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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911790/psychopathic-individuals-exhibit-but-do-not-avoid-regret-during-counterfactual-decision-making
#1
Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Allison M Stuppy-Sullivan, Joshua W Buckholtz
Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost-benefit decision making...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899902/aggressive-antisocial-behaviors-are-related-to-character-maturity-in-young-swedish-violent-offenders-independent-of-adhd
#2
Thomas Nilsson, Örjan Falk, Eva Billstedt, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated (1) whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high) is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors (AABs) and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and (2) whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893339/psychopathy-in-everyday-life
#3
Michael Eigen
Psychopathy is a spectrum of possibilities linked with survival drives. It appears in commonly accepted forms in everyday life and more egregious, devastating ways as well. Often extreme manifestations of psychopathy become part of everyday existence, almost taken as normal while its cumulative destructiveness mounts. This paper explores a range of psychopathic states in individuals and groups, including positive and negative contributions these tendencies can make. Psychopathy in individuals and culture interweave in many ways, and some of the latter are discussed...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893263/-incidental-fear-cues-increase-monetary-loss-aversion-correction-to-schulreich-gerhardt-and-heekeren-2016
#4
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion" by Stefan Schulreich, Holger Gerhardt and Hauke R. Heekeren (Emotion, 2016[Apr], Vol 16[3], 402-412). In the current article, there was an error in the Study 2 portion of the article. The fourth paragraph of the Results section should read as follows: Performing the same analyses as in Study 1, we found an effect of incidental fear cues on decision behavior. Participants accepted fewer gambles in the fearful-face condition (32.77%) than in the neutral-face condition (33...
December 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893226/the-relation-between-the-bifactor-model-of-the-youth-psychopathic-traits-inventory-and-conduct-problems-in-adolescence-variations-across-gender-ethnic-background-and-age
#5
Wendy Zwaanswijk, Violaine C Veen, Mitch van Geel, Henrik Andershed, Paul Vedder
The current study examines how the bifactor model of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) is related to conduct problems in a sample of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,874; 43% female). It addresses to what extent the YPI dimensions explain variance over and above a General Psychopathy factor (i.e., one factor related to all items) and how the general factor and dimensional factors are related to conduct problems. Group differences in these relations for gender, ethnic background, and age were examined. Results showed that the general factor is most important, but dimensions explain variance over and above the general factor...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869458/smith-and-lilienfeld-s-meta-analysis-of-the-response-modulation-hypothesis-important-theoretical-and-quantitative-clarifications
#6
Joseph P Newman, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers
In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, applied across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865113/implicit-moral-evaluations-a-multinomial-modeling-approach
#7
C Daryl Cameron, B Keith Payne, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Julian A Scheffer, Michael Inzlicht
Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias)...
November 16, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859920/emotion-and-personal-space-neural-correlates-of-approach-avoidance-tendencies-to-different-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-coldhearted-psychopathic-traits
#8
Joana B Vieira, Tamara P Tavares, Abigail A Marsh, Derek G V Mitchell
In social interactions, humans are expected to regulate interpersonal distance in response to the emotion displayed by others. Yet, the neural mechanisms implicated in approach-avoidance tendencies to distinct emotional expressions have not been fully described. Here, we investigated the neural systems implicated in regulating the distance to different emotions, and how they vary as a function of empathy. Twenty-three healthy participants assessed for psychopathic traits underwent fMRI scanning while they viewed approaching and withdrawing angry, fearful, happy, sad and neutral faces...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845321/-syndrome-of-%C3%A2-delusional-fantasies%C3%A2-in-the-concept-of-k-birnbaum
#9
N Yu Pyatnitsky
The author analyzes the features of the syndrome of «delusional fantasies» (delusion-like fantasies) in the concept of K. Birnbaum. According to this concept, psychopathic constitutions, due to the presence in the structure of dissociation, are the basis for the development of delusions per se. «Dreamer» and «vershroben» types are predisposed to the syndrome of «delusional fantasies». It is emphasized that initially the syndrome of «delusional fantasies» was described as a peculiar phasic episode of delusions in psychopaths, aged between 20-30 years...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822303/emotional-dysregulation-and-trauma-predicting-psychopathy-dimensions-in-female-and-male-juvenile-offenders
#10
Kathrin Sevecke, Sebastian Franke, David Kosson, Maya Krischer
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a specific syndrome that predicts future violent and aggressive behavior in adults. Studies in youth and adults have demonstrated a strong association between early traumatic incidents and later dissocial behavior. Moreover, the impact of personality pathology and emotional dysregulation on aggressive and violent behavior is well established. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between early traumatization and psychopathic traits in adolescents...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822299/do-seriously-offending-girls-differ-from-their-age-and-offence-type-matched-male-counterparts-on-psychopathic-traits-or-psychopathy-related-background-variables
#11
Nina Lindberg, Svetlana Oshukova, Jouko Miettunen, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
BACKGROUND: More research is needed to improve our understanding of the manifestation of psychopathic traits in violently offending girls. Our aim here was to assess psychopathic traits and psychopathy-related background variables in a Finnish nationwide consecutive sample of girls charged with violent crimes and referred to a pretrial forensic psychiatric examination. These girls were then compared to their male counterparts. METHODS: The forensic psychiatric examination statements of 15- to 17-year-old juveniles who underwent a pretrial forensic psychiatric examination over a 31-year period (1980-2010) were reviewed...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808558/construct-validity-of-the-mmpi-2-rf-triarchic-psychopathy-scales-in-correctional-and-collegiate-samples
