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Sean Page, Ian Davies-Abbott, Mat Phillips
Dementia Care Mapping™ is widely acknowledged as the gold standard observational method that can support the introduction of person centred care into a variety of settings ( It encourages care staff to think about how the person with dementia is experiencing the care provided and the care setting. It has been shown to raise care staff awareness sufficiently to bring about improvements in care. In this paper, we describe a programme of work in North Wales that seeks to find innovative ways to use Dementia Care Mapping™, in acute mental health admission wards for people affected by dementia, and we set out some of those innovations...
October 21, 2016: Dementia
Andressa S Pinto, Marcio F Chedid, Léa T Guerra, Mario R Álvares-DA-Silva, Alexandre de Araújo, Luciano S Guimarães, Ian Leipnitz, Aljamir D Chedid, Cleber R P Kruel, Tomaz J M Grezzana-Filho, Cleber D P Kruel
Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Ian M Orme, Diane J Ordway
This article describes the nature of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse and guinea pig models of infection. It describes the great wealth of information obtained from the mouse model, reflecting the general availability of immunological reagents, as well as genetic manipulations of the mouse strains themselves. This has led to a good understanding of the nature of the T-cell response to the infection, as well as an appreciation of the complexity of the response involving multiple cytokine- and chemokine-mediated systems...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Ian T Nathanson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chest
Giulio Franco Paciotti, Jielu Zhao, Shugeng Cao, Peggy J Brodie, Lawrence Tamarkin, Marja Huhta, Lonnie D Myer, Jay Friedman, David George Ian Kingston
The synthesis of a series of thiolated paclitaxel analogs is described as part of a novel nanomedicine program aimed at developing formulations of paclitaxel that bind to gold nanoparticles for tumor targeted drug delivery. Evaluation of the analogs led to the selection of analog 5 as the basis for the new nanomedicine CYT-21625, comprised of 27 nm gold nanoparticles, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-Thiol) and analog 5 in defined ratios. CYT-21625 was evaluated for its stability in blood and for intra-tumor drug release, and it was shown to have a similar anti-tumor effect to that of paclitaxel in B16/F10 tumor burdened C57Bl/6 mice, but at a 16-fold lower dose...
September 30, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Richard Eastell, Terence W O'Neill, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Bente Langdahl, Ian R Reid, Deborah T Gold, Steven R Cummings
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. Fractures of the proximal femur, the vertebrae and the distal radius are the most frequent osteoporotic fractures, although most fractures in the elderly are probably at least partly related to bone fragility. The incidence of fractures varies greatly by country, but on average up to 50% of women >50 years of age are at risk of fractures. Fractures severely affect the quality of life of an individual and are becoming a major public health problem owing to the ageing population...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Anna L MacKinnon, Mariam Naguib, Helena J Barr, Anna Levinsson, Stephanie Robins, Nancy Feeley, Barbara Hayton, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Ian Gold
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of mental health problems during the perinatal period, little research has examined psychotic symptoms in a community sample across pregnancy and the postpartum. Exposure to environmental risk factors, and immigration in particular, are associated with increased risk for psychotic disorders. The current investigation examined whether psychosocial risk and immigrant status would predict levels of delusional ideation across the perinatal period when controlling for depression, anxiety, and demographic factors...
September 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Siew Choo Su, Ian Brent Masters, Helen Buntain, Kieran Frawley, Anubhav Sarikwal, Debbie Watson, Frances Ware, Jan Wuth, Anne Bernadette Chang
INTRODUCTION: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is the current gold standard for diagnosing tracheobronchomalacia. However, it is not always feasible and virtual bronchoscopy (VB), acquired from chest multi-detector CT (MDCT) scan is an alternative diagnostic tool. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of VB compared to FB in diagnosing tracheobronchomalacia. METHODS: Children aged <18-years scheduled for FB and MDCT were recruited...
