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Thoracic spinal cord injury

Min Cheol Joo, Chul Hwan Jang, Jong Tae Park, Seung Won Choi, Seungil Ro, Min Seob Kim, Moon Young Lee
Although electrical stimulation is therapeutically applied for neural regeneration in patients, it remains unclear how electrical stimulation exerts its effects at the molecular level on spinal cord injury (SCI). To identify the signaling pathway involved in electrical stimulation improving the function of injured spinal cord, 21 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (no surgical intervention, n = 6), SCI (SCI only, n = 5), and electrical simulation (ES; SCI induction followed by ES treatment, n = 10)...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Hsin-Chin Lin, Yu-Lin Tsai, Wen-Chung Tsai
Posttraumatic syringomyelia with an initial presentation of involuntary movement is rare. We describe a 25-year-old patient who sustained complete traumatic spinal cord injury at the thoracic level and presented with rhythmic neck muscle spasms and upper limb muscle myoclonic jerks 1 month after trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed syrinx formation between C3 and T1. Lumbar-peritoneal shunt and decompression were performed. The symptoms completely disappeared after surgery. This report highlights that rhythmic neck muscle spasms and upper limb muscle myoclonic jerks can be the initial and only manifestations of syringomyelia...
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Ying Dai, Caitlin E Hill
Adult Schwann cells (SCs) can provide both a permissive substrate for axonal growth and a source of cells to ensheath and myelinate axons when transplanted into the injured spinal cord. Multiple studies have demonstrated that SC transplants can be used as part of a combinatorial approach to repairing the injured spinal cord. Here, we describe the protocols for collection and transplantation of adult rat primary SCs into the injured spinal cord. Protocols are included for the tissue culture procedures necessary for collection, quantification, and suspension of the cells for transplantation and for the surgical procedures for spinal cord injury at thoracic level nine (T9), reexposure of the injury site for delayed transplantation, and injection of the cells into the spinal cord...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nancy E Epstein
Background: The risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) due to decreased cord perfusion following thoracic/thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery (T/TL-AAA) and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) ranges up to 20%. For decades, therefore, many vascular surgeons have utilized cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD) to decrease intraspinal pressure and increase blood flow to the spinal cord, thus reducing the risk of SCI/ischemia. Methods: Multiple studies previously recommend utilizing CSFD following T/TL-AAA/TEVAR surgery to treat SCI by increasing spinal cord blood flow...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Daniela G L Terson de Paleville, Susan J Harkema, Claudia A Angeli
CONTEXT: Four individuals with motor complete SCI with an implanted epidural stimulator who were enrolled in another study were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, metabolic function and body composition at four time points before, during, and after task specific training. Following 80 locomotor training sessions, a 16-electrode array was surgically placed on the dura (L1-S1 cord segments) to allow for electrical stimulation. After implantation individuals received 160 sessions of task specific training with epidural stimulation (stand and step)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Stefan O Schrade, Katrin Dätwyler, Marius Stücheli, Kathrin Studer, Daniel-Alexander Türk, Mirko Meboldt, Roger Gassert, Olivier Lambercy
BACKGROUND: Powered exoskeletons are a promising approach to restore the ability to walk after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, current exoskeletons remain limited in their walking speed and ability to support tasks of daily living, such as stair climbing or overcoming ramps. Moreover, training progress for such advanced mobility tasks is rarely reported in literature. The work presented here aims to demonstrate the basic functionality of the VariLeg exoskeleton and its ability to enable people with motor complete SCI to perform mobility tasks of daily life...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Liu-Lin Xiong, Yu Zou, Yu Shi, Piao Zhang, Rong-Ping Zhang, Xie-Jie Dai, Bin Liu, Ting-Hua Wang
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of implanted neural stem cells (NSCs) on the functional recovery of tree shrews (TSs) subjected to hemi‑sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI), and to investigate the possible mechanism involved. NSCs (passage 2), derived from the hippocampus of TSs (embryonic day 20), were labeled with Hoechst 33342 and transplanted intraspinally into the hSC of TSs at thoracic level 10 in the acute (immediately after injury) and chronic (day 9 post‑injury) stages...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Lidija Kocbek, Mateja Rakuša
PURPOSE: A common trunk of the posterior intercostal arteries originating from the descending thoracic aorta is normally an anatomical variation. A search through the literature disclosed the frequencies of common trunks variations among population, but no information relates to particular topic of simultaneous multiple common trunks of the PIA present in individuals. METHODS: A total of 396 intercostal spaces were dissected in 44 cadavers from the vertebral body to the mid-axillary line to observe a common trunk of the paired posterior intercostal artery at the level from T2 to T11 intercostal space...
