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Lan Jiang, Qingqing Wang, Jue Yu, Vinita Gowda, Gabriel Johnson, Jianke Yang, Xianzhao Kan, Xiaojun Yang
The budgerigar ( Melopsittacus undulatus ) is one of the most widely studied parrot species, serving as an excellent animal model for behavior and neuroscience research. Until recently, it was unknown how sexual differences in the behavior, physiology, and development of organisms are regulated by differential gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short non-coding RNA molecules that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play a critical role in gonadal differentiation as well as early development of animals...
2018: PeerJ
Yan-Yuan Wu, Yi-Ran Xing, Duo-Nan Yu
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for approximately 30% of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. The underlying molecular mechanism of its pathogenesis is not well defined and the survival rate of DLBCL patients is very low. Moreover, the annual incidence and mortality of DLBCL is still rising. Accordingly, identification and characterization of new molecular pathways of DLBCL will lead to the development of novel diagnostic markers and molecular therapeutic targets. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNA) are non-coding RNAs with a length greater than 200 bp in eukaryotic cells, which can regulate the expression of their target genes at the transcriptional and post transcriptional levels...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Linlin Xue, Li Xie, Xingguo Song, Xianrang Song
BACKGROUND: Platelets have emerged as key players in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Tumor-educated platelet (TEP) RNA profile has the potential to diagnose non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study was to identify potential TEP RNA biomarkers for the diagnosis of NSCLC and to explore the mechanisms in alternations of TEP RNA profile. METHODS: The RNA-seq datasets GSE68086 and GSE89843 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets (GEO DataSets)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Hui Xu, Jie-Hua He, Shi-Jun Xu, Shu-Juan Xie, Li-Ming Ma, Yin Zhang, Hui Zhou, Liang-Hu Qu
Cut-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) is a highly conserved homeoprotein that functions as a transcriptional repressor of genes specifying terminal differentiation. We previously showed that liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) regulates the timing of liver development by silencing CUX1 post-transcriptionally. Since the CUX1 protein is expressed in a subset of embryonic tissues, we hypothesized that it is regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in each cell type during development. Using a large-scale screening method, we identified ten tissue-specific miRNAs from different cell lineages that directly targeted CUX1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Zhangyi Ouyang, Feng Liu, Chenghui Zhao, Chao Ren, Gaole An, Chuan Mei, Xiaochen Bo, Wenjie Shu
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional RNA sequence alteration. Current methods have identified editing sites and facilitated research but require sufficient genomic annotations and prior-knowledge-based filtering steps, resulting in a cumbersome, time-consuming identification process. Moreover, these methods have limited generalizability and applicability in species with insufficient genomic annotations or in conditions of limited prior knowledge. We developed DeepRed, a deep learning-based method that identifies RNA editing from primitive RNA sequences without prior-knowledge-based filtering steps or genomic annotations...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinpin Li, Di Qiu, Zezhi Chen, Weiwei Du, Jingli Liu, Xuean Mo
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a B cell-mediated and T cell-dependent autoimmune disease. Thymic hyperplasia has great significance for MG pathogenesis and treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly recognized type of gene expression regulatory factor that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Additionally, miRNAs are involved in immune regulation of the thymus and the occurrence and development of autoimmune diseases. In this study, we found 33 miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated in thymic tissues from MG patients with thymus hyperplasia (MGH) compared with thymic tissues from normal controls using a miRNA microarray chip...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Ling Cao, Yulin Liu, Dan Wang, Lan Huang, Feng Li, Jinbo Liu, Chaoqi Zhang, Zhibo Shen, Qun Gao, Weitang Yuan, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) often function as negative post-transcriptional regulators with altered expression levels found in colorectal cancer (CRC). There have been few studies on miRNAs that regulate the oncogenic alterations in CRC. Here, we aim to explore the anti-cancer miRNA and the potential mechanisms by which miRNAs modulate CRC progression. METHODS: We performed an integrated analysis of CRC miRNA expression datasets in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Charles Hesser, John Karijolich, Dan Dominissini, Chuan He, Britt A Glaunsinger
Methylation at the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) is a highly prevalent and reversible modification within eukaryotic mRNAs that has been linked to many stages of RNA processing and fate. Recent studies suggest that m6A deposition and proteins involved in the m6A pathway play a diverse set of roles in either restricting or modulating the lifecycles of select viruses. Here, we report that m6A levels are significantly increased in cells infected with the oncogenic human DNA virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Keke Zhang, Fei Yan, Xiaoying Lei, Di Wei, Huanyu Lu, Zheng Zhu, An Xiang, Zichen Ye, Li Wang, Wanxiang Zheng, Xi'an Li, Jiarui Yuan, Zifan Lu, Jianlin Yuan
The androgen receptor (AR) has a crucial role in prostate cancer. RNA‑binding protein‑mediated post‑transcriptional regulation is important in the initiation and development of cancer. The present study attempted to elucidate the mutual association of AR and RNA‑binding protein quaking (QKI) in the development of prostate cancer. Dual‑luciferase reporter demonstrated that AR can positively regulate the expression of QKI in prostate cancer cell lines due to its effective transcription regulating function...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Amanda Salviano-Silva, Sara Cristina Lobo-Alves, Rodrigo Coutinho de Almeida, Danielle Malheiros, Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler
A significant proportion of mammalian genomes corresponds to genes that transcribe long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Throughout the last decade, the number of studies concerning the roles played by lncRNAs in different biological processes has increased considerably. This intense interest in lncRNAs has produced a major shift in our understanding of gene and genome regulation and structure. It became apparent that lncRNAs regulate gene expression through several mechanisms. These RNAs function as transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulators through binding to histone-modifying complexes, to DNA, to transcription factors and other DNA binding proteins, to RNA polymerase II, to mRNA, or through the modulation of microRNA or enzyme function...
