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Thoracic spinal cord injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790098/three-step-method-for-transesophageal-echocardiography-guided-implantation-of-the-frozen-elephant-trunk-how-to-prevent-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Kazuo Yamanaka, Hisanari Ishii
Total aortic arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk (FET) procedure has widely spread all over the world with more sophisticated devices. However, spinal cord injury is one of the most important complications, which limits the use of FET. In our hospital, 80 patients treated with FET had no spinal cord injury. There are three key points to avoid spinal cord injury, (1) The distal end of stent graft should be positioned up to the eighth thoracic vertebrae level; (2) the time for selective left subclavian artery perfusion and distal body circulatory arrest should be shortened within 60 min; and (3) mean blood pressure should be maintained above 70 mmHg...
May 22, 2018: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782907/analgesic-effect-of-intrathecal-baclofen-bolus-on-neuropathic-pain-in-spinal-cord-injury-patients
#2
Hatice Kumru, Jesus Benito-Penalva, Markus Kofler, Joan Vidal
BACKGROUND: GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776484/corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-the-brain-and-blocking-spinal-descending-signals-induce-hyperalgesia-in-the-latent-sensitization-model-of-chronic-pain
#3
Wenling Chen, Yvette Taché, Juan Carlos Marvizón
Latent sensitization is a model of chronic pain in which an injury triggers a period of hyperalgesia followed by an apparent recovery, but in which pain sensitization persists but is suppressed by opioid and adrenergic receptors. One important characteristic of latent sensitization is that hyperalgesia can be triggered by acute stress. To determine whether the effect of stress is mimicked by the activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the brain, rats with latent sensitization induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 50 μl) in one hind paw were given an intracerebroventricular (i...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776424/impaired-cd8-t-cell-antiviral-immunity-following-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Diana M Norden, John R Bethea, Jiu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts essential neuroimmune communication, leading to severe immune depression. Previous studies confirmed immune dysfunction in mice with chronic SCI and following high thoracic level injury where sympathetic innervation of the spleen is disrupted. Here, we induced a mid-thoracic injury where integrity of the sympathetic response is maintained and investigated the antiviral T cell response to influenza virus after acute SCI. METHODS: One week following a contusion SCI at thoracic level T9, mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769463/the-kinematic-recovery-process-of-rhesus-monkeys-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Rui-Han Wei, Can Zhao, Jia-Sheng Rao, Wen Zhao, Xia Zhou, Peng-Yu Tian, Wei Song, Run Ji, Ai-Feng Zhang, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), neural circuits may be plastically reconstructed to some degree, resulting in extensive functional locomotor recovery. The present study aimed to observe the post-SCI locomotor recovery of rhesus monkey hindlimbs and compare the recovery degrees of different hindlimb parts, thus revealing the recovery process of locomotor function. Four rhesus monkeys were chosen for thoracic hemisection injury. The hindlimb locomotor performance of these animals was recorded before surgery, as well as 6 and 12 weeks post-lesion...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759026/efficacy-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-transplantation-in-rat-models-with-traumatic-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Haitao Fu, Die Hu, Licheng Zhang, Xuezhen Shen, Peifu Tang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that results in severe motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction, for which there is currently no available treatments. Following the primary mechanical damage, progressive secondary damage further exacerbates the functional deficit. Demyelination may play an important role in the pathogenesis of SCI. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are considered a candidate cellular treatment approach for SCI due to their unique potential. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of OPC transplantation in rat models with traumatic thoracic SCI and 17 studies (20 experiments, 402 rats) were identified...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753649/comparison-of-subacute-and-chronic-scar-tissues-after-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#7
Xing Li, Bin Yang, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Sufang Han, Yanyun Yin, Bing Chen, Jianwu Dai
Traditional views consider scar tissue formed in the lesion epicenter after severe spinal cord injury (SCI) as both a physical barrier and chemical impediment for axonal regeneration. Recently, a controversial opinion suggested that astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents axonal regeneration in the CNS. Here, following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord (T8) in rats, we found that scar tissue showed greater growth factor expression at 2 weeks than 8 weeks post-SCI. Further, tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that the components of scar tissue formed in the subacute phase are quite different from that formed in the chronic phase...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740239/role-of-ct-scan-in-theranostic-and-management-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Daryoush Fatehi, Mohammad Ali Dayani, Ayoob Rostamzadeh
Traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is a condition with suffering of neural structures from acute trauma with short-term or permanent sensory and motor problems. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of TSCI in Tehran with emphasis on demographic characteristics of patients and to evaluate the effect of computed tomography (CT) in determining fracture type and severity grade of injury among TSCI patients. In a cross-sectional study, all TSCI and spinal fracture patients ( N  = 520) who referred to the main trauma center in Tehran, Iran, in 2013 and 2014 were selected...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737479/locomotor-treadmill-training-promotes-soleus-trophism-by-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-in-paraplegic-rats
#9
Caroline Cunha do Espírito Santo, Daniela Dal Secco, Anamaria Meireles, Gabriel Ribeiro de Freitas, Franciane Bobinski, Mauricio Peña Cunha, Ana Lúcia Severo Rodrigues, Alessandra Swarowsky, Adair Roberto Soares Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Assisted-treadmill training, may be helpful in promoting muscle mass preservation after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). However, biological mechanism involved in this process is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of locomotor treadmill training on muscle trophism mediated by protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in paraplegic rats. Adult female Wistar rats underwent an incomplete thoracic SCI induced by compression using an aneurysm clip...