September 18, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Jesse K McKenney, Wei Wei, Sarah Hawley, Heidi Auman, Lisa F Newcomb, Hilary D Boyer, Ladan Fazli, Jeff Simko, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Dean A Troyer, Maria S Tretiakova, Funda Vakar-Lopez, Peter R Carroll, Matthew R Cooperberg, Martin E Gleave, Raymond S Lance, Dan W Lin, Peter S Nelson, Ian M Thompson, Lawrence D True, Ziding Feng, James D Brooks
Histologic grading remains the gold standard for prognosis in prostate cancer, and assessment of Gleason score plays a critical role in active surveillance management. We sought to optimize the prognostic stratification of grading and developed a method of recording and studying individual architectural patterns by light microscopic evaluation that is independent of standard Gleason grade. Some of the evaluated patterns are not assessed by current Gleason grading (eg, reactive stromal response). Individual histologic patterns were correlated with recurrence-free survival in a retrospective postradical prostatectomy cohort of 1275 patients represented by the highest-grade foci of carcinoma in tissue microarrays...
November 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Tyler A Morhart, Amanda Quirk, Michael J Lardner, Tim E May, Scott M Rosendahl, Ian J Burgess
Characterization of surface adsorbed species using infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides valuable information concerning interfacial chemical and physical processes. However, in situ infrared studies of surface areas approaching the IR diffraction limit, such as micrometer scale electrodes, require a hitherto unrealized means to obtain high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra from femtomole quantities of adsorbed molecules. A major methodological breakthrough is described that couples the high brilliance of synchrotron-sourced infrared microscopy with attenuated total reflection surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS)...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jonathan Logan, Ross Harder, Luxi Li, Daniel Haskel, Pice Chen, Robert Winarski, Peter Fuesz, Deborah Schlagel, David Vine, Christa Benson, Ian McNulty
Recent progress in the development of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, a new technique for simultaneous three-dimensional imaging of strain and magnetization at the nanoscale, is reported. This progress includes the installation of a diamond X-ray phase retarder at beamline 34-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the phase retarder for tuning X-ray polarization is demonstrated with temperature-dependent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on a gadolinium foil in transmission and on a Gd5Si2Ge2 crystal in diffraction geometry with a partially coherent, focused X-ray beam...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Stella Mazeri, Neil Sargison, Robert F Kelly, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ian Handel
The clinical and economic importance of fasciolosis has been recognised for centuries, yet diagnostic tests available for cattle are far from perfect. Test evaluation has mainly been carried out using gold standard approaches or under experimental settings, the limitations of which are well known. In this study, a Bayesian no gold standard approach was used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of five tests for fasciolosis in cattle. These included detailed liver necropsy including gall bladder egg count, faecal egg counting, a commercially available copro-antigen ELISA, an in-house serum excretory/secretory antibody ELISA and routine abattoir liver inspection...
2016: PloS One
Aoife A Donnelly, Tadhg E MacIntyre, Nollaig O'Sullivan, Giles Warrington, Andrew J Harrison, Eric R Igou, Marc Jones, Chris Gidlow, Noel Brick, Ian Lahart, Ross Cloak, Andrew M Lane
This paper considers the environmental impact on well-being and performance in elite athletes during Olympic competition. The benefits of exercising in natural environments are recognized, but less is known about the effects on performance and health in elite athletes. Although some Olympic events take place in natural environments, the majority occur in the host city, usually a large densely populated area where low exposure to natural environments is compounded by exposure to high levels of air, water, and noise pollution in the ambient environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Gary Beale, Emma J Haagensen, Huw D Thomas, Lan-Zhen Wang, Charlotte H Revill, Sara L Payne, Bernard T Golding, Ian R Hardcastle, David R Newell, Roger J Griffin, Celine Cano
BACKGROUND: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) pathway is commonly deregulated in human cancer, hence many PI3K and mTOR inhibitors have been developed and have now reached clinical trials. Similarly, CDKs have been investigated as cancer drug targets. METHODS: We have synthesised and characterised a series of 6-aminopyrimidines identified from a kinase screen that inhibit PI3K and/or mTOR and/or CDK2. Kinase inhibition, tumour cell growth, cell cycle distribution, cytotoxicity and signalling experiments were undertaken in HCT116 and HT29 colorectal cancer cell lines, and in vivo HT29 efficacy studies...