January 30, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
Federico Martinelli, Gina Cannarozzi, Bipin Balan, Fredy Siegrist, Annett Weichert, Regula Blösch, Zerihun Tadele
Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter], a staple food crop in the Horn of Africa and particularly in Ethiopia, has several beneficial agronomical and nutritional properties, including waterlogging and drought tolerance. In this study, we performed microRNA profiling of tef using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, analyzing both shoots and roots of two tef genotypes, one drought-tolerant (Tsedey) and one drought-susceptible (Alba). We obtained more than 10 million filtered reads for each of the 24 sequenced small cDNA libraries...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Pruthvi Raj Bejugam, Shailza Singh
Post-transcriptional gene regulation is a vital process to regulate expression of the key genes in the eukaryotic cell. Such processes are essential for pathogens which reside inside the host cell. One such pathogen is Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis. The parasite lives inside the macrophages of mammalian host (mostly human). Inside the macrophage, Leishmania genes show complex host-pathogen interaction regulating a plethora of gene expression. Till date, most of the studies have shown this kind of regulation with respect to the host macrophages...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mélanie A Cron, Solène Maillard, Fabien Delisle, Nolwenn Samson, Frédérique Truffault, Maria Foti, Elie Fadel, Julien Guihaire, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse
In early-onset Myasthenia Gravis (MG) with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymic abnormalities associated with ectopic germinal centers are frequent. miRNAs by acting as post-transcriptional regulators are involved in autoimmunity. To investigate the implication of miRNAs in thymic changes associated with early-onset MG, we performed a miRnome study and data were analyzed with different approaches. miRNAs of interest were further investigated by RT-PCR and transfection experiments for functional tests...
April 12, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Pearl V Ryder, Dorothy A Lerit
At the nexus of specialized cellular responses are localized enrichments of protein activity. The localization of messenger RNA (mRNA) coupled with translational control often plays a crucial role in the generation of protein concentrations at defined subcellular domains. Although mRNA localization is classically associated with large specialized cells, such as neurons and embryos, RNA localization is a highly conserved paradigm of post-transcriptional regulation observed in diverse cellular contexts. Functions of localized mRNAs extend far beyond the well-studied examples of neuronal polarization and developmental patterning...
April 13, 2018: Traffic
Li Zhang, Lei Yao, Ning Zhang, Jiangwei Yang, Xi Zhu, Xun Tang, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea, Huaijun Si
The NAC designation is derived from petunia ( Petunia hybrida ) gene NO APICAL MERISTEM ( NAM ) and Arabidopsis genes ATAF1/ATAF2 and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 ( CUC2 ), which belongs to the family of plant-specific transcription factors (TFs), and plays important role in plant development processes, such as response to biotic and abiotic stress, and hormone signaling. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding endogenous RNAs which play versatile and significant role in plant stress response and development via negatively affecting gene expression at a post-transcriptional level...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Naveed Sabir, Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Antonio Peramo, Deming Zhao, Xiangmei Zhou
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most fatal infectious diseases and a leading cause of mortality, with 95% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), has a well-established ability to circumvent the host's immune system for its intracellular survival. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs having an important function at the post-transcriptional level and are involved in shaping immunity by regulating the repertoire of genes expressed in immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kensuke Toyama, Joshua M Spin, Alicia C Deng, Ting-Ting Huang, Ke Wei, Markus U Wagenhäuser, Takuya Yoshino, Huy Nguyen, Joscha Mulorz, Soumajit Kundu, Uwe Raaz, Matti Adam, Isabel N Schellinger, Ann Jagger, Philip S Tsao
OBJECTIVE: There are currently no effective treatments for the prevention of dementia associated with vascular cognitive impairment. MicroRNAs regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play key roles in vascular disorders. TNFα (tumor necrosis factor-α) regulates blood-brain barrier breakdown through modification of cerebral tight junctions. Here, we sought key TNFα-responsive microRNAs that might influence blood-brain barrier breakdown via cerebral tight junction disruption in vascular cognitive impairment...
April 12, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Joel S Parker, Ivana V Yang, Samir N P Kelada
Differential gene expression in the airway epithelium of asthmatics vs. controls has been reported in several studies. However, there is no consensus on which genes are reproducibly affected in asthma. We sought to identify a consensus list of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using a meta-analysis approach.We identified eight studies with data that met defined inclusion criteria. In total, these studies were comprised of 355 cases and 193 controls and involved sampling of either bronchial or nasal epithelium...
April 12, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Ana B Arroyo, Ascensión M de Los Reyes-García, Raúl Teruel-Montoya, Vicente Vicente, Rocío González-Conejero, Constantino Martínez
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. In the last few years, these molecules have been implicated in the regulation of haemostasis, and an increasing number of studies have investigated their relationship with the development of thrombosis. In this review, we discuss the latest developments regarding the role of miRNAs in the regulation of platelet function and secondary haemostasis. We also discuss the genetic and environmental factors that regulate miRNAs...
April 6, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Eleonora Leucci
Cancer research has been focusing so far on genetic alterations in protein-coding genes. However, mounting evidence underlines the importance of epigenetic and post-transcriptional events in cancer progression and therapy resistance. Moreover, recent genome-wide studies show that disease-causing mutations and chromosome rearrangements often span areas of the genome that do not contain any known protein-coding gene. This finding is not surprising, considering that even though the vast majority of the human genome is transcribed, only a minor portion (accounting for less than 2%) encodes for proteins...
April 9, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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