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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905964/what-is-the-optimal-recall-period-for-verbal-autopsies-validation-study-based-on-repeat-interviews-in-three-populations
#1
Peter Serina, Ian Riley, Bernardo Hernandez, Abraham D Flaxman, Devarsetty Praveen, Veronica Tallo, Rohina Joshi, Diozele Sanvictores, Andrea Stewart, Meghan D Mooney, Christopher J L Murray, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: One key contextual feature in Verbal Autopsy (VA) is the time between death and survey administration, or recall period. This study quantified the effect of recall period on VA performance by using a paired dataset in which two VAs were administered for a single decedent. METHODS: This study used information from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) Study, which collected VAs for "gold standard" cases where cause of death (COD) was supported by clinical criteria...
October 18, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890594/an-investigation-of-trends-in-precious-metal-and-copper-content-of-ram-modules-in-weee-implications-for-long-term-recycling-potential
#2
Rhys Gareth Charles, Peter Douglas, Ingrid Liv Hallin, Ian Matthews, Gareth Liversage
Precious metal (PM) and copper content of dynamic-RAM modules placed on the market during 1991-2008 has been analysed by AAS following comminution and acid digestion. Linear regression analysis of compositional data ordered according to sample chronology was used to identify historic temporal trends in module composition resulting from changes in manufacturing practices, and to project future trends for use in more accurate assessment of future recycling potential. DRAM was found to be 'high grade' waste with: stable levels of gold and silver over time; 80% reduction in palladium content during 1991-2008; and 0...
November 24, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879522/a-systematic-review-of-completeness-of-reporting-in-randomized-controlled-trials-in-dermatologic-surgery-adherence-to-consort-2010-recommendations
#3
Murad Alam, Mutahir Rauf, Sana Ali, Parth Patel, Daniel I Schlessinger, Matthew R Schaeffer, Simon S Yoo, Kira Minkis, Shang I Brian Jiang, Ian A Maher, Joseph F Sobanko, Todd V Cartee, Emily Poon
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for comparing safety and effectiveness of surgical interventions. Reporting guidelines are available for conveying the results of such trials. OBJECTIVE: To assess adherence to standard reporting guidelines among randomized controlled trials in dermatologic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic review. Data source was randomized controlled trials in the journal Dermatologic Surgery, per PubMed search, 1995 to 2014...
December 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876146/vertical-flow-paper-sers-system-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-flucytosine-in-serum
#4
Adam G Berger, Stephen M Restaino, Ian M White
A number of life-saving drugs require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for safe and effective use. Currently, however, TDM is performed using sophisticated analytical techniques relegated to central labs, increasing the cost per test and time to answer. Here, using a novel vertical flow membrane system with inkjet-printed surface enhanced Raman sensors, along with a portable spectrometer, we demonstrate a low cost and easy to use device to quantify levels of flucytosine, an antifungal that requires TDM for effective patient care, from undiluted human serum...
January 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833459/what-is-the-optimal-recall-period-for-verbal-autopsies-validation-study-based-on-repeat-interviews-in-three-populations
#5
Peter Serina, Ian Riley, Bernardo Hernandez, Abraham D Flaxman, Devarsetty Praveen, Veronica Tallo, Rohina Joshi, Diozele Sanvictores, Andrea Stewart, Meghan D Mooney, Christopher J L Murray, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: One key contextual feature in Verbal Autopsy (VA) is the time between death and survey administration, or recall period. This study quantified the effect of recall period on VA performance by using a paired dataset in which two VAs were administered for a single decedent. METHODS: This study used information from the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC) Study, which collected VAs for "gold standard" cases where cause of death (COD) was supported by clinical criteria...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833088/structure-guided-design-of-purine-based-probes-for-selective-nek2-inhibition
#6
Christopher R Coxon, Christopher Wong, Richard Bayliss, Kathy Boxall, Katherine H Carr, Andrew M Fry, Ian R Hardcastle, Christopher J Matheson, David R Newell, Mangaleswaran Sivaprakasam, Huw Thomas, David Turner, Sharon Yeoh, Lan Z Wang, Roger J Griffin, Bernard T Golding, Céline Cano
Nek2 (NIMA-related kinase 2) is a cell cycle-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates centrosome separation at the onset of mitosis. Overexpression of Nek2 is common in human cancers and suppression can restrict tumor cell growth and promote apoptosis. Nek2 inhibition with small molecules, therefore, offers the prospect of a new therapy for cancer. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of the requirements for selective-inhibition of Nek2 is required. 6-Alkoxypurines were identified as ATP-competitive inhibitors of Nek2 and CDK2...
