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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932952/evaluating-tools-for-live-imaging-of-structural-plasticity-at-the-axon-initial-segment
#1
Adna S Dumitrescu, Mark D Evans, Matthew S Grubb
The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized neuronal compartment involved in the maintenance of axo-dendritic polarity and in the generation of action potentials. It is also a site of significant structural plasticity-manipulations of neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo can produce changes in AIS position and/or size that are associated with alterations in intrinsic excitability. However, to date all activity-dependent AIS changes have been observed in experiments carried out on fixed samples, offering only a snapshot, population-wide view of this form of plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932454/inducible-colonic-m-cells-are-dependent-on-tnfr2-but-not-lt%C3%AE-r-identifying-distinct-signaling-requirements-for-constitutive-versus-inducible-m-cells
#2
Erinn A Parnell, Erin M Walch, David D Lo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: M cells associated with organized lymphoid tissues such as intestinal Peyer's patches provide surveillance of the intestinal lumen. Inflammation or infection in the colon can induce an M cell population associated with lymphoid infiltrates; paradoxically, induction is dependent on the inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α. Anti-TNFα blockade is an important therapeutic in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, so understanding the effects of TNFα signaling is important in refining therapeutics...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930713/detecting-methemoglobinemia-in-animals-with-a-drop-of-blood
#3
Toni G Patton, Stephen L Blamer, Katherine E Horak
A major concern during pesticide development and use is the impact on non-target species, such as raptors or domestic cats and dogs. Sodium nitrite and para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) are two toxicants currently being studied for the control of invasive species, such as starlings and feral swine. When given to an animal these compounds oxidize hemoglobin, which renders it unable to carry oxygen resulting in methemoglobinemia. This study developed a method to estimate methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds by examining the efficacy of sodium nitrite to induce the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#4
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929391/a-hyperspectral-survey-of-new-york-city-lighting-technology
#5
Gregory Dobler, Masoud Ghandehari, Steven E Koonin, Mohit S Sharma
Using side-facing observations of the New York City (NYC) skyline, we identify lighting technologies via spectral signatures measured with Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging. The instrument is a scanning, single slit spectrograph with 872 spectral channels from 0.4-1.0 μ m. With a single scan, we are able to clearly match the detected spectral signatures of 13 templates of known lighting types. However, many of the observed lighting spectra do not match those that have been measured in the laboratory...
December 5, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927282/effect-of-sodium-hypochlorite-and-ricinus-communis-solutions-on-control-of-denture-biofilm-a-randomized-crossover-clinical%C3%A2-trial
#6
Carolina Noronha Ferraz de Arruda, Marcela Moreira Salles, Maurício Malheiros Badaró, Viviane de Cássia Oliveira, Ana Paula Macedo, Cláudia Helena Silva-Lovato, Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The prevalence of complete edentulism remains high in the elderly, and previous data have shown that poor denture hygiene is common among edentulous patients. PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized crossover trial was to evaluate the efficacy of denture cleansers in terms of biofilm removal, antimicrobial action, and the remission of denture stomatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty denture wearers with denture stomatitis were instructed to brush their dentures (brush and soap) and to soak them (20 minutes/14 days) in 4 solutions, as follows: C (control), 0...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927188/investigating-potentially-salvageable-penumbra-tissue-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-transient-ischemic-stroke-using-sodium-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Friedrich Wetterling, Eva Chatzikonstantinou, Laurent Tritschler, Stephen Meairs, Marc Fatar, Lothar R Schad, Saema Ansar
BACKGROUND: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current-state-of-the-art technique to clinically investigate acute (0-24 h) ischemic stroke tissue. However, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-considered a marker of tissue damage-was observed to reverse spontaneously during the subacute stroke phase (24-72 h) which means that low ADC cannot be used to reflect the damaged tissue after 24 h in experimental and clinical studies. One reason for the change in ADC is that ADC values drop with cytotoxic edema (acute phase) and rise when vasogenic edema begins (subacute phase)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919210/three-dimensional-modelling-of-the-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channel-from-anopheles-gambiae-reveals-spatial-clustering-of-evolutionarily-conserved-acidic-residues-at-the-extracellular-sites
#8
Rithvik S Vinekar, Ramanathan Sowdhamini
The eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel(e-Nav) is a large asymmetric transmembrane protein with important functions concerning neurological function. No structure has been resolved at high resolution for this protein. A homology model of the transmembrane and extracellular regions of an Anopheles gambiae para-like channel with emphasis on the pore entrance has been constructed, based upon the templates provided by a prokaryotic sodium channel and a potassium two-pore channel. The latter provides a template for the extracellular regions, which are located above the entrance to the pore, which is likely to open at a side of a dome formed by these loops...
