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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163318/anger-as-a-basic-emotion-and-its-role-in-personality-building-and-pathological-growth-the-neuroscientific-developmental-and-clinical-perspectives
#1
Riccardo Williams
Anger is probably one of the mostly debated basic emotions, owing to difficulties in detecting its appearance during development, its functional and affective meaning (is it a positive or a negative emotion?), especially in human beings. Behaviors accompanied by anger and rage serve many different purposes and the nuances of aggressive behaviors are often defined by the symbolic and cultural framework and social contexts. Nonetheless, recent advances in neuroscientific and developmental research, as well as clinical psychodynamic investigation, afford a new view on the role of anger in informing and guiding many aspects of human conducts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157511/subtypes-of-homicide-offenders-based-on-psychopathic-traits
#2
Marija Pajevic, Borjanka Batinic, Nikola Stevanovic
The aim of the present study was to explore the subtypes of offenders based on psychopathic traits in a sample of 127 adult homicide offenders (n=40.3% convicted of murder, n=32.6% convicted of aggravated murder, n=27.1% convicted of attempted murder). A two-step cluster analysis of the four factors of psychopathy yielded three clusters, which were then compared on the general dimensions of personality defined by the HEXACO model, intelligence, sadism and psychopathology variables conceptualized by the MMPI-202...
November 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152733/factorial-and-convergent-validity-of-the-youth-psychopathic-traits-inventory-short-version-in-ghana
#3
Samuel Adjorlolo, Bruce D Watt
Studies have shown the existence of psychopathy construct in Western cultures. However, there is a general lack of research on this topical issue in non-Western countries, specifically sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, this study investigated the factorial and convergent validity of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) in 327 adolescents in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure (interpersonal, behavioural and affective) of psychopathy that was invariant across gender...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134867/the-best-of-leaders-at-the-worst-of-times-medical-scientist-and-war-premier
#4
Nicholas Coni
Professor Juan Negrín López was Prime Minister of the democratically elected left-wing government of Spain for the latter two-and-a-half years of the three-year Civil War which ravaged the country between 1936 and 1939. The side loyal to the government lost, partly because of the generous aid received by their opponents from Germany and Italy, partly because of the Anglo-French agreement, observed by most countries but ignored by Germany and Italy, to outlaw arms supplies to either side, partly because of internal dissent, and partly because of the greater military capability of the enemy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130147/callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-brain-drug-craving-response-in-high-risk-young-offenders
#5
Gina M Vincent, Lora M Cope, Jean King, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Kent A Kiehl
Adults with psychopathy have a high propensity for substance abuse, generally starting from a young age. This investigation tested hypotheses about differences in the neural responses associated with drug craving among high-risk young offenders with histories of abuse of stimulants and other drugs as a function of psychopathic traits. Fifty-four male adolescents (44 with a history of stimulant abuse and 10 controls) incarcerated at a maximum-security facility (M age = 17.08 years) completed a drug-cue exposure task while brain hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a mobile MRI scanner stationed at the facility...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121811/evidence-for-two-levels-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-aggression-among-incarcerated-young-male-violent-offenders
#6
Anna-Kari Sjödin, Märta Wallinius, Eva Billstedt, Björn Hofvander, Thomas Nilsson
Furthering knowledge of the subset of incarcerated partner violent offenders distinguished by aggression, anger, and hostility is relevant, as these offenders are guilty of the more severe kinds of intimate partner violence (IPV). Our aim was to identify groups with different patterns of IPV among convicted young Swedish male offenders, using data from the Development of Aggressive Antisocial Behavior Study, including 171 young men (18-25 years) convicted of a violent crime. Cluster analysis was used to identify different clusters based on amount and severity of IPV in combination with measures of anger, hostility, aggression, and psychopathic personality traits...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120196/psychopathy-and-heroism-in-first-responders-traits-cut-from-the-same-cloth
#7
Christina L Patton, Sarah Francis Smith, Scott O Lilienfeld
