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Upper Lumbar spinal cord injury

Jamie R Flynn, Victoria L Conn, Kieran A Boyle, David I Hughes, Masahiko Watanabe, Tomoko Velasquez, Martyn D Goulding, Robert J Callister, Brett A Graham
Long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) are interneurons that form direct connections between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits. LDPNs are involved in interlimb coordination and are important mediators of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Much of what we know about LDPNs comes from a range of species, however, the increased use of transgenic mouse lines to better define neuronal populations calls for a more complete characterisation of LDPNs in mice. In this study, we examined the cell body location, inhibitory neurotransmitter phenotype, developmental provenance, morphology and synaptic inputs of mouse LDPNs throughout the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Martín J Segura, María E Talarico, Mariano A Noel
PURPOSE: This is a pilot study to compare changes in the amplitude, area below the curve, number of phases, duration, and latency of the intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP) for early detection of impending spinal cord injury. An empirical ratio calculated by a combination of the above-mentioned parameters was also assessed. METHODS: Intraoperative TcMEP recordings from five patients presenting with neuromuscular kyphoscoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, achondroplasia and lumbar kyphosis, congenital kyphosis, and achondroplasia with cervical instability were reviewed...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Sara Nannarone, Enrico Bellezza, Yves P Moens, Paula Larenza Menzies
OBJECTIVES: To describe the perioperative management, including surgery, anesthesia, metabolic derangements, and physiotherapy, in a goat referred for paraparesis secondary to a road traffic accident. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMALS: 2-year-old mixed breed dwarf 44 kg female pet goat. METHODS: Clinical examination showed symptoms of early compensatory stages of shock, paraparesis with hyperextension of the thoracic limbs, pain on palpation of the thoracolumbar spine, increased patellar reflexes of both pelvic limbs without superficial sensitivity, but preserved deep pain sensation...
January 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Özlem Kirazlı, Bilgehan Solmaz, Safiye Çavdar
The dorsal column tracts (fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus) are concerned with discriminative qualities of sensation. There are controversial descriptions related to the relations of dorsal column tracts with the dorsal horn laminae in text-books. The present study aims to define the laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that contribute fibers to the dorsal column tracts in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal level. Series paraffin spinal cords sections of six formalin-embalmed adult human cadavers were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Kestutis Skucas, Vaida Pokvytyte
BACKGROUND: Of the research was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of combined dry land strength and resistance swimming training for increasing upper body strength, swimming performance and stroking parameters in swimmers with paraplegia and to determine correlation between these parameters. METHODS: The preliminary, the second (after 4 weeks), the third (after 8 weeks) and the last (after 12 weeks) testing were performed. The measurements consisted of the following assessments: the assessment of isometric strength in dry land (tension force), the assessment of swimming performance and stroke parameters during 50m backstroke, the assessment of strength during tethered swimming (tension force)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ufuk Aydinli, Nilesh Kumar Mohan, Kursat Kara
BACKGROUND: Charcot spine arthropathy (posttraumatic neuroarthropathy of the spine) has been reported to be a very late and rare complication of spinal cord injury. Charcot of the cervicothoracic and upper thoracic region rarely is reported in the literature. Charcot spinal arthropathy is a cause of progressive deformity and may present as late as 30 years after the original spinal cord injury. This is more common in paraplegic patients who are actively ambulating. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 56-year-old patient with complete paraplegia for approximately 20 years after spinal cord injury presented with severe kyphous deformity and instability of thoracolumbar spine...
October 2016: World Neurosurgery
Nishant P Visavadiya, Samir P Patel, Jenna L VanRooyen, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
The present study undertook a comprehensive assessment of the acute biochemical oxidative stress parameters in both cellular and, notably, mitochondrial isolates following severe upper lumbar contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult female Sprague Dawley rats. At 24h post-injury, spinal cord tissue homogenate and mitochondrial fractions were isolated concurrently and assessed for glutathione (GSH) content and production of nitric oxide (NO(•)), in addition to the presence of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)...
August 2016: Redox Biology
Samir P Patel, Taylor D Smith, Jenna L VanRooyen, David Powell, David H Cox, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in vivo to quantify temporally spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were scanned prior to a moderate or severe upper lumbar contusion SCI. Injured rats were behaviorally tested for hind limb locomotion (Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan [BBB] scores) weekly for 4 weeks and scanned immediately after each session, ending with terminal gait analyses prior to euthanasia...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Milan R Dimitrijevic, Simon M Danner, Winfried Mayr
In this review of neurocontrol of movement after spinal cord injury, we discuss neurophysiological evidences of conducting and processing mechanisms of the spinal cord. We illustrate that external afferent inputs to the spinal cord below the level of the lesion can modify, initiate, and maintain execution of movement in absence or partial presence of brain motor control after chronic spinal cord injury. We review significant differences between spinal reflex activity elicited by single and repetitive stimulation...
October 2015: Artificial Organs
Hsin-Chuan Chen, Teng-Le Huang, Yen-Jen Chen, Hsi-Kai Tsou, Wei-Ching Lin, Chih-Hung Hung, Chun-Hao Tsai, Horng-Chaung Hsu, Hsien-Te Chen
This study evaluates the safety and effectiveness of computed tomography- (CT-) assisted endoscopic surgery in the treatment of infectious spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and upper lumbar spine in immunocompromised patients. From October 2006 to March 2014, a total of 41 patients with infectious spondylodiscitis underwent percutaneous endoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and 13 lesions from 13 patients on the thoracic or upper lumbar spine were selected for evaluation. A CT-guided catheter was placed before percutaneous endoscopic surgery as a guide to avoid injury to visceral organs, major vessels, and the spinal cord...