December 5, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915091/electroconvulsive-stimulation-transiently-enhances-the-permeability-of-the-rat-blood-brain-barrier-and-induces-astrocytic-changes
#9
Masanobu Ito, Kuerban Bolati, Tomoya Kinjo, Koichiro Ichimura, Akiko Furuta, Declan M McLoughlin, Toshihito Suzuki, Heii Arai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays important roles in both the physiological and pharmacological state of the brain. Transiently enhancing the permeability of the BBB may allow use of more types of medications for neuropsychiatric diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that seizures cause a transient decrease in BBB integrity. We studied the timing of BBB changes following seizures and the role of astrocytes in this process. Rats received 10 applications of electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS). They were then infused with sodium fluorescein, a fluorescent substance that rarely passes the BBB, via the inferior vena cava...
November 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911379/rapid-acquisition-of-3d-images-using-high-resolution-episcopic-microscopy
#10
Haochuan Zhang, JunGang Huang, Xin Liu, Ping Zhu, Zhongrong Li, Xue Li
High-resolution episcopic microscopic (HREM) technology enables rapid acquisition of high-resolution digital volumetric and three-dimensional (3D) morphometric data. Here, we describe the detailed protocol to image the entire mouse embryo. The protocol consists of four major sections: sample preparation, embedding, image acquisition and finally, 3D visualization. The technology requires specimens to be stained with a fluorescent dye, which can be problematic for large or dense specimens. To overcome this limitation, we have improved the existing protocol to enhance tissue penetration of the dye by pretreating the specimen with a solution containing urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904971/mutations-in-slc5a6-associated-with-brain-immune-bone-and-intestinal-dysfunction-in-a-young-child
#11
Veedamali S Subramanian, Alexandru R Constantinescu, Paul J Benke, Hamid M Said
The human sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (hSMVT) is a product of the SLC5A6 gene and mediates biotin, pantothenic acid, and lipoate uptake in a variety of cellular systems. We report here the identification of mutations R94X, a premature termination, and R123L, a dysfunctional amino acid change, both in exon 3 of the SLC5A6 gene in a child using whole genome-scanning. At 15 months of age, the child showed failure to thrive, microcephaly and brain changes on MRI, cerebral palsy and developmental delay, variable immunodeficiency, and severe gastro-esophageal reflux requiring a gastrostomy tube/fundoplication, osteoporosis, and pathologic bone fractures...
November 30, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901234/air-powder-polishing-on-self-ligating-brackets-after-clinical-use-effects-on-debris-levels
#12
Mônica L S Castro Aragón, Leandro Santiago Lima, David Normando
Introduction: Debris buildup on brackets and arch surfaces is one of the main factors that can influence the intensity of friction between bracket and orthodontic wire. Objective: This study sought to evaluate the effect of air-powder polishing cleaning on debris levels of self-ligating ceramic brackets at the end of orthodontic treatment, compared to the behavior of conventional brackets. Methods: Debris levels were evaluated in metal conventional orthodontic brackets (n = 42) and ceramic self-ligating brackets (n = 42) on canines and premolars, arranged in pairs...
September 2016: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890804/quantitative-sodium-mr-imaging-a-review-of-its-evolving-role-in-medicine
#13
Keith R Thulborn
Sodium magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in humans has promised metabolic information that can improve medical management in important diseases. This technology has yet to find a role in clinical practice, lagging proton MR imaging by decades. This review covers the literature that demonstrates that this delay is explained by initial challenges of low sensitivity at low magnetic fields and the limited performance of gradients and electronics available in the 1980s. These constraints were removed by the introduction of 3T and now ultrahigh (≥7T) magnetic field scanners with superior gradients and electronics for proton MR imaging...
November 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885682/fractional-laser-assisted-drug-uptake-impact-of-time-related-topical-application-to-achieve-enhanced-delivery
#14
Christina A Banzhaf, Daniel Thaysen-Petersen, Christiane Bay, Peter A Philipsen, Mette Mogensen, Tarl Prow, Merete Haedersdal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is acknowledged to increase uptake of topically applied agents in skin. AFXL channels gradually close over time, which may impair this capability. The time frame for applying a drug after AFXL exposure remains to be established. The aim of this study, was to investigate the importance of time-related topical application after AFXL exposure and to relate resultant uptake in skin with AFXL channel morphology and skin integrity. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Buttock skin of healthy volunteers (n = 11) was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser using 5% density, 120 μm beam diameter, 15 mJ pulse energy...
