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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327777/predicting-and-assessing-rupture-in-protein-gels-under-oscillatory-shear
#1
Brice Saint-Michel, Thomas Gibaud, Sébastien Manneville
Soft materials may break irreversibly upon applying sufficiently large shear oscillations, a process whose physical mechanism remains largely elusive. In this work, the rupture of protein gels made of sodium caseinate under an oscillatory stress is shown to occur in an abrupt, brittle-like manner. Upon increasing the stress amplitude, the build-up of harmonic modes in the strain response can be rescaled for all gel concentrations. This rescaling yields an empirical criterion to predict the rupture point way before the samples are significantly damaged...
March 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319839/escherichia-coli-removal-from-model-substrates-underlying-mechanism-based-on-nanofluid-structural-forces
#2
Jiyoung Shim, Alex Nikolov, Darsh Wasan
Understanding the interactions between bacteria and solid surfaces that result in bacterial adhesion and removal is of immense importance for reducing foodborne illness outbreaks. A nanofluid formulation comprised of a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar aqueous solution in the presence of an organic acid (as a pH controller) was used to test the E. coli K12 removal from two substrates, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and partially hydrophobic glass. We investigated the bacterial removal efficacy based on the combined effect of the nanofluid's structural forces and bacterial isoelectric point...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314642/hypotensive-effects-of-renal-denervation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-based-on-ultrasonic-contrast-imaging
#3
Ke Li, Jinwen Tian, Yuxiao Zhang, Qiao Xue, Caiyi Lu
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerves-fire rate is generally enhanced in some types of hypertension models. Renal sympathetic denervation(RSD) by the radiofrequency ablation was used to treat the hypertension has achieved curative effect.HTN-1 and HTN-2 trial reported catheter-based renal denervation may cause substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. However, recent controlled HTN-3 trial questioned the BP lowering effect of Renal denervation treatment...
February 9, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298361/intrarenal-signaling-mediated-by-cck-plays-a-role-in-salt-intake-induced-natriuresis
#4
Hiromi Takahashi-Iwanaga, Shunsuke Kimura, Kohtarou Konno, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshihiko Iwanaga
The natriuretic hormone CCK exhibits its gene transcripts in total kidney extracts. To test the possibility of CCK acting as an intrarenal mediator of sodium excretion, we examined mouse kidneys by: (i) an in situ hybridization technique for CCK mRNA in animals fed a normal or a high-sodium diet; (ii) immuno-electron microscopy for the CCK peptide, (iii) an in situ hybridization method and immunohistochemistry for the CCK-specific receptor CCKAR; (iv) confocal image analysis of receptor-mediated Ca2+ responses in isolated renal tubules; and (v) metabolic cage experiments for the measurement of urinary sodium excretion in high salt-fed mice either treated or untreated with the CCKAR antagonist lorglumide...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298230/left-ventricular-global-longitudinal-strain-predicts-heart-failure-readmission-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#5
Simone Romano, Ibrahim N Mansour, Mayank Kansal, Hana Gheith, Zachary Dowdy, Carolyn A Dickens, Cassandra Buto-Colletti, June M Chae, Hussam H Saleh, Thomas D Stamos
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to determine if left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) predicts heart failure (HF) readmission in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred ninety one patients were enrolled at the time of admission for acute decompensated heart failure between January 2011 and September 2013. Left ventricle global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) by velocity vector imaging averaged from 2, 3 and 4-chamber views could be assessed in 204 out of 291 (70%) patients...
March 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298014/effect-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-on-the-cochlear-nuclei-after-creation-of-a-partial-nerve-lesion-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#6
Guilherme Ramina Montibeller, Benjamin Schackmann, Steffi Urbschat, Joachim M K Oertel
OBJECTIVE The risk of injury of the cochlear nerve during angle (CPA) surgery is high. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been found in various experimental models of peripheral and CNS injury to have a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation. However, to the authors' knowledge, the influence of G-CSF on cochlear nerve regeneration has not been reported. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of G-CSF after a partial cochlear nerve lesion in rats. METHODS A lesion of the right cochlear nerve in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was created using a water-jet dissector with a pressure of 8 bar...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293175/two-photon-na-imaging-reports-somatically-evoked-action-potentials-in-rat-olfactory-bulb-mitral-and-granule-cell-neurites
#7
Tiffany Ona-Jodar, Niklas J Gerkau, S Sara Aghvami, Christine R Rose, Veronica Egger
Dendrodendritic synaptic interactions are a hallmark of neuronal processing in the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Many classes of olfactory bulb neurons including the principal mitral cells (MCs) and the axonless granule cells (GCs) dispose of highly efficient propagation of action potentials (AP) within their dendrites, from where they can release transmitter onto each other. So far, backpropagation in GC dendrites has been investigated indirectly via Ca(2+) imaging. Here, we used two-photon Na(+) imaging to directly report opening of voltage-gated sodium channels due to AP propagation in both cell types...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292862/molecular-imaging-of-atheroma-deciphering-how-and-when-to-use-18-f-sodium-fluoride-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose
#8
EDITORIAL
Ahmed Tawakol, Michael T Osborne, Zahi A Fayad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288476/the-role-of-rho-rho-kinase-pathway-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesteatoma
#9
Mesut Yeşilova, Kemal Görür, Onur Ismi, Cengiz Özcan, Kansu Büyükafşar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of Rho/Rho-kinase pathway in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with cholesteatoma, who had gone mastoidectomies were enrolled in this prospective study. Cholesteatomas matrix (CM) and a piece of the external ear canal skin (EECS as control) were taken and transferred to the liquid nitrogen and kept at -86 °C for Rho A and Rho-kinase (ROCK) analysis with Western blotting and commercial ELISA kits (Cell Biolabs Inc...
