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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222932/a-fibers-mediate-cold-hyperalgesia-in-patients-with-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathy
#1
Julia Forstenpointner, Violetta C Oberlojer, Dennis Naleschinski, Johanna Höper, Stephanie M Helfert, Andreas Binder, Janne Gierthmühlen, Ralf Baron
Cold hyperalgesia is a common side effect of oxaliplatin treatment; still the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms as well as the contribution of different primary afferent fiber systems are unclear. Therefore, patients with oxaliplatin-induced acute neuropathy with (n=6) and without (n=7) cold hyperalgesia were tested by applying a preferential blockade of peripheral myelinated A-fiber afferents in combination with quantitative sensory testing. Additionally, an interview-based questionnaire assessed the severity of symptoms and the impact on daily activities...
December 9, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222923/co-administration-of-low-dose-naltrexone-and-bupropion-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats
#2
Emily R Nicholson, Julian E Dilley, Janice C Froehlich
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether combining naltrexone (NTX) with bupropion (BUP) is more effective in reducing alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats with a genetic predisposition toward high voluntary alcohol intake than is either drug alone. METHODS: Alcohol-experienced, adult, male, alcohol-preferring (P) rats were fed NTX alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg BW, BUP alone in a dose of 20.0 mg/kg BW, NTX (10.0 mg/kg BW) + BUP (10...
December 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222605/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-cardiovascular-function-novel-insights-and-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
Salvador Sierra, Natasha Luquin, Judith Navarro-Otano
RATIONALE: Cardiovascular disease is now recognized as the number one cause of death in the world, and the size of the population at risk continues to increase rapidly. The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a central role in a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular disorders. Cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, as well as enzymes conferring their synthesis and degradation, exhibit overlapping distributions in the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, the pharmacological manipulation of the eCB system has effects on blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and endothelial vasomotor control...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222580/-use-of-antibiotics-in-bones-prophylaxis-and-current-treatment-standards
#4
REVIEW
L Frommelt
BACKGROUND: Treatment of bone infection is difficult due the systemic administration of antibiotics, which means that only low concentrations reach the inflamed bone tissue. Loss of bone stock is common in osteomyelitis and device associated infection. Local antibiotics are administered in several ways for prophylactic purposes and also for treatment of bone infection. We intend to show the options and limitations of clinical use of antibiotic-loaded bone grafts. SUITABILITY: Bone grafts are a suitable carrier system for antibiotics...
December 8, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222306/therapy-of-primary-cns-lymphoma-role-of-intensity-radiation-and-novel-agents
#5
REVIEW
Andrés José María Ferreri
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, an aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumor burden and histological type. Despite the high sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remissions are frequently short lasting. Treatment efficacy is limited by several factors, including the biology and microenvironment of this malignancy and the "protective" effect of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the access of most drugs to the CNS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222042/antiangiogenic-compounds-well-established-drugs-versus-emerging-natural-molecules
#6
Andreia Ribeiro, Rui M V Abreu, Madalena M Dias, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Angiogenesis is the natural and physiologic process of growing blood vessels from pre-existing ones. Pathological angiogenesis occurs when the precise balance of all the molecular pathways that regulate angiogenesis is disrupted, and this process is a critical step in many diseases, including cancer. A limited number of antiangiogenic synthetic drugs have been developed. However, due to toxicity and side effects issues, the search for alternative to existing drugs is ongoing. In this sense, natural molecules obtained from plants or macrofungi, have demonstrated extraordinary potential in the treatment of angiogenesis-related pathologies, specially taking into consideration its absence or very low toxicity, when compared to synthetic drugs...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221992/active-mediated-transport-of-chloramphenicol-and-thiamphenicol-in-a-calu-3-lung-epithelial-cell-model
#7
S N Nurbaeti, J C Olivier, C Adier, S Marchand, W Couet, J Brillault
