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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431495/iron-regulated-small-rna-expression-as-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-fa-1090-transitions-into-stationary-phase-growth
#1
Lydgia A Jackson, Michael Day, Jennie Allen, Edgar Scott, David W Dyer
BACKGROUND: For most pathogens, iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial for maintenance within the host and the ability to cause disease. The primary transcriptional regulator that controls intracellular Fe levels is the Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein, which exerts its action on transcription by binding to a promoter-proximal sequence termed the Fur box. Fur-regulated transcriptional responses are often fine-tuned at the post-transcriptional level through the action of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs)...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430625/mir-766-induces-p53-accumulation-and-g2-m-arrest-by-directly-targeting-mdm4
#2
Qingqing Wang, Luke A Selth, David F Callen
p53, a transcription factor that participates in multiple cellular functions, is considered the most important tumor suppressor. Previous evidence suggests that post-transcriptional deregulation of p53 by microRNAs contributes to tumorigenesis, tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. In the present study, we found that the microRNA miR-766 was aberrantly expressed in breast cancer, and that over-expression of miR-766 caused accumulation of wild-type p53 protein in multiple cancer cell lines. Supporting its role in the p53 signalling pathway, miR-766 decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in several cancer cell lines, and cell cycle analyses revealed that miR-766 causes G2 arrest...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428746/expression-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-dao-daao-and-d-amino-acid-oxidase-activator-daoa-g72-during-development-and-aging-in-the-human-post-mortem-brain
#3
Vinita Jagannath, Zoya Marinova, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
In the brain, D-amino acid oxidase (DAO/DAAO) mainly oxidizes D-serine, a co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Thus, DAO can regulate the function of NMDA receptors via D-serine breakdown. Furthermore, DAO activator (DAOA)/G72 has been reported as both DAOA and repressor. The co-expression of DAO and DAOA genes and proteins in the human brain is not yet elucidated. The aim of this study was to understand the regional and age span distribution of DAO and DAOA (mRNA and protein) in a concomitant manner...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428217/microrna-33-regulates-macrophage-autophagy-in-atherosclerosis
#4
Mireille Ouimet, Hasini Ediriweera, Milessa Silva Afonso, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Ragunath Singaravelu, Xianghai Liao, Rachel C Bandler, Karishma Rahman, Edward A Fisher, Katey J Rayner, John P Pezacki, Ira Tabas, Kathryn J Moore
OBJECTIVE: Defective autophagy in macrophages leads to pathological processes that contribute to atherosclerosis, including impaired cholesterol metabolism and defective efferocytosis. Autophagy promotes the degradation of cytoplasmic components in lysosomes and plays a key role in the catabolism of stored lipids to maintain cellular homeostasis. microRNA-33 (miR-33) is a post-transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, yet the complete mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428011/cftr-dependent-defect-in-alternatively-activated-macrophages-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Abdullah A Tarique, Peter D Sly, Patrick G Holt, Anthony Bosco, Robert S Ware, Jayden Logan, Scott C Bell, Claire E Wainwright, Emmanuelle Fantino
BACKGROUND: The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427151/fine-tuning-of-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-activity-by-post-transcriptional-and-post-translational-modifications
#6
REVIEW
Ondrej Zenata, Radim Vrzal
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Activated VDR is responsible for maintaining calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and is required for proper cellular growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis. The expression of both phases I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes is also regulated by VDR, therefore it is clinically important.Post-translational modifications of NRs have been known as an important mechanism modulating the activity of NRs and their ability to drive the expression of target genes...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426097/landscape-of-rna-polyadenylation-in-e-coli
#7
Alexandre Maes, Céline Gracia, Nicolas Innocenti, Kaiyang Zhang, Erik Aurell, Eliane Hajnsdorf
Polyadenylation is thought to be involved in the degradation and quality control of bacterial RNAs but relatively few examples have been investigated. We used a combination of 5΄-tagRACE and RNA-seq to analyze the total RNA content from a wild-type strain and from a poly(A)polymerase deleted mutant. A total of 178 transcripts were either up- or down-regulated in the mutant when compared to the wild-type strain. Poly(A)polymerase up-regulates the expression of all genes related to the FliA regulon and several previously unknown transcripts, including numerous transporters...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424730/melatonin-improves-waterlogging-tolerance-of-malus-baccata-linn-borkh-seedlings-by-maintaining-aerobic-respiration-photosynthesis-and-ros-migration