April 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287545/method-to-visualize-and-analyze-membrane-interacting-proteins-by-transmission-electron-microscopy
#10
Ramakrishnan B Kumar, Lin Zhu, Hans Hebert, Caroline Jegerschöld
Monotopic proteins exert their function when attached to a membrane surface, and such interactions depend on the specific lipid composition and on the availability of enough area to perform the function. Nanodiscs are used to provide a membrane surface of controlled size and lipid content. In the absence of bound extrinsic proteins, sodium phosphotungstate-stained nanodiscs appear as stacks of coins when viewed from the side by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This protocol is therefore designed to intentionally promote stacking; consequently, the prevention of stacking can be interpreted as the binding of the membrane-binding protein to the nanodisc...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287157/neurovascular-microcirculatory-vasodilation-mediated-by-c-fibers-and-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-type-1-channels-trpv-1-is-impaired-in-type-1-diabetes
#11
P Marche, S Dubois, P Abraham, E Parot-Schinkel, L Gascoin, A Humeau-Heurtier, P H Ducluzeau, G Mahe
Microvascular dysfunction may have an early onset in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and can precede major complications. Our objectives were to assess the endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh; and post-occlusive hyperemia, PORH), non-endothelial-dependent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) and neurovascular-dependent (local heating, LH and current induced vasodilation, CIV) microcirculatory vasodilation in T1D patients compared with matched control subjects using a laser speckle contrast imager. Seventeen T1D patients - matched with 17 subjects according to age, gender, Body-Mass-Index, and smoking status - underwent macro- and microvascular investigations...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280325/novel-route-synthesis-of-porous-and-solid-gold-nanoparticles-for-investigating-their-comparative-performance-as-contrast-agent-in-computed-tomography-scan-and-effect-on-liver-and-kidney-function
#12
Farooq Aziz, Ayesha Ihsan, Aalia Nazir, Ishaq Ahmad, Sadia Zafar Bajwa, Asma Rehman, Abdoulaye Diallo, Waheed S Khan
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with dimension in the range of 1-100 nm have a prominent role in a number of biomedical applications like imaging, drug delivery, and cancer therapy owing to their unique optical features and biocompatibility. In this work, we report a novel technique for the synthesis of two types of GNPs namely porous gold nanoparticles (PGNPs) and solid gold nanoparticles (SGNPs). PGNPs of size 35 nm were fabricated by reduction of gold (III) solution with lecithin followed by addition of L-ascorbic acid and tri-sodium citrate, whereas SGNPs with a dimension of 28 nm were prepared by reflux method using lecithin as a single reducing agent...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279765/chitosan-zinc-oxide-polyvinylpyrrolidone-cs-zno-pvp-nanocomposite-for-better-thermal-and-antibacterial-activity
#13
M Karpuraranjith, S Thambidurai
A new biopolymer based ZnO-PVP nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by single step in situ precipitation method using chitosan as biosurfactant, zinc chloride as a source material, PVP as stabilizing agent and sodium hydroxide as precipitating agent. The chemical bonding and crystalline behaviors of chitosan, zinc oxide and PVP were confirmed by FT-IR and XRD analysis. The biopolymer connected ZnO particles intercalated PVP matrix was layer and rod like structure appeared in nanometer range confirmed by HR-SEM and TEM analysis...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278321/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-for-longitudinal-monitoring-of-inflammation-in-animal-models-of-uveitis
#14
Michal B Gutowski, Leslie Wilson, Russell N Van Gelder, Kathryn L Pepple
Purpose: We develop a quantitative bioluminescence assay for in vivo longitudinal monitoring of inflammation in animal models of uveitis. Methods: Three models of experimental uveitis were induced in C57BL/6 albino mice: primed mycobacterial uveitis (PMU), endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU), and experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Intraperitoneal injection of luminol sodium salt, which emits light when oxidized, provided the bioluminescence substrate. Bioluminescence images were captured by a PerkinElmer In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS) Spectrum and total bioluminescence was analyzed using Living Image software...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276202/safety-osseointegration-and-bone-ingrowth-analysis-of-pmma-based-porous-cement-on-animal-metaphyseal-bone-defect-model
#15