Pulmonary administration enables high local concentrations along with limited systemic side-effects, but not all ATB could be good candidates. In this perspective, diffusion of the ATB chloramphenicol (CHL) and thiamphenicol (THA) through the lung has been evaluated to re-assess their potential for pulmonary administration. The apparent permeability (Papp) was evaluated with the Calu-3 cell model. Influence of drug transporters was assessed with the PSC-833, MK-571, and KO-143 inhibitors. The influence of CHL and THA on the cell uptake of rhodamin123 and fluorescein was also evaluated...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221951/role-of-drugs-in-the-prevention-and-amelioration-of-radiation-induced-toxic-effects
#8
REVIEW
Rakesh Raman Patyar, Sazal Patyar
As the use of radiation technology for nuclear warfare or for the benefits of mankind (e.g. in radiotherapy or radio-diagnosis) is increasing tremendously, the risk of associated side effects is becoming a cause of concern. These effects, ranging from nausea/vomiting to death, may result from accidental or deliberate exposure and begin in seconds. Through this review paper, efforts have been done to critically review different compounds which have been investigated as radioprotectors and radiation mitigators...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221946/-facing-a-dilemma-in-elderly-complex-and-vulnerable-patients-to-stop-or-not-to-stop-prevention
#9
Laura Llobet Vila, Josep Maria Manresa Domínguez, José Manuel Carmona Segado, Alícia Franzi Sisó, Rosa Vallès Balasch, Isabel Martínez Díaz
OBJECTIVES: 1-To know the preventive prescription (statin, antiplatelet drugs, bisphosphonates, calcium and vitamin D and Vit B12) of elderly patients previously identified as a CCD (with a complex chronic disease) and ACD (with advanced chronic disease and lifetime expectancy of less than 12 months) who died during 2015. 2-To assess the correct indication of Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) to determine potentially avoidable medication. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study...
December 5, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221500/analysis-of-naturally-occurring-resistance-associated-variants-to-ns3-4a-protein-inhibitors-ns5a-protein-inhibitors-and-ns5b-polymerase-inhibitors-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#10
Danhui Sun, Mingjia Dai, Shanshan Shen, Chunyang Li, Xuebing Yan
The first NS3/4A hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir were approved in 2011,and both NS5A and NS5B polymerase inhibitors were launched. Recently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have had a major impact on patients infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV DAAs are highly effective antivirals with fewer side effects. DAAs have been developed for treatment of HCV infection in combination with PEG-IFNα/RBV as well as in IFN-free regimens. However, some drug resistance mutations occur when a single oral DAA is used for treatment, which indicates that there is a low-frequency drug resistance mutation in HCV patients before the application of antiviral drugsOur research showed that natural resistance to HCV DAAs was found in treatment-naïve CHC patients and that the drug resistance mutation rates differ in various HCV genotypes...
December 8, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220369/can-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-be-eliminated-without-addressing-the-issue-of-stigma-modeling-the-case-for-a-setting-in-south-africa
#11
Holly J Prudden, Matthew Hamilton, Anna M Foss, Nicole Dzialowy Adams, Melissa Stockton, Vivian Black, Laura Nyblade
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination ontinue to undermine the effectiveness of the HIV response. Despite a growing body of evidence of the negative relationship between stigma and HIV outcomes, there is a paucity of data available on the prevalence of stigma and its impact. We present a probabilistic cascade model to estimate the magnitude of impact stigma has on mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). METHODS: The model was parameterized using 2010 data from Johannesburg, South Africa, from which loss-to-care at each stage of the antenatal cascade were available...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220339/to-flavor-or-not-to-flavor-extemporaneous-omeprazole-liquid
#12
Monica C Chuong, Catherine A Taglieri, Stephen G Kerr
Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used to treat the symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease, ulcers, excess stomach acid, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and to control the gastric side effects of various drugs. The approved dosage forms in the U.S. are powder in compounding kits, delayed-release granules for oral suspension, oral delayed-release tablets, and oral delayed-release capsules. An extemporaneously compounded unsweetened oral liquid method, published in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, was found to be commonly used by pharmacists...
November 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220110/non-responsiveness-and-susceptibility-of-opioids-side-effects-related-to-cancer-patients-clinical-characteristics-a-post-hoc-analysis
#13
Oscar Corli, Anna Roberto, Michael I Bennett, Francesca Galli, Nicole Corsi, Eliana Rulli, Raffaella Antonione
BACKGROUND: Response to opioids is not always positive in cancer patients. A considerable proportion of patients do not respond (non-responders, NRs) or experience severe toxicity. The aim of this analysis was to assess the role of demographic characteristics, pain features, comorbidities and ongoing therapy on the lack of efficacy and on the occurrence of severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial that involved 520 patients and was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of four strong opioids...