#8
Xiaodong Zheng, Jingzhe Zhou, Dun-Xian Tan, Na Wang, Lin Wang, Dongqian Shan, Jin Kong
Waterlogging, one of the notorious abiotic stressors, retards the growth of apple plants and reduces their production. Thus, it is an urgent agenda for scientists to identify the suitable remedies for this problem. In the current study, we found that melatonin significantly improved the tolerance of apple seedlings against waterlogging stress. This was indicated by the reduced chlorosis and wilting of the seedlings after melatonin applications either by leaf spray or root irrigation. The mechanisms involve in that melatonin functions to maintain aerobic respiration, preserves photosynthesis and reduces oxidative damage of the plants which are under waterlogging stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424580/the-role-of-microrna-in-the-modulation-of-the-melanocortinergic-system
#9
REVIEW
Adel Derghal, Mehdi Djelloul, Jérôme Trouslard, Lourdes Mounien
The central control of energy balance involves a highly regulated neuronal network within the hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex. In these structures, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are known to reduce meal size and to increase energy expenditure. In addition, leptin, a peripheral signal that relays information regarding body fat content, modulates the activity of melanocortin pathway neurons including POMC-, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, melanocortin receptors (MC3R and MC4R)-expressing neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424426/circular-rna-hsa-circ-0016347-promotes-proliferation-invasion-and-metastasis-of-osteosarcoma-cells
#10
Hao Jin, Xin Jin, Hong Zhang, Wenbo Wang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of non-coding RNA which have recently shown huge capabilities in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Growing evidence has indicated that circRNAs could serve as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to bind with microRNAs (miRNAs) and to inhibit the activity and function of the targeted miRNAs. Here, we demonstrated that circ-0016347 acted as a positive regulator in osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion. Moreover, circ-0016347 was identified as a sponge of miR-214 that upregulated the expression of caspase-1, which is the functional target of miR-214...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423944/emerging-roles-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-plant-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#11
Naghmeh Nejat, Nitin Mantri
Spectacular progress in high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and expression profiling using next-generation sequencing technologies have recently revolutionized molecular biology and allowed massive advances in identifying the genomic regions and molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of growth, development, and stress response. Through recent research, non-coding RNAs, in particular long non-coding RNAs, have emerged as key regulators of transcription in eukaryotes. Long non-coding RNAs are vastly heterogeneous groups of RNAs that execute a broad range of essential roles in various biological processes at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423501/epigenetic-silencing-of-mir-520c-leads-to-induced-s100a4-expression-and-its-mediated-colorectal-cancer-progression
#12
Giridhar Mudduluru, Katharina Ilm, Steffen Fuchs, Ulrike Stein
The S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) induces epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Its induced expression in several cancer types correlates with poor prognosis. Apart from the functional and transcriptional regulatory aspects of S100A4, its post-transcriptional regulation is not yet clearly elucidated. In this study, we show that microRNAs (miR) miR-505-5p and miR-520c-3p target the 3'-UTR of S100A4 and inhibits its expression and its mediated migration and invasion...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422379/increased-5-hydroxymethylation-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-extinguished-from-cocaine-self-administration
#13
Anna Sadakierska-Chudy, Małgorzata Frankowska, Karolina Wydra, Joanna Jastrzębska, Joanna Miszkiel, Małgorzata Filip
Drug craving and relapse risk during abstinence from cocaine are thought to be caused by persistent changes in transcription and chromatin regulation. Although several brain regions are involved in these processes, the hippocampus seems to play an important role in context-evoked craving and drug-seeking behavior. Only a few studies have examined epigenetic alterations during a period of cocaine abstinence. To investigate the effects of cocaine abstinence on DNA methylation and gene expression, rats that self-administered the drug underwent cocaine abstinence in two time points with extinction training...