March 12, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Andrea Franzini, Federico Legnani, Elena Beretta, Francesco Prada, Francesco DiMeco, Sergio Visintini, Angelo Franzini
BACKGROUND: Laminoplasty and laminectomy are two common surgical procedures utilized in approaching degenerative and neoplastic disease of the spinal canal. Routinely adopted instruments, such as Kerrison rongeur or high-speed drill (HSD), entail some potentially serious complications such as dura injuring and thermal and mechanical damage to neurovascular structures. We have adopted piezoelectric bone surgery, which permits a selective cut of mineralized tissues, to perform posterior procedures on the thoracic spine, where the relationship between bone and the spinal cord are critical...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Katsuhiro Yamanaka, Mohamed Eldeiry, Muhammad Aftab, Joshua Mares, Thomas J Ryan, Xianzhong Meng, Michael J Weyant, Joseph C Cleveland, David A Fullerton, T Brett Reece
BACKGROUND: Paraplegia remains the most feared complication of complex thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. Although erythropoietin (EPO) has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in spinal cord ischemia, it does not work until expression of the beta common receptor subunit of the EPO receptor (βcR) is induced by ischemia. We hypothesized that the βcR can be induced by diazoxide (DZ), amplifying the neuroprotective effects of EPO in spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: For the DZ time trial, adult male C57/BL6 mice received DZ (20 mg/kg) by oral gavage...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Lin-Zhong Zhu, Ren-Jie Yang, Xu Zhu
Background: Lung metastases have been very common in advanced cancer, which were observed in 30%-40% of cancer cases. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is one of the choice for treating lung cancer. In our center, 119 cases of lung metastases were treated with TACE, and we found that inferior phrenic artery (IPA) played an important role in this procedure. Materials and Methods: From June 2011 to June 2015, 119 cases with malignant lung metastases received TACE procedure in our center...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Clark R Dickerson, Talia Alenabi, Bernard J Martin, Don B Chaffin
This study aimed to compare the activity of four shoulder muscles in individuals with low back pain (LBP), spinal cord injuries (SCI) and a control group, during one-handed load transfer trials. Nine individuals with minimum one-year of LBP, eleven with thoracic/lumbar SCI and nine healthy controls participated in this study. The activations of anterior deltoid, upper trapezius, infraspinatus and pectoralis major were recorded by surface EMG during one-handed transferring of a cylinder from a home shelve to six spatially distributed target shelves...
March 8, 2018: Ergonomics
Jidong Guo, Huadong Wang, Li Li, Yanli Yuan, Xiuxiu Shi, Shuxun Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Interleukin-19 (IL-19) skews the immune response towards a Th2 type and appears to stimulate angiogenesis. In the current study, we tested if IL-19 treatment could reduce secondary injury and improve functional recovery after contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Firstly, mice were given a moderate-severe thoracic SCI at the T9-10 level and expression of IL-19 and its receptor was measured in the injured spinal cord. Then, SCI mice were treated with mouse recombinant IL-19 and its blocking antibody to investigate the therapeutic effect of IL-19...