2015: BioMed Research International
Mukul Mohindra, V-K Gautam, Lalit Maini, Santosh Kumar, Saurabh Verma
Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy is a rare disorder, unrelated to syrinx formation or mechanical instability, which may gradually emerge within the first 1-2 weeks after a spinal cord injury and may lead to diagnostic and prognostic dilemmas. We present a case of 24-year-old female with unstable wedge compression fracture of L1 vertebrae with signal changes in the upper lumbar cord causing complete paraplegia below D9 with bladder and bowel involvement. In the subsequent week, she developed a delayed progressively increasing neurological deficit with cord signal abnormality on MRI extending cephalad from the injury site to the upper dorsal cord...
2015: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Süha Yalçın, Murat Ersöz
There have been previous reports of both demographic and clinical features with urodynamic evaluation results of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). These studies were conducted on patients with cervical and thoracal SCI, but there has been no comparative study evaluating the urodynamic outcomes of patients with lumbosacral SCI. Therefore, it was aimed to investigate the bladder features and treatment options in patients with lumbosacral SCI to be able to take appropriate therapeutic decisions...
November 2015: Neurological Sciences
H Liang, T Bácskai, G Paxinos
The present study investigated the vestibulospinal system which originates from the spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) with both retrograde and anterograde tracer injections. We found that fluoro-gold (FG) labeled neurons were found bilaterally with a contralateral predominance after FG injections into the upper lumbar cord. Anterogradely labeled fibers from the rostral SpVe traveled in the medial part of the ventral funiculus ipsilaterally and the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally in the cervical cord. They mainly terminated in laminae 5-8, and 10 of the ipsilateral spinal cord...
May 21, 2015: Neuroscience
Edsel M Abud, Ronaldo M Ichiyama, Leif A Havton, Huiyi H Chang
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the neurogenic bladder is observed to develop asynchronous bladder and external urethral sphincter (EUS) contractions in a condition known as detrusor-sphincter dyssnergia (DSD). Activation of the EUS spinal controlling center located at the upper lumbar spinal cord may contribute to reduce EUS dyssynergic contractions and decrease urethral resistance during voiding. However, this mechanism has not been well studied. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of epidural stimulation (EpS) over the spinal EUS controlling center (L3) in combination with a serotonergic receptor agonist on EUS relaxation in naive rats and chronic (6-8 wk) T8 SCI rats...
May 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Rebecca Sternschein, Dr Mark Adelman, Mandana Mahmoudi, Nishay Chitkara
SESSION TITLE: Infectious Disease Student/Resident Case Report Posters ISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated MSSA infection causing devastating ischemic sequelae of septic emboli.CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 66 year-old man presenting to the ER after he fell off his couch and could not get up. He had chronic back pain and weakness and swelling of both legs...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Lea Awai, Armin Curt
Although the central nervous system has a limited capacity for regeneration after acute brain and spinal cord injuries, it can reveal extensive morphological changes. Occasionally, the formation of an extensive syrinx in the spinal cord can be observed that causes no or only limited signs of functional impairment. This condition creates a unique opportunity to evaluate the mismatch between substantial morphological changes and functional outcomes. We identified seven patients with holocord syringomyelia affecting the cervical cord following chronic traumatic thoracic/lumbar spinal cord injury (19-34 years after injury) or holocord syringomyelia of non-traumatic origin, and anatomical syrinx dimensions (length, cross-sectional area) were determined using sagittal and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans...
March 15, 2015: Journal of Neurotrauma
Sasa Moslavac, Ivan Dzidić, Aleksandra Moslavac, Pavao Vlahek, Zoran Filipan
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results with paralysis but also with micturition dysfunction; therefore rehabilitation management and long-term follow-up include lower urinary tract care in order to prevent upper urinary tract pathology and complications. That comprises timely and standardized neurological and urological diagnostics and eliminatory techniques with intermittent catheterisation in majority of patients. Urological diagnostics include blood and urine tests, urine culture, ultrasound and X-ray of urinary tract, and cystometry to assess dynamic properties of neurogenic bladder...
May 2014: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
Sandra M Gomez-Amaya, Mary F Barbe, Justin M Brown, Neil S Lamarre, Alan S Braverman, Vicky S Massicotte, Michael R Ruggieri
PURPOSE: We determined whether transfer of a primarily motor nerve (femoral) to the anterior vesicle branch of the pelvic nerve would allow for more effective bladder reinnervation than transfer of a primarily sensory nerve (genitofemoral). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 female mongrel dogs underwent bladder decentralization and then bilateral nerve transfer, or served as sham operated or unoperated controls. Decentralization was achieved by bilateral transection of all sacral roots that induced bladder contraction upon electrical stimulation...
March 2015: Journal of Urology
Samir P Patel, Patrick G Sullivan, Jignesh D Pandya, Glenn A Goldstein, Jenna L VanRooyen, Heather M Yonutas, Khalid C Eldahan, Johnny Morehouse, David S K Magnuson, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI...
July 2014: Experimental Neurology
Jason Boland, Adrienne Rennick
Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is an oncological emergency requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment to prevent irreversible spinal cord injury and disability. A case is described in a 45-year-old male with renal cell carcinoma in which the presentation of the MSCC was atypical with principally proximal left leg weakness with no evidence of bone metastasis. This was due to an unusual aetiology of the MSCC as the renal carcinoma had metastasised to his left psoas muscle causing a lumbosacral plexopathy and infiltrated through the intervertebral disc spaces, initially causing left lateral cauda equina and upper lumbar cord compression, before complete spinal cord compression...
June 2013: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
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