Bruno Cimatti, Mariana Avelino Dos Santos, Maria Sol Brassesco, Laura Tiemi Okano, Wendell Monteiro Barboza, Marcello Henrique Nogueira-Barbosa, Edgard Eduard Engel
Bone defects created after curettage of benign bone tumors are customarily filled with solid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or other bone substitutes. In this study, we depicted a porous PMMA-based cement (produced by mixing sodium bicarbonate and citric acid) and evaluated the prospect of its clinic application. Cement samples were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry and its cytotoxicity evaluated in fibroblast cultures. Implantation in rabbits allowed the histologic analysis of bone, kidneys, and liver for toxicity and coagulation tests, and MRI images for hemostasis evaluation...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273180/synthesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-3%C3%AE-18f-fluorocholic-acid-for-the-detection-of-drug-induced-cholestasis-in-mice
#16
Stef De Lombaerde, Sara Neyt, Ken Kersemans, Jeroen Verhoeven, Lindsey Devisscher, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Christian Vanhove, Filip De Vos
INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced cholestasis is a liver disorder that might be caused by interference of drugs with the hepatobiliary bile acid transporters. It is important to identify this interference early on in drug development. In this work, Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-imaging with a 18F labeled bile acid analogue was introduced to detect disturbed hepatobiliary transport of bile acids. METHODS: 3β-[18F]fluorocholic acid ([18F]FCA) was prepared by nucleophilic substitution of a mesylated precursor with [18F]fluoride, followed by deprotection with sodium hydroxide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272791/snat3-mediated-glutamine-transport-in-perisynaptic-astrocytes-in-situ-is-regulated-by-intracellular-sodium
#17
Alison C Todd, Mari-Carmen Marx, Sarah R Hulme, Stefan Bröer, Brian Billups
The release of glutamine from astrocytes adjacent to synapses in the central nervous system is thought to play a vital role in the mechanism of glutamate recycling and is therefore important for maintaining excitatory neurotransmission. Here we investigate the nature of astrocytic membrane transport of glutamine in rat brainstem slices, using electrophysiological recording and fluorescent imaging of pHi and Nai+. Glutamine application to perisynaptic astrocytes induced a membrane current, caused by activation of system A (SA) family transporters...
March 8, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267667/smartphone-based-enzymatic-biosensor-for-oral-fluid-l-lactate-detection-in-one-minute-using-confined-multilayer-paper-reflectometry
#18
Donato Calabria, Cristiana Caliceti, Martina Zangheri, Mara Mirasoli, Patrizia Simoni, Aldo Roda
The development of smartphone-based biosensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications allows realizing "all in one" instruments, with large potential distribution among the general population. With this respect, paper color-based detection performed by reflectance measurement is the most popular, simple, inexpensive and straightforward method. Despite the large number of scientific publications related to these biosensors, they still suffer from a poor detectability and reproducibility related to inhomogeneity of color development, which leads to low assay reproducibility...
March 1, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267111/blind-sided-by-cosmetic-vein-sclerotherapy-a-case-of-ophthalmic-arterial-occlusion
#19
Meena Arunakirinathan, Robbie J E Walker, Noor Hassan, Sally Ameen, Saad Younis
PURPOSE: Cosmetic vein sclerotherapy is increasingly used to treat varicose veins because of its effectiveness and adherence with British Pharmacopoeia specifications. We present the first documented case of ophthalmic artery occlusion resulting in panocular ischemia secondary to intravascular injection of sodium tetradecyl sulfate sclerosant in a young healthy women seeking treatment for prominent facial veins in her forehead. METHODS: The patient presented with unilateral sudden loss of vision...
March 6, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264131/ex-vivo-study-of-transepithelial-corneal-cross-linking
#20
Andrea Cruzat, Anita N Shukla, Samer N Arafat, Saleh Alageel, Clara Colon, James Chodosh, Joseph B Ciolino
PURPOSE: To perform in vitro assessment of different techniques of transepithelial corneal cross-linking (CXL) and to compare the results to deepithelialized CXL. METHODS: Transepithelial CXL was performed after pre-treatment with or without penetration enhancers (gum cellulose, 0.44% sodium chloride, and 0.01% benzalkonium chloride) for 15 or 60 minutes. Deepithelialized corneas underwent CXL after pretreatment with riboflavin for 15 minutes, according to the Dresden protocol...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
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