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Wenjing Kang, Cory Rusinek, Adam Bange, Erin Haynes, William R Heineman, Ian Papautsky
In this work, we report on the determination of trace manganese (Mn) using cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) using a microfabricated sensor with a Pt thin-film working electrode. While an essential trace metal for human health, prolonged exposure to Mn tends to gradually impair our neurological system. The potential sources of Mn exposure make it necessary to monitor the concentration in various sample matrices. Previous work by us and others suggested CSV as an effective method for measuring trace Mn. The analytical performance metrics were characterized and optimized, leading to a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 16...
March 2017: Electroanalysis
Martina Frick, Frederic Baumann, Beate Sick, Ian B Wilkinson, Beatrice Amann-Vesti, Marc Husmann
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of vascular diseases such as ankle-brachial index (ABI), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP), central pulse pressure (cPP), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) allow assessment of arterial organ damage (AOD). However, the utility of markers other than ABI in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which are also associated with a significant increase of cardiovascular events, remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Asymptomatic (n = 21) and symptomatic patients (n = 46) with a positive sonography for PAD or history of lower limb revascularization were included...
October 5, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Johan U Lind, Moran Yadid, Ian Perkins, Blakely B O'Connor, Feyisayo Eweje, Christophe O Chantre, Matthew A Hemphill, Hongyan Yuan, Patrick H Campbell, Joost J Vlassak, Kevin K Parker
Microphysiological systems and organs-on-chips promise to accelerate biomedical and pharmaceutical research by providing accurate in vitro replicas of human tissue. Aside from addressing the physiological accuracy of the model tissues, there is a pressing need for improving the throughput of these platforms. To do so, scalable data acquisition strategies must be introduced. To this end, we here present an instrumented 24-well plate platform for higher-throughput studies of engineered human stem cell-derived cardiac muscle tissues that recapitulate the laminar structure of the native ventricle...
October 4, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Olivia Rann, Mike Sharland, Paul Long, Ian C K Wong, Anthony A Laverty, Alex Bottle, Charlotte I Barker, Julia Bielicki, Sonia Saxena
OBJECTIVES: Inaccurate antibiotic dosing can lead to treatment failure, fuel antimicrobial resistance and increase side effects. The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) guidance recommends oral antibiotic dosing according to age bands as a proxy for weight. Recommended doses of amoxicillin for children were increased in 2014 'after widespread concerns of under dosing'. However, the impact of dose changes on British children of different weights is unknown, particularly given the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the UK...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Open
Leonora King, Stephanie Robins, Gang Chen, Volodymyr Yerko, Yi Zhou, Corina Nagy, Nancy Feeley, Ian Gold, Barbara Hayton, Gustavo Turecki, Phyllis Zelkowitz
The present study investigated the association of perinatal depression (PD) with differential methylation of 3 genomic regions among mother and child dyads: exon 3 within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and 2 intergenic regions (IGR) between the oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) genes. Maternal PD was assessed at 5 time-points during pregnancy and postpartum. Four groups were established based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) cut-off scores: no PD, prenatal or postpartum depressive symptoms only and persistent PD (depressive symptoms both prenatally and postpartum)...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Ian C Murray, Antonios Perperidis, Lorraine A Cameron, Alice D McTrusty, Harry M Brash, Andrew J Tatham, Pankaj K Agarwal, Brian W Fleck, Robert A Minns
PURPOSE: We evaluated threshold saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and compared results to standard automated perimetry (SAP). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done including 162 subjects (103 with glaucoma and 59 healthy subjects) recruited at a university hospital. All subjects underwent SAP and threshold SVOP. SVOP uses an eye tracker to monitor eye movement responses to stimuli and determines if stimuli have been perceived based on the vector of the gaze response...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Nancy Feeley, Barbara Hayton, Ian Gold, Phyllis Zelkowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Katie W Graham, Usha Chakravarthy, Ruth E Hogg, K Alyson Muldrew, Ian S Young, Frank Kee
PURPOSE: To compare multicolor (MC) and traditional color fundus photography (CFP) in their ability to detect features of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Study design: Observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: fundus images captured using standard CFP and MC imaging from 33 patients attending hospital clinics and 26 participants from the pilot phase of the Northern Ireland Cohort for the Longitudinal Study of Ageing (NICOLA)...
August 22, 2017: Retina
Francis Nissen, Daniel R Morales, Hana Mullerova, Liam Smeeth, Ian J Douglas, Jennifer K Quint
OBJECTIVES: The optimal method of identifying people with asthma from electronic health records in primary care is not known. The aim of this study is to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of different algorithms using clinical codes and prescription data to identify people with asthma in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). METHODS: 684 participants registered with a general practitioner (GP) practice contributing to CPRD between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2015 were selected according to one of eight predefined potential asthma identification algorithms...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
Ravi Lalla, Ian Sammy, Joanne Paul, Paula Nunes, Vidya Ramcharitar Maharaj, Paula Robertson
Background Social risk is rarely evaluated in older emergency department (ED) patients, although its identification can reduce re-attendance. Objectives This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Triage Risk Screening Tool (TRST) in the ED of a developing country. Methods The diagnostic accuracy of the TRST to detect elderly adults in need of social service intervention was compared with routine clinical evaluation, using comprehensive evaluation by an experienced social worker as the "gold standard"...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
Mircea Dragoman, Mircea Modreanu, Ian M Povey, Sergiu Iordanescu, Martino Aldrigo, Cosmin Romanitan, Dan Vasilache, Adrian Dinescu, Daniela Dragoman
In this letter, we report for the first time very large phase shifts of microwaves in the 1-10 GHz range, in a 1 mm long gold coplanar interdigitated structure deposited over a 6 nm Hf x Zr1-x O2 ferroelectric grown directly on a high resistivity silicon substrate. The phase shift is larger than 60° at 1 GHz and 13° at 10 GHz at maximum applied DC voltages of ±3 V, which can be supplied by a simple commercial battery. In this way, we demonstrate experimentally that the new ferroelectrics based on HfO2 could play an important role in the future development of wireless communication systems for very low power applications...