March 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Christina Mousele, Miltiadis Georgiopoulos, Constantine Constantoyannis
CONTEXT: Syringobulbia is a very rare progressive disorder of central nervous system, with several possible underlying conditions. Rarely, it is also encountered as a late complication of syringomyelia. FINDINGS: In the present manuscript, a case of a paraplegic patient, due to traumatic spinal cord injury (thoracolumbar fracture), presenting after years progressively developing symptoms of the lower cranial nerves and upper extremities, owed to syringomyelia and syringobulbia, the surgical treatment applied and its outcomes are described...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Nicholas T Kouchoukos, Alexander Kulik, Catherine F Castner
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to analyze clinical outcomes, distal segmental aortic growth, and aortic reoperation rates after 1-stage open repair of extensive chronic thoracic aortic dissection via bilateral anterior thoracotomy. METHODS: Eighty patients underwent extensive 1-stage repair of chronic aortic dissection that included the ascending aorta, the entire aortic arch, and the varying lengths of the descending thoracic aorta. One half or more of the descending thoracic aorta was replaced in 62 (78%) of the 80 patients...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Tim Berger, Maximilian Kreibich, Julia Morlock, Stoyan Kondov, Johannes Scheumann, Fabian A Kari, Bartosz Rylski, Matthias Siepe, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Martin Czerny
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate early and mid-term clinical outcomes and to assess the potential of the frozen elephant trunk technique to induce remodelling of downstream aortic segments in acute and chronic thoracic aortic dissections. METHODS: Over a 4-year period, 65 patients (48 men, aged 61 ± 12 years) underwent total aortic arch replacement using the frozen elephant trunk technique for acute (n = 31) and chronic (n = 34) thoracic aortic dissections at our institution...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Alexander B Dru, Paul S Kubilis, Gregory A Murad, Tyler Carney, Daniel J Hoh
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous thoracic ankylosis is a progressive degenerative process that predisposes patients to potentially highly unstable traumatic injuries. Acute hyperextension fractures result in dynamic instability putting the spinal cord at risk. OBJECTIVE: To describe preoperative radiographic characteristics of fractures of the ankylotic thoracic spine and relate findings to early postoperative radiographic and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A single center, retrospective review was performed of 28 surgically treated patients with fractures of the ankylotic thoracic spine...
March 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Jian Ren, Chuan He, Tao Hong, Xiaoyu Li, Yongjie Ma, Jiaxing Yu, Feng Ling, Hongqi Zhang
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE: To confirm the feasibility of using anterior to dorsal root entry zone myelotomy (ADREZotomy), a new surgical approach, for the treatment of ventrolateral deep ISCCMs. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical removal of ventrolateral deep intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations (ISCCMs) is highly risky and remains problematic. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective study exploring the surgical removal of ventrolateral intrinsic ISCCMs using ADREZotomy in 10 patients...
February 16, 2018: Spine
T V Povysheva, Y O Mukhamedshina, A A Rizvanov, Y A Chelyshev
The role of the Rho/ROCK/PTEN signaling pathway in the regulation of astrocyte function for consolidation/stabilization of the synapse has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GFAP-positive astrocytic processes in the ventral horns (VH) of the rat spinal cord has been evaluated in the normal condition and in a delayed period (30 days) after dosed contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in caudal thoracic segments. In intact rats and at 30 days post-injury (dpi), semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that there is approximately 2 folds less synaptophysin reactivity in the motoneuron perikarya than outside the perikarya, i...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Hiroyuki Takahashi, Tomohisa Shoko, Fumino Taketazu, Keiichi Kuriyama, Kazuhide Yoshikawa, Yoshizumi Deguchi
Case: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is becoming the standard therapy for blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI). However, the long-term outcomes of TEVAR for BTAI remain unclear. A 36-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea. He had been involved in a serious traffic accident 6 years earlier, requiring TEVAR for BTAI. Outcome: Acute heart failure and pneumonia were diagnosed on this admission. His respiratory condition improved, but paraplegia developed 10 h after hospitalization...
January 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
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