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hypertension and hyperglycemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040204/perioperative-glycemic-control-and-postoperative-complications-in-patients-undergoing-emergency-general-surgery-what-is-the-role-of-hba1c
#1
Faisal Jehan, Muhammad Khan, Joseph V Sakran, Mohammad Khreiss, Terence O'Keeffe, Albert Chi, Narong Kulvatunyou, Arpana Jain, El Rasheid Zakaria, Bellal Joseph
BACKGROUND: Plasma Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reflects quality of glucose control in diabetic patients. Literature reports that patients undergoing surgery with an elevated HbA1c level are associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of HbA1c level on outcomes after emergency general surgery (EGS). METHODS: We performed a 3-year analysis of our prospectively maintained EGS database. Patients who had HbA1c levels measured within 3-months before surgery were included...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032756/antidiabetic-drugs-as-antihypertensives-new-data-on-the-horizon
#2
Vassiliki Mamakou, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Niki Katsiki, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Nikoalos Tentolouris
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases worldwide, forcing for more research in the area of the optimal diabetes management. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the commonest cause of death in individuals with T2DM. Besides hyperglycemia, an explanation for the increased mortality in this population is the increased prevalence of comorbidities, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recent population-based studies described a prevalence of hypertension greater than 80% in patients with T2DM...
October 10, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022265/exercise-amaliorates-metabolic-disturbances-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-possible-underlying-mechanisms
#3
Ayman M Mahmoud
Cardiomyopathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and occurs independently of coronary artery disease or hypertension. It manifests as systolic/diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy of the left ventricle and can lead to heart failure. Hyperglycemia can trigger a series of maladaptive stimuli and result in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and reduced performance and contractility. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is a multifactorial process that includes metabolic derangements such as increased oxidative stress, and altered non-oxidative glucose pathways and lipid metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020496/clinical-outcomes-of-adjunctive-sustained-release-intravitreal-dexamethasone-implants-in-tuberculosis-associated-multifocal-serpigenoid-choroiditis
#4
Lubhani Jain, Krushna Gopal Panda, Soumyava Basu
PURPOSE: To analyze the safety and efficacy of sustained-release intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) in management of TB-associated multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (MSC). METHODS: Retrospective review of TB-associated MSC patients, treated with anti-TB therapy (ATT) and adjunctive intravitreal Ozurdex. RESULTS: Nine eyes of six patients were included. Four patients required Ozurdex implant for progressive or new lesions following ATT and two for additional systemic contraindications to corticosteroids - hyperglycemia and uncontrolled hypertension, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989914/which-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-have-a-greater-effect-on-mortality-cva-and-myocardial-infarction-hyperglycemia-high-blood-pressure-or-both
#5
Alireza Khosravi, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Mehrzad Barghikar
BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in clusters containing hypertension (HTN), clusters containing diabetes (diabetes mellitus [DM]), cluster with both HTN, DM, and cluster without HTN, DM in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The association between MetS and outcomes was examined in 2257 patients with MetS that were divided into four groups includes patients with MetS with hyperglycemia (Cluster 1), patients with MetS with HTN (Cluster 2), patients with MetS with HTN and hyperglycemia (Cluster 3) and patients with MetS without HTN and hyperglycemia (Cluster 4)...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987239/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-attenuates-obesity-induced-myocardial-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-l-and-smad2-3-pathways-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-rat-model
#6
Seul-Ki Hong, Eun-Ho Choo, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Kiyuk Chang, Ki-Bae Seung
Obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis may lead to diastolic dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-βl and its downstream Smad2/3 pathways may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced myocardial fibrosis, and the antidiabetic dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4i) might affect these pathways. We investigated whether DPP4i reduces myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1 and Smad2/3 pathways in the myocardium of a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model...