Some scholars have posited that certain traits associated with psychopathy-namely, fearlessness, boldness, and willingness to take risks-are associated with greater engagement in heroic and altruistic acts; nevertheless, this conjecture has received little empirical attention. We examined the relations among psychopathic traits, heroism, altruism, workplace deviance, and leadership in first-responder (n = 138) and civilian (n = 104) samples recruited by means of an online platform. Across samples, fearless dominance, boldness, sensation seeking, and several other psychopathy-related variables were positively and significantly associated with everyday heroism and altruism...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117769/psychophysiological-reactivity-profiles-of-partner-violent-men-with-borderline-or-psychopathic-personality-features-the-role-of-empathy
#8
Nicholas A Armenti, Julia C Babcock
Borderline and psychopathic features have been linked to unique psychophysiological reactivity profiles. Studies have suggested that levels of psychophysiological reactivity for partner-violent men cannot be attributed to personality features alone. This study tested cognitive and affective empathy as moderators of relations between borderline personality, Factor 1 psychopathy, and psychophysiological reactivity using a community sample of 135 male participants and their female partners. Cognitive empathy moderated the relation between borderline personality features and heart rate reactivity...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106278/dark-traits-and-suicide-associations-between-psychopathy-narcissism-and-components-of-the-interpersonal-psychological-theory-of-suicide
#9
Tiffany M Harrop, Olivia C Preston, Lauren R Khazem, Michael D Anestis, Regis Junearick, Bradley A Green, Joye C Anestis
Studies have identified independent relationships between psychopathy, narcissism, and suicidality. The current study expands upon the extant literature by exploring psychopathic and narcissistic personality traits and components of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, utilizing a 3-factor model of psychopathy and 2-factor model of pathological narcissism in community, undergraduate, and military individuals. We hypothesized that the impulsive-antisocial facets of psychopathy would be related to suicidal desire, whereas all facets of psychopathy would relate to the capability for suicide...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106272/concurrent-and-developmental-correlates-of-psychopathic-traits-using-a-triarchic-psychopathy-model-approach
#10
Hailey L Dotterer, Rebecca Waller, Lora M Cope, Brian M Hicks, Joel T Nigg, Robert A Zucker, Luke W Hyde
Psychopathy refers to a heterogeneous set of harmful dark traits and behaviors, including superficial charm, callousness, irresponsibility, and antisocial behavior. The triarchic psychopathy model (TriPM) posits that psychopathy is the combination of 3 traits: boldness, disinhibition, and meanness. However, little research has examined the concurrent and developmental correlates of these traits. We developed TriPM scales from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised using an empirical-derived approach in a high-risk sample of 561 young adults (ages 17-25; 70...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098703/autonomic-conditioning-to-monetary-and-social-stimuli-and-aggression-in-children
#11
Yu Gao, Krystal Mendez, Xiaobo Li, Meng-Cheng Wang
Poor conditioning to punishment, such as loud tones or electric shock, has been proposed as an important factor involved in the etiology of aggressive and psychopathic behavior. However, it is not known whether the association holds when monetary or social stimulus is used as the unconditioned stimulus, and if aggressive individuals also have impaired conditioning to rewards. In this study, skin conductance responses in a conditioning task involving both monetary/social reward and punishment as unconditioned stimuli were assessed in 340 male and female 8- to 9-year-old children from the community...
November 3, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047319/hedge-fund-managers-with-psychopathic-tendencies-make-for-worse-investors
#12
Leanne Ten Brinke, Aimee Kish, Dacher Keltner
It is widely assumed that psychopathic personality traits promote success in high-powered, competitive contexts such as financial investment. By contrast, empirical studies find that psychopathic leaders can be charming and persuasive, but poor performers who mismanage, bully, and engage in unethical behavior. By coding nonverbal behaviors displayed in semistructured interviews, we identified the psychopathic, Machiavellian, and narcissistic tendencies in 101 hedge fund managers, and examined whether these traits were associated with financial performance over the course of 10 diverse years of economic volatility (2005-2015)...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040976/diagnosing-psychopathy-through-emotional-regulation-tasks-heart-rate-variability-versus-implicit-association-test
#13
Gerardo Flórez, Xosé A Vila, María J Lado, Pedro Cuesta, Ventura Ferrer, Luis S García, María R Crespo, Manuel Pérez
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the assessment of psychopathy relies on semistructured interviews plus file reviews. In order to improve the predictive validity of psychopathy at the individual level, tools that are not based on the rating of signs and symptoms are in great need. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates have served at least 6 months of their sentence at the Pereiro de Aguiar (Ourense, Spain) penitentiary...