May 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729461/high-risk-surgical-maneuvers-for-impending-true-positive-intraoperative-neurologic-monitoring-alerts-experience-in-3139-consecutive-spine-surgeries
#10
Shujie Wang, Qiyi Li, Jie Zhu, Jianxiong Shen, Ye Tian, Yong Hu, Jianguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neurologic monitoring (IONM) has become an essential component for decreasing the incidence of spinal cord injury during many spine surgeries. Many high-risk surgical maneuvers that result in significant IONM alerts have not been reported systematically. Our objective in this study was to thoroughly summarize some common high-risk surgical points associated with IONM alerts in various spine surgeries. METHODS: A total of 62 patients with true-positive IONM alerts from 3139 spine surgeries were enrolled between November 2010 and April 2017...
May 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725823/esophageal-perforation-caused-by-a-thoracic-pedicle-screw
#11
REVIEW
Stanislas Marouby, Clément Jeandel, Djamel Louahem M'Sabah, Marion Delpont, Jérôme Cottalorda
This grand round raises the risk of a rare complication that can be avoided with the knowledge of the particular anatomy of scoliosis vertebra. Transpedicular screws have been reported to enhance the operative correction in scoliosis surgery. The narrow and inconsistent shape of the thoracic pedicles makes the placement of pedicle screws technically challenging. Furthermore, in thoracic curves, the close proximity of the spinal cord and major soft tissue structures also adds a greater risk to the procedure...
May 3, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722321/macrophage-depletion-and-schwann-cell-transplantation-reduce-cyst-size-after-rat-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Yee-Shuan Lee, Lucy H Funk, Jae K Lee, Mary Bartlett Bunge
Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721359/acute-cauda-equina-syndrome-following-orthopedic-procedures-as-a-result-of-epidural-anesthesia
#13
Lisa B E Shields, Vasudeva G Iyer, Yi Ping Zhang, Christopher B Shields
Background: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare complication of spinal or epidural anesthesia. It is attributed to direct mechanical injury to the spinal roots of the cauda equina that may result in saddle anesthesia and paraplegia with bowel and bladder dysfunction. Case Description: The first patient underwent a hip replacement and received 5 mL of 1% lidocaine epidural anesthesia. Postoperatively, when the patient developed an acute CES, the lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated clumping/posterior displacement of nerve roots of the cauda equina consistent with adhesive arachnoiditis attributed to the patient's previous L4-L5 lumbar decompression/fusion...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719837/epidemiological-characteristics-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-tsci-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-mena-region-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Mohamed H Elshahidi, Nada Y Monir, Mohamed A Elzhery, Ahmed A Sharaqi, Hames Haedaya, Basem I Awad, Khaled Zaghloul
Objective: To systematically search the literature and to summarize current evidence pertaining to the epidemiology of SCI in the MENA region incidence, gender, age, type of the injury and etiology of the injury. Methods: Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were systematically searched from their dates of inception till July 2017 for English and non-English language articles. Also, regional databases were searched. Data were extracted from eligible articles and pooled under the random effect model using R ...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686269/lysosomal-damage-after-spinal-cord-injury-causes-accumulation-of-ripk1-and-ripk3-proteins-and-potentiation-of-necroptosis
#15
Shuo Liu, Yun Li, Harry M C Choi, Chinmoy Sarkar, Eugene Y Koh, Junfang Wu, Marta M Lipinski
Necroptosis, a regulated necrosis pathway mediated by the receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3), is induced following spinal cord injury (SCI) and thought to contribute to neuronal and glial cell death. However, mechanisms leading to activation of necroptosis after SCI remain unclear. We have previously shown that autophagy, a catabolic pathway facilitating degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner, is inhibited following SCI in rats. Our current data confirm that inhibition of autophagy also occurs after thoracic contusive SCI in the mouse model, as indicated by accumulation of both the autophagosome marker, LC3-II and autophagy cargo protein, p62/SQSTM1...