#12
Taylor J Kutchen, Dustin B Wygant, Jessica L Tylicki, Amy M Dieter, Carlo O C Veltri, Martin Sellbom
This study examined the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) Triarchic Psychopathy scales recently developed by Sellbom et al. ( 2016 ) in 3 separate groups of male correctional inmates and 2 college samples. Participants were administered a diverse battery of psychopathy specific measures (e.g., Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare, 2003 ], Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised [Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005 ], Triarchic Psychopathy Measure [Patrick, 2010 ]), omnibus personality and psychopathology measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 2007 ) and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012 ), and narrow-band measures that capture conceptually relevant constructs...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808160/anticipation-of-guilt-for-everyday-moral-transgressions-the-role-of-the-anterior-insula-and-the-influence-of-interpersonal-psychopathic-traits
#13
Ana Seara-Cardoso, Catherine L Sebastian, Eamon McCrory, Lucy Foulkes, Marine Buon, Jonathan P Roiser, Essi Viding
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterised by atypical moral behaviour likely rooted in atypical affective/motivational processing, as opposed to an inability to judge the wrongness of an action. Guilt is a moral emotion believed to play a crucial role in adherence to moral and social norms, but the mechanisms by which guilt (or lack thereof) may influence behaviour in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits are unclear. We measured neural responses during the anticipation of guilt about committing potential everyday moral transgressions, and tested the extent to which these varied with psychopathic traits...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806424/-care-provided-to-psychopaths-in-rostock
#14
K Haack, E Kumbier
In the first decades of the 20(th) century stations for observing "psychopathological" children and adolescents were established at a number of psychiatric facilities in the German Reich. Often they functioned as the nucleus for future psychiatric clinics for children and adolescents. Using primary sources of the Landeshauptarchiv Schwerin (main land archive in Schwerin), the local development of the neuropsychiatric clinic in Rostock-Gehlsheim is illustrated in this paper, exploring the question to what degree it caused the specific development of psychiatry in the child and adolescent age group...
October 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797551/narcissism-and-response-validity-do-individuals-with-narcissistic-features-underreport-psychopathology
#15
Chelsea E Sleep, Martin Sellbom, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
Narcissism is broadly described as a grandiose sense of self, feelings of entitlement, and a need for attention and admiration. Theorists have long suggested that to maintain an overly positive self-image, individuals with narcissistic features often self-enhance (Leary, 2007) and exhibit distorted (John & Robins, 1994) self-perceptions. Despite this theoretical link, little is known about its relationship to response style, particularly in regard to underreporting or defensiveness. Nevertheless, response style has been extensively studied in psychopathy, narcissism's closest neighbor, due to concerns that psychopathic individuals may lack insight into their traits and/or may be unwilling to admit to perceived faults or difficulties...
October 31, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797544/do-psychopathic-individuals-possess-a-misaligned-moral-compass-a-meta-analytic-examination-of-psychopathy-s-relations-with-moral-judgment
#16
Julia Marshall, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathic individuals are often characterized as lacking a moral sense. Although this hypothesis has received ample experimental attention over the past decade, findings have been inconsistent. To elucidate the relationship between psychopathy and abnormal moral judgment, we conducted a meta-analysis of the research on psychopathy and morality-related variables (k = 23, N = 4376). A random effects model indicated a small but statistically significant relation between psychopathy and moral decision-making (rw = ...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786502/childhood-psychopathic-personality-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-the-prediction-of-conduct-problems
#17
Louise Frogner, Chris L Gibson, Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed
This study analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study of Swedish preschoolers to examine whether psychopathic traits and concurrent conduct problems predict future conduct problems (CP) across 1- and 2-year follow-ups into early childhood. We tested the predictive ability of psychopathic traits while controlling for concurrent CP, and also by combining psychopathic traits with concurrent CP. A community sample of 1,867 preschoolers (47% girls) ages 3 to 5 years at baseline was recruited from a Swedish medium-sized municipality...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776612/psychopathic-traits-mediate-the-effects-of-neighbourhood-risk-on-juvenile-antisocial-behaviour
#18
Olalla Cutrín Mosteiro, José A Gómez Fraguela, Lorena Maneiro Boo, Jorge Sobral Fernández, María A Luengo Martín
BACKGROUND: Research of the indirect effects of neighbourhood risk through psychopathic personality traits (i.e., impulsiveness, narcissism and callous-unemotional traits) on juvenile antisocial behaviour has become relevant. METHODS: In the current study, mediation effects were assessed using a sample composed of 406 young people between 14 and 21 years old, 82.7% males, from juvenile centres in Galicia and Andalucía (Spain). RESULTS: The results showed significant mediation effects of neighbourhood risk on antisocial behaviour through impulsiveness and callous-unemotional traits...
November 2016: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775411/information-processing-capacity-in-psychopathy-effects-of-anomalous-attention
#19
Rachel K B Hamilton, Joseph P Newman
Hamilton and colleagues (2015) recently proposed that an integrative deficit in psychopathy restricts simultaneous processing, thereby leaving fewer resources available for information encoding, narrowing the scope of attention, and undermining associative processing. The current study evaluated this parallel processing deficit proposal using the Simultaneous-Sequential paradigm. This investigation marks the first a priori test of the Hamilton et al.'s theoretical framework. We predicted that psychopathy would be associated with inferior performance (as indexed by lower accuracy and longer response time) on trials requiring simultaneous processing of visual information relative to trials necessitating sequential processing...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745723/-psychological-processes-of-stress-management-and-neuroendocrine-regulation-in-incarcerated-adolescent-offenders-a-pilot-study
#20
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
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