August 4, 2017: Nanotechnology
Piersandro Pallavicini, Barbara Bassi, Giuseppe Chirico, Maddalena Collini, Giacomo Dacarro, Emiliano Fratini, Pietro Grisoli, Maddalena Patrini, Laura Sironi, Angelo Taglietti, Marcel Moritz, Ioritz Sorzabal-Bellido, Arturo Susarrey-Arce, Edward Latter, Alison J Beckett, Ian A Prior, Rasmita Raval, Yuri A Diaz Fernandez
Photo-responsive antibacterial surfaces combining both on-demand photo-switchable activity and sustained biocidal release were prepared using sequential chemical grafting of nano-objects with different geometries and functions. The multi-layered coating developed incorporates a monolayer of near-infrared active silica-coated gold nanostars (GNS) decorated by silver nanoparticles (AgNP). This modular approach also enables us to unravel static and photo-activated contributions to the overall antibacterial performance of the surfaces, demonstrating a remarkable synergy between these two mechanisms...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Till Bärnighausen, John-Arne Røttingen, Peter Rockers, Ian Shemilt, Peter Tugwell
OBJECTIVE: To contrast the historical development of experiments and quasi-experiments and provide the motivation for a journal series on quasi-experimental designs in health research STUDY DESIGN: A short historical narrative, with concrete examples, and arguments based on an understanding of the practice of health research and evidence synthesis RESULTS: Health research has played a key role in developing today's gold standard for causal inference - the randomized controlled multiply blinded trial...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Ruth A Sibbett, Tom C Russ, Ian J Deary, John M Starr
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the risk factors for or causation of dementia must consider subjects prior to disease onset. To overcome the limitations of prospective studies and self-reported recall of information, the use of existing data is key. This review provides a narrative account of dementia ascertainment methods using sources of existing data. METHODS: The literature search was performed using: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo and Web of Science. Included articles reported a UK-based study of dementia in which cases were ascertained using existing data...
July 3, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Mariana Cardenas-Gonzalez, Anand Srivastava, Mira Pavkovic, Vanesa Bijol, Helmut G Rennke, Isaac E Stillman, Xiaolan Zhang, Samir Parikh, Brad H Rovin, Maryam Afkarian, Ian H de Boer, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Sushrut S Waikar, Vishal S Vaidya
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Kidney biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing the underlying etiology of CKD, but the procedure carries complication risks. The aim of this study was to identify novel noninvasive biomarkers correlating with kidney function and histopathology in biopsy-proven CKD patients. METHODS: We profiled 2402 urinary microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify and confirm differentially expressed miRNAs associated with kidney function and histopathology in patients with diabetic nephropathy (n = 58) or lupus nephritis (n = 89), important etiologies of CKD, compared with healthy controls (n = 93 and 119, respectively)...
September 2017: Clinical Chemistry
Ian Wong, Simon Law
Pneumatic dilatation and Heller myotomy have been thoroughly studied as the most viable treatment options for achalasia. The pendulum, however, is shifting to the minimally invasive approach. Since Inoue et al. published the experience of the first 17 cases of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in 2010, there have been at least 5,000 cases performed worldwide and the number is increasing exponentially. Experts across the globe have been extending the indications to various esophageal motility disorders, to patients of extremes of age, sigmoidal esophagus and re-operated patients...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Belinda F Morrison, Ian White-Gittens, Simon Smith, Shari St John, Romar Bent, Rory Dixon
INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction and infertility are common in males with traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and infertility in males with traumatic SCI managed in Jamaica, as well as the therapeutic options offered. CASE PRESENTATION: A cross-sectional study including males with traumatic SCI managed at the Sir John Golding Rehabilitation Centre, Kingston, Jamaica was carried out between 1 January and 31 December 2015...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Francis Nissen, Jennifer K Quint, Samantha Wilkinson, Hana Mullerova, Liam Smeeth, Ian J Douglas
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common, heterogeneous disease with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. It can be difficult to define in epidemiological studies using electronic health records as the diagnosis is based on non-specific respiratory symptoms and spirometry, neither of which are routinely registered. Electronic health records can nonetheless be valuable to study the epidemiology, management, healthcare use and control of asthma. For health databases to be useful sources of information, asthma diagnoses should ideally be validated...
May 29, 2017: BMJ Open
William Lum, Ian Bruzas, Zohre Gorunmez, Sarah Unser, Thomas Beck, Laura Sagle
Although great strides have been made in recent years toward making highly enhancing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates, the biological compatibility of such substrates remains a crucial problem. To address this issue, liposome-based SERS substrates have been constructed in which the biological probe molecule is encapsulated inside the aqueous liposome compartment, and metallic elements are assembled using the liposome as a scaffold. Therefore, the probe molecule is not in contact with the metallic surfaces...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Dmitry Khodyakov, Kathi Kinnett, Sean Grant, Ann Lucas, Ann Martin, Brian Denger, Holly Peay, Ian Coulter, Arlene Fink
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines provide systematically developed recommendations for deciding on appropriate health care options for specific conditions and clinical circumstances. Up until recently, patients and caregivers have rarely been included in the process of developing care guidelines. OBJECTIVE: This project will develop and test a new online method for including patients and their caregivers in this process using Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) care guidelines as an example...
April 28, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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