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Upper Lumbar spinal cord injury

Clark R Dickerson, Talia Alenabi, Bernard J Martin, Don B Chaffin
This study aimed to compare the activity of four shoulder muscles in individuals with low back pain (LBP), spinal cord injuries (SCI) and a control group, during one-handed load transfer trials. Nine individuals with minimum one-year of LBP, eleven with thoracic/lumbar SCI and nine healthy controls participated in this study. The activations of anterior deltoid, upper trapezius, infraspinatus and pectoralis major were recorded by surface EMG during one-handed transferring of a cylinder from a home shelve to six spatially distributed target shelves...
March 8, 2018: Ergonomics
Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Phillip Rieder, Xianshu Bai, Anja Scheller, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, Frank Kirchhoff
BACKGROUND: Interactions between motoneurons and glial cells are pivotal to regulate and maintain functional states and synaptic connectivity in the spinal cord. In vivo two-photon imaging of the nervous system provided novel and unexpected knowledge about structural and physiological changes in the grey matter of the forebrain and in the dorsal white matter of the spinal cord. NEW METHOD: Here, we describe a novel experimental strategy to investigate the spinal grey matter, i...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ursula S Hofstoetter, Brigitta Freundl, Heinrich Binder, Karen Minassian
Epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord is currently regaining momentum as a neuromodulation intervention in spinal cord injury (SCI) to modify dysregulated sensorimotor functions and augment residual motor capacity. There is ample evidence that it engages spinal circuits through the electrical stimulation of large-to-medium diameter afferent fibers within lumbar and upper sacral posterior roots. Recent pilot studies suggested that the surface electrode-based method of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may produce similar neuromodulatory effects as caused by epidural SCS...
2018: PloS One
Zaid Aljuboori, Jacob Archer, Wei Huff, Amee Moreno, Andrew Jea
Intrathecal baclofen has been suggested as an effective and safe treatment for intractable spasticity and dystonia. Techniques of lumbar and intraventricular catheter placement have been previously described. The purpose of this study was to describe a technique to implant catheters for intrathecal baclofen infusion through C1-2 puncture. Four of 5 consecutively treated patients underwent successful placement of catheters for intrathecal baclofen. There were no instances of infection, CSF leak, or catheter migration seen during a follow-up period of at least 6 months; furthermore, there were no occurrences of vertebral artery or spinal cord injury...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Asdrubal Falavigna, Orlando Righesso, Pedro Guarise da Silva, Felix Adolfo Sanchez Chavez, Ericson Sfreddo, Leandro Pelegrini de Almeida, Manuel Jose Valencia Carrasco, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study reports the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and management of spinal trauma in children and adolescents. METHODS: Multicenter study of 215 cases of spinal trauma in individuals <18 years of age. All patients were submitted to preoperative and postoperative radiologic and clinical evaluation. The fractures were classified according to the AOSpine fracture classification. Neurological evaluation was performed using the Frankel scale at admission to hospital and at the last follow-up...
February 2018: World Neurosurgery
Mingliang Yang, Jianjun Li, Xinyu Guan, Lianjun Gao, Feng Gao, Liangjie Du, Hongmei Zhao, Degang Yang, Yan Yu, Qimin Wang, Rencheng Wang, Linhong Ji
BACKGROUND: The high energy cost of paraplegic walking using a reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) is attributed to limited hip motion and excessive upper limb loading for support. To address the limitation, we designed the hip energy storage walking orthosis (HESWO) which uses a spring assembly on the pelvic shell to store energy from the movements of the healthy upper limbs and flexion-extension of the lumbar spine and hip and returns this energy to lift the pelvis and lower limb to assist with the swing and stance components of a stride...