November 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825307/prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-predictive-factors-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Jabulani R Ncayiyana, Jean Bassett, Nora West, Daniel Westreich, Eustasius Musenge, Michael Emch, Audrey Pettifor, Colleen F Hanrahan, Sheree R Schwartz, Ian Sanne, Annelies van Rie
BACKGROUND: South Africa has one of the highest burdens of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk populations such as young children, adolescents, household contacts of TB cases, people living with HIV, gold miners and health care workers, but little is known about the burden of LTBI in its general population. METHODS: Using a community-based survey with random sampling, we examined the burden of LTBI in an urban township of Johannesburg and investigated factors associated with LTBI...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808096/first-maintenance-therapy-for-copd-in-the-uk-between-2009-and-2012-a-retrospective-database-analysis
#8
David Price, Marc Miravitlles, Ian Pavord, Mike Thomas, Jadwiga Wedzicha, John Haughney, Katsiaryna Bichel, Daniel West
Clinical guidelines recommend long-acting bronchodilators as first maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) reserved for patients with more severe disease and exacerbations. The aim of this analysis was to examine real-life prescribing of first maintenance therapy for COPD in the UK. Data were extracted from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database for patients with a first prescription for COPD maintenance therapy between 2009 and 2012 and a diagnosis of COPD at or before the date of the first prescription for COPD maintenance therapy...
November 3, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803752/body-mass-index-airflow-obstruction-and-dyspnea-and-body-mass-index-airflow-obstruction-dyspnea-scores-age-and-pack-years-predictive-properties-of-new-multidimensional-prognostic-indices-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-primary-care
#9
Khalid Ansari, Niall Keaney, Andrea Kay, Monica Price, Joan Munby, Andrew Billett, Sharon Haggerty, Ian K Taylor, Hajed Al Otaibi
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should involve a multidimensional approach that is now clearly shown to be better than using spirometric impairment alone. The aim of this study is to validate and compare novel tools without an exercise test and to extend prognostic value to patients with less severe impairment of Forced expiratory volume 1 s. METHODS: A prospective, observational, primary care cohort study identified 458 eligible patients recruited from the primary care clinics in the northeast of England in 1999-2002...
October 2016: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771614/same-map-different-direction-exploring-new-opportunities-that-dementia-care-mapping%C3%A2-can-offer-to-acute-mental-health-admission-wards-for-older-people-innovative-practice
#10
Sean Page, Ian Davies-Abbott, Mat Phillips
Dementia Care Mapping™ is widely acknowledged as the gold standard observational method that can support the introduction of person centred care into a variety of settings (http://www.bradford.ac.uk/health/dementia/dementia-care-mapping/). It encourages care staff to think about how the person with dementia is experiencing the care provided and the care setting. It has been shown to raise care staff awareness sufficiently to bring about improvements in care. In this paper, we describe a programme of work in North Wales that seeks to find innovative ways to use Dementia Care Mapping™, in acute mental health admission wards for people affected by dementia, and we set out some of those innovations...
