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Valvular heart disease

Merna A Armanious, Homan Mohammadi, Sara Khodor, Daniel E Oliver, Peter A Johnstone, Michael G Fradley
Radiation therapy (RT) plays a prominent role in the treatment of many cancers. With increasing use of RT and high overall survival rates, the risks associated with RT must be carefully considered. Of these risks, the cardiovascular and autonomic toxicities have been of significant concern. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of nonmalignancy-related death in cancer survivors. The manifestations of radiation induced cardiac injury include the acute toxicities of myopericarditis and late toxicities including constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, heart failure, and conduction abnormalities...
June 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
I Ebrahim, A Bryer, K Cohen, J P Mouton, W Msemburi, M Blockman
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is the most commonly used anticoagulant for both primary and secondary prevention of thromboembolism. For anticoagulation efficacy, the international normalised ratio (INR) needs to be within the therapeutic range for at least 65% of time on warfarin. OBJECTIVES: To describe INR control in patients on long-term warfarin and identified predictors of good INR control at two dedicated warfarin follow-up clinics in Cape Town, South Africa (SA). METHODS: We reviewed clinical records of patients in care at the INR clinics at Mitchell's Plain Community Health Centre and Groote Schuur Hospital...
May 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Henry Tan Chor Lip, Tan Jih Huei, Adrena Abdul Wahid, Simon Jerome Vendargon
Extrinsic pulmonary artery stenosis caused by anterior mediastinum teratoma presenting with an ejection systolic murmur is a rare phenomenon. Till date, 15 cases have been reported (inclusive of this case) in the English literatures. Herein we report a 20 year old female with extrinsic pulmonary artery stenosis because of compression by an anterior mediastinal teratoma with a loud ejection systolic murmur. The case report aims to highlight the awareness of such rare presentation of anterior mediastinal teratomas that may mimic congenital valvular heart diseases among clinicians...
June 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Jing Gao, Hai-Bo Wang, Jian-Yong Xiao, Min Ren, Kathleen Heather Reilly, Yu-Ming Li, Yin Liu
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to explore the association between serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) level and saphenous vein grafts disease (SVGD) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A secondary hospital in Tianjin City, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 231 participants were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥18 years, previous CABG surgery at least 12 months ago, at least one SVG for bypass during CABG, abnormal non-invasive test results or recurrent stable angina pectoris by coronary angiography indications, and willing to participate and sign informed consent...
July 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Thomas R Porter
In a study, published in this issue of Echo Research and Practice, Ntoskas et al. retrospectively analyzed the safety of a cardiac physiologist performing, and interpreting, DSEs in of 300 patients undergoing DSE for the detection of inducible reversible ischemia, myocardial viability, and valvular heart disease. While safety during the tests themselves did not appear to be compromised with this unsupervised approach, the interpretation of these DSEs causes concerns regarding broad patient safety relative to misread results...
July 10, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Giovanni La Canna, Iside Scarfò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Shin Watanabe, Olympia Bikou, Roger J Hajjar, Kiyotake Ishikawa
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is among the most common valvular heart diseases in clinics. MR induces volume overload of the heart and leads to heart failure (HF). Because physiological and molecular mechanisms in nonischemic HF are distinct from that of ischemic HF, a clinically relevant animal model of nonischemic HF is important for understanding the pathophysiology and developing new therapeutics targeting this HF phenotype. Additionally, the large animal model of MR provides opportunities to test new surgical and percutaneous approaches for correcting mitral valve insufficiency...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gregory Y H Lip, Martin Jensen, Line Melgaard, Flemming Skjøth, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
Aims: Substantial interest has been directed towards stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) but prior studies have focused on AF without significant valvular heart disease (VHD), so-called 'non-valvular AF'. A formal validation exercise addressing stroke risks in relation to the CHA2DS2-VASc risk factor(s) in AF patients with VHD is lacking. Also, the use of the HAS-BLED score in anticoagulated patients with VHD has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate stroke and bleeding rates in AF patients with VHD in relation to the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores...
July 6, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Maheshkumar Poomarimuthu, Sivakumar Elango, Pravin Raj Solomon, Sambath Soundrapandian, Jayalakshmi Mariakuttikan
BACKGROUND: IL-23/Th17 signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response against bacterial infections and also in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent studies indicate that Th17 cell-associated cytokines are involved in the progression and maintenance of valvular lesions in rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Variants in the genes of cytokines that are potentially involved in Th17 response may influence interindividual differences in their expression levels, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases such as RHD...
July 9, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Alan S Go, Mark A Hlatky, Taylor I Liu, Dongjie Fan, Elisha A Garcia, Sue Hee Sung, Matthew D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Contemporary data about symptomatic paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) epidemiology are limited. We characterized prevalence and correlates of symptomatic PSVT within a large healthcare delivery system and estimated national PSVT burden. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified adults with an encounter for potential PSVT between 2010 and 2015 in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, excluding those with prior known atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter...
