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Dayna Mason, Xiaoying Zhang, Tânia Monteiro Marques, Barbara Rose, Samantha Khoury, Meredith Hill, Fiona Deutsch, J Guy Lyons, Margarida Gama-Carvalho, Nham Tran
Human papillomavirus (HPV), notably type 16, is a risk factor for up to 75% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). It has been demonstrated that small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs play a vital role in the cellular transformation process. In this study, we used an LNA array to further investigate the impact of HPV16 on the expression of microRNAs in oropharyngeal (tonsillar) cancer. A number of miRNAs were found to be deregulated, with miR-496 showing a four-fold decrease. Over-expression of the high risk E6 oncoprotein down-regulated miR-496, impacting upon the post-transcriptional control of the transcription factor E2F2...
June 20, 2018: Virology
Carina Immer, Carolin Hacker, Jens Wöhnert
Regulation of gene expression on a post-transcriptional level by small non-coding regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) is very common in bacteria. sRNAs base pair with sequences in their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and thereby regulate translation initiation or mRNA stability. Specialized RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) facilitate these regulatory sRNA/mRNA interactions by acting as RNA chaperones. A well-known example for such an RNA chaperone which is widespread in bacteria is the Hfq protein. Recently, the ProQ/FinO protein family was identified as a new class of RNA chaperones involved in sRNA based regulation...
June 22, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Zhen Wang, Lionel Ballut, Isabelle Barbosa, Hervé Le Hir
The exon junction complex (EJC) deposited on spliced mRNAs, plays a central role in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and specific gene expression. The EJC core complex is associated with multiple peripheral factors involved in various post-splicing events. Here, using recombinant complex reconstitution and transcriptome-wide analysis, we showed that the EJC peripheral protein complexes ASAP and PSAP form distinct complexes with the EJC core and can confer to EJCs distinct alternative splicing regulatory activities...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kritarth Singh, Lakshmi Sripada, AnastasiaLipatova, Milton Roy, Paresh Prajapati, Dhruv Gohil, Khyati Bhatelia, Peter M Chumakov, Rajesh Singh
The role of mitochondria is emerging in regulation of innate immunity, inflammation and cell death beyond its primary role in energy metabolism. Mitochondria act as molecular platform for immune adaptor protein complexes, which participate in innate immune signaling. The mitochondrial localized immune adaptors are widely expressed in non-immune cells, however their role in regulation of mitochondrial function and metabolic adaption is not well understood. NLRX1, a member of NOD family receptor proteins, localizes to mitochondria and is a negative regulator of anti-viral signaling...
June 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Renqiang Yuan, Xumeng Zhang, Ying Fang, Yaping Nie, Shufang Cai, Yaosheng Chen, Delin Mo
MicroRNAs are a class of highly conserved ∼20 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Many miRNAs were studied in the development of skeletal muscle, such as miR-1, miR-206, and miR-133. In our previous study, miR-127-3p was found highly expressed in porcine fetal skeletal muscle, whereas the detailed functions of miR-127-3p in muscle development is still unclear. In this study, we detected that miR-127-3p also highly expressed in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle of adult mice and proliferative C2C12 cell lines...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ahmed A Moustafa, Hogyoung Kim, Rasha S Albeltagy, Ola H El-Habit, Asim B Abdel-Mageed
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a small functional non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression. miRNAs are key regulatory components of various cellular networks. Current evidence support that multiple mammalian genome-encoded miRNAs impact the cellular biology, including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and tumorigenesis, by targeting specific subsets of mRNAs. This minireview is focused on the current themes underlying the interactions between miRNAs and their mRNA targets and pathways in prostate tumorigenesis and progression, and their potential clinical utility as biomarkers for prostate cancer...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Maria I Patrício, Alun R Barnard, Kanmin Xue, Robert E MacLaren
INTRODUCTION: Choroideremia is an X-linked inherited retinal degeneration that causes blindness in afflicted males by middle age. The causative gene, CHM, plays a key role in intracellular trafficking pathways, and its disruption impairs cell homeostasis. Areas covered: The mechanism by which mutations in CHM cause choroideremia is still under debate. Here we describe the molecular defects in choroideremia cells regarding both the deficiency of prenylation and the involvement of Rab GTPases...