November 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979777/changes-in-treatment-of-hyperglycemia-in-a-hypertensive-type-2-diabetes-population-as-renal-function-declines
#7
Larry A Weinrauch, Alissa R Segal, George P Bayliss, Jiankang Liu, Eric Wisniewski, John A D'Elia
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications associated with expensive noninsulin agents for type 2 diabetes are the focus of concern in light of the risk of kidney dysfunction with aging. Head-to-head comparisons are unavailable to guide the choice of new drugs for hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increased cardiovascular risk. A first approach would be to document current medication choices. METHODS: All prescriptions for 10 151 patients (5623 males/4528 females) with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension seen two or  more times during a 5-year period (2007-12) at Joslin Diabetes Center were evaluated...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976790/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-inhibition-by-copanlisib-in-relapsed-or-refractory-indolent-lymphoma
#8
Martin Dreyling, Armando Santoro, Luigina Mollica, Sirpa Leppä, George A Follows, Georg Lenz, Won Seog Kim, Arnon Nagler, Panayiotis Panayiotidis, Judit Demeter, Muhit Özcan, Marina Kosinova, Krimo Bouabdallah, Franck Morschhauser, Don A Stevens, David Trevarthen, Marius Giurescu, Lisa Cupit, Li Liu, Karl Köchert, Henrik Seidel, Carol Peña, Shuxin Yin, Florian Hiemeyer, Jose Garcia-Vargas, Barrett H Childs, Pier Luigi Zinzani
Purpose Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is critical for the proliferation and survival of malignant B cells. Copanlisib, a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor with predominant activity against PI3K-α and -δ isoforms, has demonstrated efficacy and a manageable safety profile in patients with indolent lymphoma. Patients and Methods In this phase II study, 142 patients with relapsed or refractory indolent lymphoma after two or more lines of therapy were enrolled to receive copanlisib 60 mg intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971322/the-diabetic-foot-as-a-proxy-for-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-review
#9
REVIEW
Isa Dietrich, Gustavo Arruda Braga, Fernanda Gomes de Melo, Ana Carolina Calmon da Costa Silva Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviewed very recent papers (2016) discussing or bringing clinical evidences of the possible common pathways leading to diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) and increased mortality rates. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic patients with diabetic foot syndrome have a mortality rate greater than twofold when compared with non-ulcerated diabetics. In addition, the 5-year mortality rate following amputation is estimated at 39-68%, a life expectancy comparable to aggressive types of cancer or advanced congestive heart failure...
October 2, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970089/risk-factors-of-neurogenic-pulmonary-edema-in-patients-with-severe-hand-foot-mouth-diseases-a-meta-analysis
#10
Lijun Peng, Ruping Luo, Zhisheng Jiang
BACKGROUND: To investigate the risk factors of neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) on patients with severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and to provide evidence for prevention and treatment of NPE. METHODS: Several databases (from inception to 2017) were searched to identify case-control studies on risk factors of NPE among severe HFMD patients. Data were analyzed via meta-analysis. We calculated combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using fixed models and random models, and performed sensitivity analysis and publication bias evaluation...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966336/mechanism-of-development-of-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Naoto Katakami
Diabetic macroangiopathy, atherosclerosis secondary to diabetes mellitus (DM), causes cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, which are major causes of death in patients with DM and significantly reduce their quality of life. The alterations in vascular homeostasis due to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction are the main features of diabetic macroangiopathy. Although multiple metabolic abnormalities that characterize diabetes are involved in the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with DM, it may be said that prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance clustering with other risk factors such as obesity, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia play crucial roles...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965186/weight-gain-since-age-of-20-as-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-even-in-non-overweight-individuals
#12
Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Masahide Hamaguchi, Takuya Fukuda, Akihiro Obora, Takao Kojima, Michiaki Fukui
PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), regardless of the presence of obesity, is known as a risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight gain after age 20 reported to be associated with these diseases. Impact of the difference between the body mass index (BMI) at examination and BMI at age 20 (ΔBMIexa-20y) on MetS, especially in non-overweight individuals, remains to be elucidated. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 24,363 individuals (14,301 men and 10,062 women) in this cross-sectional study...
September 30, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956671/effect-of-raw-crushed-garlic-allium-sativum-l-on-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Prema Ram Choudhary, Rameshchandra D Jani, Megh Shyam Sharma
Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956359/metabolic-surgery-in-korea-what-to-consider-before-surgery
#14
REVIEW
Mi Kyung Kim, Yoonseok Heo
Obesity is increasing globally and represents a significant global health problem because it predisposes towards various diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, degenerative joint disease, and certain types of cancer. Numerous studies have shown that bariatric surgery reduces body mass and ameliorates obesity-related complications, such as hypertension and hyperglycemia, suggesting that surgery is the most effective therapeutic option for severely obese and obese diabetic patients...