July 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Begum Uygur, Omer Celik, Fethi Emre Ustabasioglu, Okan Akinci, Mehmet Erturk
AIM: Rheumatic heart disease is a common cause of valvular disease, especially in developing countries. Echocardiography is the gold standard investigation modality for cardiac valves. In rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) provides better alignment of the image plane at the mitral tips and more accurate and reproducible planimetric measurement of mitral valve area (MVA). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a new method that provides evaluation of cardiac anatomy and function noninvasively...
July 7, 2018: Echocardiography
Amanda Santos Dal Berto, Ricardo Hohmann Camiña, Eduardo Silva Machado, Antuani Rafael Baptistella
Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare, chronic hematological disease characterized by a persistently elevated eosinophil count exceeding 1.5×109 /l, following the exclusion of other potential etiologies. The systemic involvement of the disease causes tissue damage through eosinophil infiltration, and may affect various organs; cardiac complications are observed in 50-60% of cases, which are predominately attributed to endomyocardial fibrosis. The treatment is based initially on determining the presence of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion...
July 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Theodoros Ntoskas, Farhanda Ahmad, Paul Woodmansey
BACKGROUND: Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) services have traditionally been medically led. In some UK institutions DSE lists are led by physiologists with medical support. In our tertiary cardiac centre at New Cross Hospital (NCH), the DSE service was established by a consultant echocardiographer. Following intensive training and assessment, the Trust approved drug administration by named senior cardiac physiologists. We believe this is the first report of a cardiac physiologist-managed DSE service, including physiologist drug administration...
July 4, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Pieter van der Bijl, Tomaž Podlesnikar, Jeroen J Bax, Victoria Delgado
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for more than 4 million global deaths per year. While it is most commonly caused by coronary artery disease, a final common pathway of ventricular arrhythmias is shared by different etiologies. The most effective primary and secondary prevention strategy is an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The decision to implant an ICD for primary prevention is largely based on a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, but this criterion in isolation is neither sensitive nor specific...
June 30, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
Laura Filippetti, Damien Voilliot, Michele Bellino, Rodolfo Citro, Yun Yun Go, Patrizio Lancellotti
Valvular heart disease (VHD) is frequently accompanied by pulmonary hypertension (PH). In asymptomatic patients, PH is rare, although the exact prevalence is unknown and mainly stems from the severity of the VHD and the presence of diastolic dysfunction. PH can also be depicted during exercise echocardiography. PH either at rest or during exercise is also a powerful determinant of outcome and is independently associated with reduced survival, regardless of the severity of the underlying valvular pathology. Therefore, because PH is a marker of poor prognosis, assessment of PH in VHD is crucial for risk stratification and management of patients with VHD...
July 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
Armin Attar, Parvin Marzban, Alireza Moaref, Kamran Aghasadeghi
BACKGROUND: Currently, it is not clear whether recurrent traumatic events lead to progression of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) after the incident of acute rheumatic fever or a persistent inflammatory state at the site of the valves. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between plasma high sensitive C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) level as an indicator of inflammation and RHD. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ninety patients with RHD and 90 healthy controls who had undergone complete echocardiographic examination were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
May 2018: Indian Heart Journal
Reza Deljavan, Mehdi Farhoudi, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the in-hospital survival of patients referred to the 2 stroke centers in North-West of Iran during a full seasonal year from April 2015. Methods: All the consecutive patients with stroke admitted to the 2 main stroke centers at Tabriz (Imam Reza University Hospital and Razi University Hospital) were recruited in this study. Stroke patients from both ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes were selected based on the registry data and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Aqsa Anam, Abdul Wajid Khan Faisal, Nadeem Afzal, Faheem Shahzad
OBJECTIVE: To assess activation of immune system in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients in the form of AECA, ACL and anti GBM antibodies. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Immunology, University of Health Sciences (UHS), Lahore, and Outpatient Department, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, from February 2015 to January 2016. METHODOLOGY: Clinically suspected patients of RHD and confirmed by echocardiography were included...
July 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Andrew B Hughey, Xiaokui Gu, Brian Haymart, Eva Kline-Rogers, Steve Almany, Jay Kozlowski, Dennis Besley, Gregory D Krol, Syed Ahsan, Scott Kaatz, James B Froehlich, Geoffrey D Barnes
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining warfarin use for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) may not accurately reflect real-world populations. We aimed to determine the representativeness of the RCT populations to real-world patients and to describe differences in the characteristics of trial populations from trial eligible patients in a real-world setting. We hypothesized that a significant fraction of real-world patients would not qualify for the RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE trials and that real-world patients qualifying for the studies may have more strokes and bleeding events...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Bryan P Yan, Jacquelyn Chi-Ying Fok, Teddy Hong-Yee Wong, Gary Tse, Alex P W Lee, Xing-Sheng Yang, Jing-Ping Sun
Background: Focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS) examination using a portable device is increasingly used for bedside diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. This is a 4-week pilot project aiming to teach medical students to perform FOCUS to detect valvular heart lesions. Methods: Patients undergoing routine transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were recruited by third year medical students who performed physical examination (PE) and FOCUS after 6-hour training to detect significant (moderate-to-severe) valvular lesions...
June 2018: IJC Heart & Vasculature
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