May 24, 2017: Gait & Posture
Jamie R Flynn, Victoria L Conn, Kieran A Boyle, David I Hughes, Masahiko Watanabe, Tomoko Velasquez, Martyn D Goulding, Robert J Callister, Brett A Graham
Long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) are interneurons that form direct connections between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits. LDPNs are involved in interlimb coordination and are important mediators of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Much of what we know about LDPNs comes from a range of species, however, the increased use of transgenic mouse lines to better define neuronal populations calls for a more complete characterisation of LDPNs in mice. In this study, we examined the cell body location, inhibitory neurotransmitter phenotype, developmental provenance, morphology and synaptic inputs of mouse LDPNs throughout the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Martín J Segura, María E Talarico, Mariano A Noel
PURPOSE: This is a pilot study to compare changes in the amplitude, area below the curve, number of phases, duration, and latency of the intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP) for early detection of impending spinal cord injury. An empirical ratio calculated by a combination of the above-mentioned parameters was also assessed. METHODS: Intraoperative TcMEP recordings from five patients presenting with neuromuscular kyphoscoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, achondroplasia and lumbar kyphosis, congenital kyphosis, and achondroplasia with cervical instability were reviewed...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Sara Nannarone, Enrico Bellezza, Yves P Moens, Paula Larenza Menzies
OBJECTIVES: To describe the perioperative management, including surgery, anesthesia, metabolic derangements, and physiotherapy, in a goat referred for paraparesis secondary to a road traffic accident. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMALS: 2-year-old mixed breed dwarf 44 kg female pet goat. METHODS: Clinical examination showed symptoms of early compensatory stages of shock, paraparesis with hyperextension of the thoracic limbs, pain on palpation of the thoracolumbar spine, increased patellar reflexes of both pelvic limbs without superficial sensitivity, but preserved deep pain sensation...
January 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Özlem Kirazlı, Bilgehan Solmaz, Safiye Çavdar
The dorsal column tracts (fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus) are concerned with discriminative qualities of sensation. There are controversial descriptions related to the relations of dorsal column tracts with the dorsal horn laminae in text-books. The present study aims to define the laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that contribute fibers to the dorsal column tracts in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal level. Series paraffin spinal cords sections of six formalin-embalmed adult human cadavers were evaluated...
September 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Kestutis Skucas, Vaida Pokvytyte
BACKGROUND: Of the research was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of combined dry land strength and resistance swimming training for increasing upper body strength, swimming performance and stroking parameters in swimmers with paraplegia and to determine correlation between these parameters. METHODS: The preliminary, the second (after 4 weeks), the third (after 8 weeks) and the last (after 12 weeks) testing were performed. The measurements consisted of the following assessments: the assessment of isometric strength in dry land (tension force), the assessment of swimming performance and stroke parameters during 50m backstroke, the assessment of strength during tethered swimming (tension force)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ufuk Aydinli, Nilesh Kumar Mohan, Kursat Kara
BACKGROUND: Charcot spine arthropathy (posttraumatic neuroarthropathy of the spine) has been reported to be a very late and rare complication of spinal cord injury. Charcot of the cervicothoracic and upper thoracic region rarely is reported in the literature. Charcot spinal arthropathy is a cause of progressive deformity and may present as late as 30 years after the original spinal cord injury. This is more common in paraplegic patients who are actively ambulating. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 56-year-old patient with complete paraplegia for approximately 20 years after spinal cord injury presented with severe kyphous deformity and instability of thoracolumbar spine...
October 2016: World Neurosurgery
Nishant P Visavadiya, Samir P Patel, Jenna L VanRooyen, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
The present study undertook a comprehensive assessment of the acute biochemical oxidative stress parameters in both cellular and, notably, mitochondrial isolates following severe upper lumbar contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in adult female Sprague Dawley rats. At 24h post-injury, spinal cord tissue homogenate and mitochondrial fractions were isolated concurrently and assessed for glutathione (GSH) content and production of nitric oxide (NO(•)), in addition to the presence of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)...