December 8, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219892/toxicity-of-vincristine-combined-with-posaconazole-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Esra Pekpak, Talia İleri, Elif İnce, Mehmet Ertem, Zümrüt Uysal
BACKGROUND: Vincristine (VCR) is one of the main drugs of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Azole antifungal medications are used for treatment or prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in acute leukemia. Coadministration of these drugs increases the risk of VCR toxicity. OBSERVATIONS: We presented a girl with ALL using posaconazole prophylaxis. She developed VCR toxicity that included tubulopathy, high blood pressure, neuropathic pain, difficulty walking, diffuse muscular weakness, constipation, abdominal pain...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219056/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-guar-gum-eudragit%C3%A2-s100-based-colon-targeted-spheroids-of-sulfasalazine-co-administered-with-probiotics
#15
Abhinav Sharma, Bimlesh Kumar, Sachin Kumar Singh, Monica Gulati, Yogyata Vaidya, Manik Sadotra, Harish Rathee, Deepak Ghai, Adil Hussain Malik, Ankit Kumar Yadav, Peddi Maharshi, Palak Bawa, Sarvi Yadav Rajesh, Parth Sharma, Narendra Kumar Pandey, Souvik Mohant
Polysaccharide based delivery systems have been successfully used to target drugs to colon. In some recent reports, the superiority of concomitant administration of probiotics with such systems has been established. However, the pharmacokinetics of such symbiotic therapy remain unexplored hitherto. This study deciphers the pharmacokinetic parameters of guar gum based colon targeted spheroids of sulfasalazine with co-administration of probiotics in experimental rats. Thirty rats were divided into five groups using Latin square design...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218702/deep-brain-stimulation-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Michael C H Li, Mark J Cook
OBJECTIVES: To review clinical evidence on the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for drug-resistant epilepsy, its safety, and the factors influencing individual outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the medical literature (PubMed, Medline) was conducted to identify relevant articles investigating DBS therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Reference lists of these articles were used to source further articles. RESULTS: Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and hippocampus (HC) has been shown to decrease the frequency of refractory seizures...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218451/the-trajectory-from-mood-to-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Judith Wurtman, Richard Wurtman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe and explain the relationships between mood disturbances and the development of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: That depression, anxiety, PTSD, or severe stresses can promote obesity as a side-effect of the drugs used to treat them, or through "carbohydrate craving" to enhance brain serotonin synthesis and alleviate dysphoria by consuming foods that are rich in both carbohydrates and fats. That seasonal affective disorder and severe PMS can independently cause patients to overconsume foods rich in both carbohydrates and fats...
December 7, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218248/propafenone-suppresses-esophageal-cancer-proliferation-through-inducing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#19
Wei-Bin Zheng, Yang-Jia Li, Yang Wang, Jie Yang, Can-Can Zheng, Xiao-Hui Huang, Bin Li, Qing-Yu He
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with poor survival and limited therapeutic options. The aim of this study is to identify novel anticancer strategies from existing Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs that have been used to clinically treat other diseases. Here, propafenone, an antiarrhythmic medication, was found to induce apoptosis and exert a significantly inhibitory effect on the proliferation and colony-forming ability of ESCC cells in a dose-dependent manner without observed cytotoxicity on normal esophageal epithelial cells...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218016/synergistic-anti-arrhythmic-effects-in-human-atria-with-combined-use-of-sodium-blockers-and-acacetin
#20
Haibo Ni, Dominic G Whittaker, Wei Wang, Wayne R Giles, Sanjiv M Narayan, Henggui Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Developing effective and safe anti-AF drugs remains an unmet challenge. Simultaneous block of both atrial-specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium (K+) current (IKur) and the Na+ current (INa) has been hypothesized to be anti-AF, without inducing significant QT prolongation and ventricular side effects. However, the antiarrhythmic advantage of simultaneously blocking these two channels vs. individual block in the setting of AF-induced electrical remodeling remains to be documented...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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