November 25, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883989/recombinant-anthrax-protective-antigen-observation-of-aggregation-phenomena-by-tem-reveals-specific-effects-of-sterols
#15
J Robin Harris, Andrei Soliakov, Allan Watkinson, Jeremy H Lakey
Negatively stained transmission electron microscope images are presented that depict the aggregation of recombinant anthrax protective antigen (rPA83 monomer and the PA63 prepore oligomer) under varying in vitro biochemical conditions. Heat treatment (50°C) of rPA83 produced clumped fibrils, but following heating the PA63 prepore formed disordered aggregates. Freeze-thaw treatment of the PA63 prepore generated linear flexuous aggregates of the heptameric oligomers. Aqueous suspensions of cholesterol microcrystals were shown to bind small rPA83 aggregates at the edges of the planar bilayers...
November 15, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882639/imaging-the-atomic-position-of-light-cations-in-a-porous-network-and-the-europium-iii-ion-exchange-capability-by-aberration-corrected-electron-microscopy
#16
Alvaro Mayoral, Reece M Hall, Roksana Jackowska, Jennifer E Readman
In the present work, ETS-10 microporous titanosilicate has been synthesized and its structure characterized by means of powder XRD and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs -corrected STEM). For the first time, sodium ions have been imaged sitting inside the 7-membered rings. The ion-exchange capability has been tested by the inclusion of rare earth metals (Eu, Tb and Gd) to produce a luminescent material which has been studied by atomic-resolution Cs -corrected STEM. The data produced has allowed unambiguous imaging of light atoms in a microporous framework as well as determining the cationic metal positions for the first time, providing evidence of the importance of advanced electron microscopy methods for the study of the local environment of metals within zeolitic supports providing unique information of both systems (guest and support) at the same time...
November 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871481/impacts-of-contracted-endodontic-cavities-on-instrumentation-efficacy-and-biomechanical-responses-in-maxillary-molars
#17
Brent Moore, Konstantinos Verdelis, Anil Kishen, Thuan Dao, Shimon Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Recently, we reported that in mandibular molars contracted endodontic cavities (CECs) improved fracture strength compared with traditional endodontic cavities (TECs) but compromised instrumentation efficacy in distal canals. This study assessed the impacts of CECs on instrumentation efficacy and axial strain responses in maxillary molars. METHODS: Eighteen extracted intact maxillary molars were imaged with micro-computed tomographic imaging (12-μm voxel), assigned to CEC or TEC groups (n = 9/group), and accessed accordingly...
December 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863825/implications-of-lipid-monolayer-charge-characteristics-on-their-selective-interactions-with-a-short-antimicrobial-peptide
#18
Daniela Ciumac, Richard A Campbell, Hai Xu, Luke A Clifton, Arwel V Hughes, John R P Webster, Jian R Lu
Many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) target bacterial membranes and they kill bacteria by causing structural disruptions. One of the fundamental issues however lies in the selective responses of AMPs to different cell membranes as a lack of selectivity can elicit toxic side effects to mammalian host cells. A key difference between the outer surfaces of bacterial and mammalian cells is the charge characteristics. We report a careful study of the binding of one of the representative AMPs, with the general sequence G(IIKK)4I-NH2 (G4), to the spread lipid monolayers of DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and DPPG (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (sodium salt)) mimicking the charge difference between them, using the combined measurements from Langmuir trough, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and neutron reflection (NR)...
November 3, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859483/a-report-of-the-automated-radiosynthesis-of-the-tau-pet-radiopharmaceutical-18-f-thk-5351
#19
Ramesh Neelamegam, Daniel L Yokell, Peter A Rice, Shozo Furumoto, Yukitsuka Kudo, Nobuyuki Okamura, Georges El Fakhri
The radiotracer, [(18) F]-THK-5351 is a highly selective and high binding affinity PET imaging agent for aggregates of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Our report is a simplified one-pot, two-step radiosynthesis of [(18) F]-THK-5351. This report is broadly applicable for routine clinical production and multi-center trials on account of favorable half-life of flourine-18 and the use of a commercially available radiosynthesis module, the GE TRACERlab™ FXFN . First, the O-THP protected tosyl precursor underwent nucleophilic fluorinating reaction with potassium cryptand fluoride ([(18) F] fluoride (K[(18) F]/K222 )) in DMSO at 110 °C for 10 min followed by O-THP removal by using diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) at same temperature...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848143/direct-analysis-of-triterpenes-from-high-salt-fermented-cucumbers-using-infrared-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-electrospray-ionization-ir-maldesi
#20
Måns Ekelöf, Erin K McMurtrie, Milad Nazari, Suzanne D Johanningsmeier, David C Muddiman
High-salt samples present a challenge to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, particularly when electrospray ionization (ESI) is used, requiring extensive sample preparation steps such as desalting, extraction, and purification. In this study, infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) coupled to a Q Exactive Plus mass spectrometer was used to directly analyze 50-μm thick slices of cucumber fermented and stored in 1 M sodium chloride brine. From the several hundred unique substances observed, three triterpenoid lipids produced by cucumbers, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol, were putatively identified based on exact mass and selected for structural analysis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
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