August 2016: Redox Biology
Samir P Patel, Taylor D Smith, Jenna L VanRooyen, David Powell, David H Cox, Patrick G Sullivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
The current study demonstrates the feasibility of using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in vivo to quantify temporally spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were scanned prior to a moderate or severe upper lumbar contusion SCI. Injured rats were behaviorally tested for hind limb locomotion (Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan [BBB] scores) weekly for 4 weeks and scanned immediately after each session, ending with terminal gait analyses prior to euthanasia...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Milan R Dimitrijevic, Simon M Danner, Winfried Mayr
In this review of neurocontrol of movement after spinal cord injury, we discuss neurophysiological evidences of conducting and processing mechanisms of the spinal cord. We illustrate that external afferent inputs to the spinal cord below the level of the lesion can modify, initiate, and maintain execution of movement in absence or partial presence of brain motor control after chronic spinal cord injury. We review significant differences between spinal reflex activity elicited by single and repetitive stimulation...
October 2015: Artificial Organs
Hsin-Chuan Chen, Teng-Le Huang, Yen-Jen Chen, Hsi-Kai Tsou, Wei-Ching Lin, Chih-Hung Hung, Chun-Hao Tsai, Horng-Chaung Hsu, Hsien-Te Chen
This study evaluates the safety and effectiveness of computed tomography- (CT-) assisted endoscopic surgery in the treatment of infectious spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and upper lumbar spine in immunocompromised patients. From October 2006 to March 2014, a total of 41 patients with infectious spondylodiscitis underwent percutaneous endoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and 13 lesions from 13 patients on the thoracic or upper lumbar spine were selected for evaluation. A CT-guided catheter was placed before percutaneous endoscopic surgery as a guide to avoid injury to visceral organs, major vessels, and the spinal cord...
2015: BioMed Research International
Mukul Mohindra, V-K Gautam, Lalit Maini, Santosh Kumar, Saurabh Verma
Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy is a rare disorder, unrelated to syrinx formation or mechanical instability, which may gradually emerge within the first 1-2 weeks after a spinal cord injury and may lead to diagnostic and prognostic dilemmas. We present a case of 24-year-old female with unstable wedge compression fracture of L1 vertebrae with signal changes in the upper lumbar cord causing complete paraplegia below D9 with bladder and bowel involvement. In the subsequent week, she developed a delayed progressively increasing neurological deficit with cord signal abnormality on MRI extending cephalad from the injury site to the upper dorsal cord...
2015: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Süha Yalçın, Murat Ersöz
There have been previous reports of both demographic and clinical features with urodynamic evaluation results of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). These studies were conducted on patients with cervical and thoracal SCI, but there has been no comparative study evaluating the urodynamic outcomes of patients with lumbosacral SCI. Therefore, it was aimed to investigate the bladder features and treatment options in patients with lumbosacral SCI to be able to take appropriate therapeutic decisions...
November 2015: Neurological Sciences
H Liang, T Bácskai, G Paxinos
The present study investigated the vestibulospinal system which originates from the spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) with both retrograde and anterograde tracer injections. We found that fluoro-gold (FG) labeled neurons were found bilaterally with a contralateral predominance after FG injections into the upper lumbar cord. Anterogradely labeled fibers from the rostral SpVe traveled in the medial part of the ventral funiculus ipsilaterally and the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally in the cervical cord. They mainly terminated in laminae 5-8, and 10 of the ipsilateral spinal cord...
May 21, 2015: Neuroscience
Edsel M Abud, Ronaldo M Ichiyama, Leif A Havton, Huiyi H Chang
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the neurogenic bladder is observed to develop asynchronous bladder and external urethral sphincter (EUS) contractions in a condition known as detrusor-sphincter dyssnergia (DSD). Activation of the EUS spinal controlling center located at the upper lumbar spinal cord may contribute to reduce EUS dyssynergic contractions and decrease urethral resistance during voiding. However, this mechanism has not been well studied. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of epidural stimulation (EpS) over the spinal EUS controlling center (L3) in combination with a serotonergic receptor agonist on EUS relaxation in naive rats and chronic (6-8 wk) T8 SCI rats...
May 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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