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954992/nonconcordant-regulation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-complexes-in-the-kidneys-of-5-6-nephrectomized-mice
#15
Yukie Nakashita, Tomoya Sano, Hiroaki Yoshioka, Tomoki Shimada, Ryotaro Hori, Makoto Usami, Yasuhiro Hamada
Hyperglycemia induces nonconcordant regulation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes, increases oxidative stress, and causes diabetic nephropathy. Hypertension is a complication associated with diabetes and involves glomerular hyperfiltration, the effects of which on mitochondrial respiratory complexes are not well understood. To investigate the effect of glomerular hyperfiltration on renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes, we used the 5/6 nephrectomized BKS. Cg-Dock7(m)+/+Lepr(db)/J, Dock7(m)+/+Lepr(db) mice (db/m-5/6Nx mice) as a model for glomerular hyperfiltration...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950827/beneficial-effects-of-corn-silk-on-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Bing Wang, Tiegang Xiao, Jun Ruan, Wensheng Liu
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a very common medical problem worldwide. It includes obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abnormal levels of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is closely associated with insulin resistance and may lead to diabetes mellitus, liver diseases, or cardiovascular diseases. Corn silk (CS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to have multiple beneficial effects, including hypotensive, anti-diabetic, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests that corn silk could be used to treat or prevent metabolic syndrome...
September 26, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947597/c-reactive-protein-improves-the-ability-to-detect-cardiometabolic-risk-in-mild-to-moderate-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Jordan Gaines, Lan Kong, Menghan Li, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Edward O Bixler, Maria Basta, Alexandros N Vgontzas
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), particularly in the mild-to-moderate range, affects up to 40% of the adult general population. While it is clear that treatment should be pursued in severe cases of OSA, when and how to best treat OSA in the mild-to-moderate range remains complicated, despite its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to compare the relative utility of apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) versus a biomarker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), in identifying the presence and severity of hypertension and hyperglycemia...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944832/icariin-improves-acute-kidney-injury-and-proteinuria-in-a-rat-model-of-pregnancy%C3%A2-induced-hypertension
#18
Wenyu Zhang, Wei Yuan, Ning Xu, Jinping Li, Wenxiu Chang
Icariin has previously been demonstrated to attenuate hyperglycemia‑induced renal injury, however the renoprotective effects of icariin in a rat model of pregnancy‑induced hypertension (PIH) remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of icariin on PIH‑induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and proteinuria. Following 18 days of icariin treatment between day 1 and day 18 of gestation, which was combined with NG‑nitro‑L‑arginine methyl ester (L‑NAME) treatment between day 12 and day 18 of gestation to induce PIH, the 24 h urine protein level, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were measured by using the Coomassie Brilliant Blue method, a commercial enzymatic kit and the picric acid method, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944807/conjugated-fatty-acid-rich-oil-from-gynostrmma-pentaphyllum-seed-can-ameliorate-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-mice
#19
Mingxing Zhang, Nan Du, Lu Wang, Xiaobing Wang, Yaping Xiao, Kun Zhang, Quanhong Liu, Pan Wang
Gynostrmma pentaphyllum seed oil (GPSO), extracted from G. pentaphyllum seeds, is rich in conjugated linolenic acid, which is a special fatty acid consisting of cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 isomers. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin resistance, and is usually accompanied by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (i.e., the metabolic syndrome, or syndrome X), and polycystic ovarian disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of GPSO on T2DM hepatic lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanism involving level of protein expression...
September 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942103/antagonist-of-thromboxane-a2-receptor-by-sq29548-lowers-doca-induced-hypertension-in-diabetic-rats
#20
Pengfei Sun, Haihong Sun, Weiqiu Zhang, Zhenhui Du
Diabetes is one of high risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and hypertension. This study was conducted to elucidate whether and how thromboxane receptor (TPr) activation contributes to hypertension in diabetes. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured. The phosphorylated levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt were monitored by western blot. Endothelial function was determined by organ bath. High glucose (HG) or thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 significantly reduced the levels of p-eNOS and p-Akt in cultured HUVECs, which were reversed by inhibition of TPr...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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