April 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422308/androgen-receptor-regulated-mirna-193a-3p-targets-ajuba-to-promote-prostate-cancer-cell-migration
#14
Li Jia, Bin Gui, Dali Zheng, Keith F Decker, Ilker Tinay, Mingyue Tan, Xiaowei Wang, Adam S Kibel
Background Dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is implicated in cancer development and progression by modulating oncogenes or tumor suppressors at the post-transcriptional level. Methods To investigate the role of miRNAs in prostate cancer (PCa) progression, we performed small RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and LNCaP-derived castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) C4-2B cells. For functional validation, we specifically investigated miR-193a-3p, which is highly upregulated in C4-2B cells and modulated by the androgen receptor (AR)...
April 19, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421535/microrna-metabolism-and-dysregulation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Paola Rinchetti, Mafalda Rizzuti, Irene Faravelli, Stefania Corti
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a subset of endogenous, small, non-coding RNA molecules involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Dysregulation in miRNA-related pathways in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with severe neuronal injury and cell death, which can lead to the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a fatal adult onset disease characterized by the selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons. While the pathogenesis of ALS is still largely unknown, familial ALS forms linked to TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene mutations, as well as sporadic forms, display changes in several steps of RNA metabolism, including miRNA processing...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420997/micrornas-in-palatogenesis-and-cleft-palate
#16
REVIEW
Christian Schoen, Armaz Aschrafi, Michelle Thonissen, Geert Poelmans, Johannes W Von den Hoff, Carine E L Carels
Palatogenesis requires a precise spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression, which is controlled by an intricate network of transcription factors and their corresponding DNA motifs. Even minor perturbations of this network may cause cleft palate, the most common congenital craniofacial defect in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have elicited strong interest as key regulators of embryological development, and as etiological factors in disease. MiRNAs function as post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression and are therefore able to fine-tune gene regulatory networks...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420414/integrated-genomic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-rna-processing-in-human-cancers
#17
Youssef Idaghdour, Alan Hodgkinson
BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial genome is transcribed as continuous polycistrons of RNA containing multiple genes. As a consequence, post-transcriptional events are critical for the regulation of gene expression and therefore all aspects of mitochondrial function. One particularly important process is the m(1)A/m(1)G RNA methylation of the ninth position of different mitochondrial tRNAs, which allows efficient processing of mitochondrial mRNAs and protein translation, and de-regulation of genes involved in these processes has been associated with altered mitochondrial function...
April 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420141/coordinated-actions-of-micrornas-with-other-epigenetic-factors-regulate-skeletal-muscle-development-and-adaptation
#18
REVIEW
Marzia Bianchi, Alessandra Renzini, Sergio Adamo, Viviana Moresi
Epigenetics plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression in development, in response to cellular stress or in disease states, in virtually all cell types. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that mediate RNA silencing and regulate gene expression. miRNAs were discovered in 1993 and have been extensively studied ever since. They can be expressed in a tissue-specific manner and play a crucial role in tissue development and many biological processes. miRNAs are responsible for changes in the cell epigenome because of their ability to modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419777/micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-with-a-focus-on-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-progress-in-genetic-association-studies-expression-profiling-and-translational-research
#19
REVIEW
Yubin Hu, Erik A Ehli, Dorret I Boomsma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNA molecules, 18-25 nucleotides in length, which can negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding to messenger RNAs. About half of all identified miRNAs in humans are expressed in the brain and display regulatory functions important for many biological processes related to the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Disruptions in miRNA biogenesis and miRNA-target interaction have been related to CNS diseases, including psychiatric disorders...
April 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419345/dehydration-responsive-element-binding-transcription-factors-and-their-applications-for-the-engineering-of-stress-tolerance
#20
Pradeep K Agarwal, Kapil Gupta, Sergiy Lopato, Parinita Agarwal
Dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) factors or CRT element binding factors (CBFs) are members of the AP2/ERF family, which comprises a large number of stress-responsive regulatory genes. This review traverses almost two decades of research, from the discovery of DREB/CBF factors to their optimization for application in plant biotechnology. In this review, we describe (i) the discovery, classification, structure, and evolution of DREB genes and proteins; (ii) induction of DREB genes by abiotic stresses and involvement of their products in stress responses; (iii) protein structure and DNA binding selectivity of different groups of DREB proteins; (iv) post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms of DREB transcription factor (TF) regulation; and (v) physical and/or functional interaction of DREB TFs with other proteins during plant stress responses...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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