October 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035064/two-subtypes-of-psychopathic-criminals-differ-in-negative-affect-and-history-of-childhood-abuse
#14
Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
OBJECTIVE: Specification of the etiological mechanisms underlying psychopathy is a key step in developing more effective methods for preventing and remediating the callous and impulsive behavior that characterizes the disorder. Theoretical conceptualizations of psychopathic subtypes propose that a primary variant largely stems from impoverished affect, whereas a secondary variant is hypothesized to develop subsequent to adverse environmental experiences (e.g., childhood maltreatment)...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023777/self-and-informant-perceptions-of-psychopathic-traits-in-relation-to-the-triarchic-model
#15
Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, M Brent Donnellan, Elyse N Mowle, Karolina Sörman
OBJECTIVE: The validity of self-report psychopathy measures may be undermined by characteristics thought to be defining features of the construct, including poor self-awareness, pathological lying, and impression management. The current study examined agreement between self- and informant perceptions of psychopathic traits captured by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowler, & Krueger, 2009) and the extent to which psychopathic traits are associated with socially desirable responding. METHOD: Participants were undergraduate roommate dyads (N = 174; Mage  = 18...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993727/pain-processing-in-a-social-context-and-the-link-with-psychopathic-personality-traits-an-event-related-potential-study
#16
Casper H van Heck, Josi M A Driessen, Maria Amato, Marnou N van den Berg, Pritha Bhandari, Laura Bilbao-Broch, Jordi Farres-Casals, Manon Hendriks, Adrian C Jodzio, Laura Luque-Ballesteros, Christina Schöchl, Laura R Velasco-Angeles, Roel H A Weijer, Clementina M van Rijn, Marijtje L A Jongsma
Empathy describes the ability to understand another person's feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of "villain" and "victim"...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992741/neuropsychology-and-emotion-processing-in-violent-individuals-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-or-schizophrenia-the-same-or-different-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Ottilie Sedgwick, Susan Young, David Baumeister, Ben Greer, Mrigendra Das, Veena Kumari
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets...
October 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992269/white-matter-correlates-of-psychopathic-traits-in-a-female-community-sample
#18
Philip Lindner, Meenal Budhiraja, Johan Westerman, Ivanka Savic, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
Psychopathy comprises interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial facets that vary dimensionally in the population and are associated with criminal offending and adverse psychosocial outcomes. Evidence associating these facets with white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum tracts is inconsistent and derives principally from studies of male offenders. In a sample of 99 young women presenting a range of scores on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging, tractography and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to investigate microstructure across the brain and of the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987062/aggressiveness-and-the-intensity-of-psychopathic-symptoms-gender-differences
#19
Marlena Banasik, Krzysztof Gierowski, Krzysztof Nowakowski
OBJECTIVES: The analysis of the recent international reports in the literature on psychopathy has proved irrefutablythat there is a necessity for the in-depth studies on psychopathy among the female sentenced offenders. Although there is no disagreement among the researchers on the 'male' form of this disorder, there are still very few gender comparative studies. The aim of this project was to investigate the relationship between the intensity of particular psychopathic features and aggressive tendencies in a group of female and male inmates...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980824/the-durand-adaptive-psychopathic-traits-questionnaire-development-and-validation
#20
Guillaume Durand
Although the term psychopathy is embedded with negativity, evidence points to the existence of another form of psychopathy, which involves adaptive traits such as stress and anxiety immunity, remarkable social skills, noteworthy leadership ability, and an absence of fear. The newly developed Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ) aims to assess adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Validation of the questionnaire among 765 individuals from the community gave support to a 9-factor solution: Leadership, Logical Thinking, Composure, Creativity, Fearlessness, Money Smart, Focus, Extroversion, and Management...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
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