September 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Senthooran Selvarajah, Ian Todd, Patrick J Tighe, Michelle John, Charlotte E Bolton, Timothy Harrison, Lucy C Fairclough
Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1-3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Ian Bruzas, Sarah Unser, Sadegh Yazdi, Emilie Ringe, Laura Sagle
Lipid membranes and membrane proteins are important biosensing targets, motivating the development of label-free methods with improved sensitivity. Silica-coated metal nanoparticles allow these systems to be combined with supported lipid bilayers for sensing membrane proteins through localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, the small sensing volume of LSPR makes the thickness of the silica layer critical for performance. Here, we develop a simple, inexpensive, and rapid sol-gel method for preparing thin conformal, continuous silica films and demonstrate its applicability using gold nanodisk arrays with LSPRs in the near-infrared range...
August 16, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Steven J Pascoe, David A Lipson, Nicholas Locantore, Helen Barnacle, Noushin Brealey, Rajat Mohindra, Mark T Dransfield, Ian Pavord, Neil Barnes
Patients with symptomatic advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who experience recurrent exacerbations are particularly at risk of poor outcomes and present a significant burden on healthcare systems. The relative merits of treating with different inhaled combination therapies e.g. inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), LABA/long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), ICS/LABA/LAMA, in this patient group are poorly understood, as is reflected in current guidelines. The InforMing the PAthway of COPD Treatment (IMPACT) study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate (FF)/umeclidinium (UMEC)/vilanterol (VI) versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI over a 52-week treatment period...
August 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Stephanie M Myers, Ruth H Bawn, Louise C Bisset, Timothy J Blackburn, Betty Cottyn, Lauren Molyneux, Ai-Ching Wong, Celine Cano, William Clegg, Ross W Harrington, Hing Leung, Laurent Rigoreau, Sandrine Vidot, Bernard T Golding, Roger J Griffin, Tim Hammonds, David R Newell, Ian R Hardcastle
The extracellular-related kinase 5 (ERK5) is a promising target for cancer therapy. A high-throughput screen was developed for ERK5, based on the IMAP FP progressive binding system, and used to identify hits from a library of 57 617 compounds. Four distinct chemical series were evident within the screening hits. Resynthesis and reassay of the hits demonstrated that one series did not return active compounds, whereas three series returned active hits. Structure-activity studies demonstrated that the 4-benzoylpyrrole-2-carboxamide pharmacophore had excellent potential for further development...
August 8, 2016: ACS Combinatorial Science
Hasan Sari, Kjell Erlandsson, Ian Law, Henrik Bw Larsson, Sebastien Ourselin, Simon Arridge, David Atkinson, Brian F Hutton
Kinetic analysis of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data requires an accurate knowledge the arterial input function. The gold standard method to measure the arterial input function requires collection of arterial blood samples and is an invasive method. Measuring an image derived input function is a non-invasive alternative but is challenging due to partial volume effects caused by the limited spatial resolution of the positron emission tomography scanners. In this work, a practical image derived input function extraction method is presented, which only requires segmentation of the carotid arteries from MR images...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Aditya P Nayak, Tom Mills, Ian Norton
Curcumin is one of the principle bioactive compounds used in the ayurvedic medicine system that has the history of over 5000 years for human use. Curcumin an "Indian Gold" is used to treat simple ailments like the common cold to severe life threatening diseases like cancer, and HIV. Though its contribution is immense for the health protection and disease prevention, its clinical use is limited due to its susceptible nature to alkaline pH, high temperature, presence of oxygen and light. Hence it becomes extremely difficult to maintain its bioactivity during processing, storage and consumption...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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