April 23, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679548/the-effect-of-myelotomy-following-low-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rats
#16
Carolin Meyer, Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Robin Gensch, Robert Seitz, Gregor Stein, Marilena Manthou, Theodora Papamitsou, Makoto Nakamura, Bertil Bouillon, Mary Galea, Peter Batchelor, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Angelov
Myelotomy is a surgical procedure allowing removal of extravasated blood and necrotic tissue that is thought to attenuate secondary injury as well as promote recovery in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) models and humans. Here we examined in rat whether myelotomy at 48 h after low-thoracic compressive SCI provided any benefit over a 12 week period. Compared to animals receiving SCI alone, myelotomy worsened BBB scores (p < 0.05) and also did not improve plantar stepping, ladder climbing, urinary bladder voiding or sensory function (thermal latency) during the 12-week period...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672077/use-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-flourishing-scale-among-adults-with-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Marisa J Perera, Michelle A Meade, Lisa DiPonio
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Despite increased interest in the topic of resilience in rehabilitation, there has been no psychometric investigation of the Flourishing Scale (FS) in a sample of adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study examined the reliability, convergent validity, and factor structure of the FS. Research Method/Design: Data for this project were extracted from a larger study on happiness and quality of life after SCI. For this study, information was collected using a cross-sectional mail survey design of adults with SCI...
April 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665733/natural-history-predictors-of-outcome-and-effects-of-treatment-in-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a-multicenter-cohort-study-from-the-north-american-clinical-trials-network
#18
Jefferson R Wilson, Blessing Jaja, Brian K Kwon, James Guest, James Shields Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Jetan Badhiwala, Elizabeth Toups, Robert Grossman, Michael G Fehlings
The course, treatment response and recovery potential following acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to differ depending on the neurological level of injury. However, there are limited data focused on thoracic-level injuries. A cohort of 86 patients from the prospectively maintained North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) SCI registry were identified and studied to characterize the patterns of neurological recovery as well as to determine rates of acute hospital mortality and pulmonary complications...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660974/in-vivo-spinal-distribution-of-cy5-5-fluorescent-dye-after-injection-via-the-lateral-ventricle-and-cisterna-magna-in-rat-model
#19
Kee-Hang Lee, Hyun Nam, Jeong-Seob Won, Ji-Yoon Hwang, Hye Won Jang, Sun-Ho Lee, Kyeung Min Joo
Objective: The purpose of this study was to find an optimal delivery route for clinical trials of intrathecal cell therapy for spinal cord injury in preclinical stage. Methods: We compared in vivo distribution of Cy5.5 fluorescent dye in the spinal cord region at various time points utilizing in vivo optical imaging techniques, which was injected into the lateral ventricle (LV) or cisterna magna (CM) of rats. Results: Although CM locates nearer to the spinal cord than the LV, significantly higher signal of Cy5...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658057/combined-effects-of-rat-schwann-cells-and-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#20
Zeinab Namjoo, Fateme Moradi, Roya Aryanpour, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Yusef Abbasi, Amir Hosseini, Sajad Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Taklimie, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic event which burdens the affected individuals and the health system. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising repair strategy after SCI. However, a large number of SCs do not survive following transplantation. Previous studies demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects different cell types and reduces tissue damage in SCI experimental animal model. In the current study, we evaluated the protective potential of E2 on SCs in vitro and investigated whether the combination of hormonal and SC therapeutic strategy has a better effect on the outcome after SCI...
April 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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