerson
Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments encountered by Salmonella, we developed and validated a novel three-dimensional co-culture infection model of colonic epithelial cells and macrophages using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649571/impact-of-built-up-litter-and-commercial-antimicrobials-on-salmonella-and-campylobacter-contamination-of-broiler-carcasses-processed-at-a-pilot-mobile-poultry-processing-unit
#18
KaWang Li, Lacey Lemonakis, Brian Glover, Joseph Moritz, Cangliang Shen
The small-scale mobile poultry-processing unit (MPPU) produced raw poultry products are of particular food safety concern due to exemption of USDA poultry products inspection act. Limited studies reported the microbial quality and safety of MPPU-processed poultry carcasses. This study evaluated the Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in broiler ceca and on MPPU-processed carcasses and efficacy of commercial antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on broilers. In study I, straight-run Hubbard × Cobb broilers (147) were reared for 38 days on clean-shavings (CS, 75) or built-up-litter (BUL, 72) and processed at an MPPU...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649561/psd1-effects-on-candida-albicans-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms
#19
Sónia Gonçalves, Patrícia M Silva, Mário R Felício, Luciano N de Medeiros, Eleonora Kurtenbach, Nuno C Santos
Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649410/komodo-dragon-inspired-synthetic-peptide-drgn-1-promotes-wound-healing-of-a-mixed-biofilm-infected-wound
#20
Ezra M C Chung, Scott N Dean, Crystal N Propst, Barney M Bishop, Monique L van Hoek
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional molecules that have a high potential as therapeutic agents. We have identified a histone H1-derived peptide from the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), called VK25. Using this peptide as inspiration, we designed a synthetic peptide called DRGN-1. We evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of both peptides against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. DRGN-1, more than VK25, exhibited potent antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity, and permeabilized bacterial membranes...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
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