June 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Anupam Kumar, Subhashree Nayak, Pankaj Pathak, Suvendu Purkait, Prit Benny Malgulawar, Mehar Chand Sharma, Vaishali Suri, Arijit Mukhopadhyay, Ashish Suri, Chitra Sarkar
INTRODUCTION: Although role of individual microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of gliomas has been well studied, their role as a clustered remains unexplored in gliomas. METHODS: In this study, we performed the expression analysis of miR-379/miR-656 miRNA-cluster (C14MC) in oligodendrogliomas (ODGs) and also investigated the mechanism underlying modulation of this cluster. RESULTS: We identified significant downregulation of majority of the miRNAs from this cluster in ODGs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yang Lan, Xuewei Xiao, Zhengchi He, Yu Luo, Chuanfang Wu, Ling Li, Xu Song
Overexpressed in colon carcinoma-1 (OCC-1) is one of the earliest annotated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, its function remains largely unknown. Here, we revealed that OCC-1 plays a tumor suppressive role in CRC. OCC-1 knockdown by RNA interference promotes cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, which is largely due to its ability to inhibit G0 to G1 and G1 to S phase cell cycle transitions. In addition, overexpression of OCC-1 can suppress cell growth in OCC-1 knockdown cells...
June 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jin Li, Su-Ping Deng, Jacob Vieira, James Thomas, Valerio Costa, Ching-San Tseng, Franjo Ivankovic, Alfredo Ciccodicola, Peng Yu
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) may play a critical role in gene regulation in various diseases or biological processes by controlling post-transcriptional events such as polyadenylation, splicing and mRNA stabilization via binding activities to RNA molecules. Owing to the importance of RBPs in gene regulation, a great number of studies have been conducted, resulting in a large amount of RNA-Seq datasets. However, these datasets usually do not have structured organization of metadata, which limits their potentially wide use...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Timothy Tapscott, Ju-Sim Kim, Matthew A Crawford, Liam Fitzsimmons, Lin Liu, Jessica Jones-Carson, Andrés Vázquez-Torres
The repressive activity of ancestral histone-like proteins helps integrate transcription of foreign genes with discrepant AT content into existing regulatory networks. Our investigations indicate that the AT-rich discriminator region located between the -10 promoter element and the transcription start site of the regulatory gene ssrA plays a distinct role in the balanced expression of the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI2) type III secretion system. The RNA polymerase-binding protein DksA activates the ssrAB regulon post-transcriptionally, whereas the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) relieves the negative regulation imposed by the AT-rich ssrA discriminator region...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xinbo Zhang, Nathan L Price, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world, begins with lipid accumulation in the arterial wall, which is the initial step in atherogenesis. Alterations in lipid metabolism result in increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders, and treatment of lipid disorders remains the most common strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of CVD. Work done over the past decade has identified numerous classes of non-coding RNA molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as critical regulators of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and CVD, mostly acting at post-transcriptional level...
June 18, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Joseph R Iacona, Nicholas J Monteleone, Carol S Lutz
Arachidonic acid (AA) can be converted into prostaglandins (PGs) or leukotrienes (LTs) by the enzymatic actions of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), respectively. PGs and LTs are lipid signaling molecules that have been implicated in various diseases, including multiple cancers. 5-LO and its activating protein (FLAP) work together in the first two conversion steps of LT production. Previous work has suggested a role for LTs in cancer development and progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, and have previously been shown to be involved in cancer...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Antti P Aalto, Ian A Nicastro, James P Broughton, Laura B Chipman, William P Schreiner, Jerry S Chen, Amy E Pasquinelli
Argonaute (AGO) proteins partner with microRNAs (miRNAs) to target specific genes for post-transcriptional regulation. During larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans, Argonaute-Like Gene 1 (ALG-1) is the primary mediator of the miRNA pathway, while the related ALG-2 protein is largely dispensable. Here we show that in adult C. elegans these AGOs are differentially expressed and, surprisingly, work in opposition to each other; alg-1 promotes longevity, whereas alg-2 restricts lifespan. Transcriptional profiling of adult animals revealed that distinct miRNAs and largely non-overlapping sets of protein-coding genes are misregulated in alg-1 and alg-2 mutants...
June 2018: PLoS Genetics
Tania Islam, Rezanur Rahman, Esra Gov, Beste Turanli, Gizem Gulfidan, Anwarul Haque, Kazım Yalçın Arga, Nurul Haque Mollah
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, but robust biomarkers and diagnostics are still not available. This study provides in-depth insights from systems biology analyses to identify molecular biomarker signatures to inform systematic drug targeting in HNSCC. Gene expression profiles from tumors and normal tissues of 22 patients with histological confirmation of nonmetastatic HNSCC were subjected to integrative analyses with genome-scale biomolecular networks (i...
June 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Alex Manicardi, Roberto Gambari, Luisa de Cola, Roberto Corradini
Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs) are oligonucleotide mimics that can be used to block the biological action of microRNA, thus affecting gene expression post-transcriptionally. PNAs are obtained with solid-phase peptide synthesis, and can be easily conjugated to other peptides. Conjugation with R8-Peptide or modification of the PNA backbone (at C5 or C2 carbon) with arginine side chains allows efficient cellular uptake. The present protocol describes the synthesis of cationic PNAs that can be used alone as drugs or for efficient co-delivery in suitable inorganic nanocarriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gillian Elliott, Kathleen Pheasant, Katja Ebert-Keel, Julianna Stylianou, Ashley Franklyn, Juliet Jones
The HSV1 virion host shutoff (vhs) protein is an endoribonuclease that binds to the cellular translation initiation machinery and degrades associated mRNAs, resulting in shut-off of host protein synthesis. Hence its unrestrained activity is considered to be lethal, and it has been proposed that vhs is regulated by two other virus proteins, VP22 and VP16. We have found that during infection, translation of vhs requires VP22 but not the VP22-VP16 complex. Moreover, in the absence of VP22, vhs is not overactive against cellular or viral transcripts...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Hangxiao Zhang, Huihui Wang, Qiang Zhu, Yubang Gao, Huiyuan Wang, Liangzhen Zhao, Yongsheng Wang, Feihu Xi, Wenfei Wang, Yanqiu Yang, Chentao Lin, Lianfeng Gu
BACKGROUND: Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a well-known bamboo species of high economic value in the textile industry due to its rapid growth. Phytohormones, which are master regulators of growth and development, serve as important endogenous signals. However, the mechanisms through which phytohormones regulate growth in moso bamboo remain unknown to date. RESULTS: Here, we reported that exogenous gibberellins (GA) applications resulted in a significantly increased internode length and lignin condensation...
June 20, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jongmin Sim, Yeseul Kim, Hyunsung Kim, Su-Jin Shin, Dong-Hoon Kim, Seung Sam Paik, Kiseok Jang
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. Postoperative relapse and subsequent metastasis result in a high mortality rate, even in early stage lung cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are frequently dysregulated in various cancers. The aim of this study was to identify recurrence-associated miRNAs in early stage lung cancer. To screen for differentially expressed miRNAs related to postoperative recurrence, miRNA microarray data derived from stage I lung adenocarcinoma formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (n = 6) and publically available the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data were analyzed...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elena Guzzolino, Elena Chiavacci, Neha Ahuja, Laura Mariani, Monica Evangelista, Chiara Ippolito, Milena Rizzo, Deborah Garrity, Federico Cremisi, Letizia Pitto
Sphingosine-1-phosphate is a bioactive lipid and a signaling molecule integrated into many physiological systems such as differentiation, proliferation and migration. In mammals S1P acts through binding to a family of five trans-membrane, G-protein coupled receptors (S1PRs) whose complex role has not been completely elucidated. In this study we use zebrafish, in which seven s1prs have been identified, to investigate the role of s1pr1 . In mammals S1PR1 is the most highly expressed S1P receptor in the developing heart and regulates vascular development, but in zebrafish the data concerning its role are contradictory...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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