October 21, 2016: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759783/estimating-basal-energy-expenditure-in-liver-transplant-recipients-the-value-of-the-harris-benedict-equation
#11
Andressa S Pinto, Marcio F Chedid, Léa T Guerra, Mario R Álvares-DA-Silva, Alexandre de Araújo, Luciano S Guimarães, Ian Leipnitz, Aljamir D Chedid, Cleber R P Kruel, Tomaz J M Grezzana-Filho, Cleber D P Kruel
Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726797/mouse-and-guinea-pig-models-of-tuberculosis
#12
Ian M Orme, Diane J Ordway
This article describes the nature of the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse and guinea pig models of infection. It describes the great wealth of information obtained from the mouse model, reflecting the general availability of immunological reagents, as well as genetic manipulations of the mouse strains themselves. This has led to a good understanding of the nature of the T-cell response to the infection, as well as an appreciation of the complexity of the response involving multiple cytokine- and chemokine-mediated systems...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719804/it-s-not-rio-but-chest-s-cough-guidelines-win-gold
#13
Ian T Nathanson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689882/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-paclitaxel-loaded-gold-nanoparticles-for-tumor-targeted-drug-delivery
#14
Giulio Franco Paciotti, Jielu Zhao, Shugeng Cao, Peggy J Brodie, Lawrence Tamarkin, Marja Huhta, Lonnie D Myer, Jay Friedman, David George Ian Kingston
The synthesis of a series of thiolated paclitaxel analogs is described as part of a novel nanomedicine program aimed at developing formulations of paclitaxel that bind to gold nanoparticles for tumor targeted drug delivery. Evaluation of the analogs led to the selection of analog 5 as the basis for the new nanomedicine CYT-21625, comprised of 27 nm gold nanoparticles, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG-Thiol) and analog 5 in defined ratios. CYT-21625 was evaluated for its stability in blood and for intra-tumor drug release, and it was shown to have a similar anti-tumor effect to that of paclitaxel in B16/F10 tumor burdened C57Bl/6 mice, but at a 16-fold lower dose...
September 30, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681935/postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#15
Richard Eastell, Terence W O'Neill, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Bente Langdahl, Ian R Reid, Deborah T Gold, Steven R Cummings
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that is characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. Fractures of the proximal femur, the vertebrae and the distal radius are the most frequent osteoporotic fractures, although most fractures in the elderly are probably at least partly related to bone fragility. The incidence of fractures varies greatly by country, but on average up to 50% of women >50 years of age are at risk of fractures. Fractures severely affect the quality of life of an individual and are becoming a major public health problem owing to the ageing population...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670238/delusional-ideation-during-the-perinatal-period-in-a-community-sample
#16
Anna L MacKinnon, Mariam Naguib, Helena J Barr, Anna Levinsson, Stephanie Robins, Nancy Feeley, Barbara Hayton, Phyllis Zelkowitz, Ian Gold
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of mental health problems during the perinatal period, little research has examined psychotic symptoms in a community sample across pregnancy and the postpartum. Exposure to environmental risk factors, and immigration in particular, are associated with increased risk for psychotic disorders. The current investigation examined whether psychosocial risk and immigrant status would predict levels of delusional ideation across the perinatal period when controlling for depression, anxiety, and demographic factors...
September 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641078/a-comparison-of-virtual-bronchoscopy-versus-flexible-bronchoscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-tracheobronchomalacia-in-children
#17
Siew Choo Su, Ian Brent Masters, Helen Buntain, Kieran Frawley, Anubhav Sarikwal, Debbie Watson, Frances Ware, Jan Wuth, Anne Bernadette Chang
INTRODUCTION: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is the current gold standard for diagnosing tracheobronchomalacia. However, it is not always feasible and virtual bronchoscopy (VB), acquired from chest multi-detector CT (MDCT) scan is an alternative diagnostic tool. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of VB compared to FB in diagnosing tracheobronchomalacia. METHODS: Children aged <18-years scheduled for FB and MDCT were recruited...
September 18, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635949/histologic-grading-of-prostatic-adenocarcinoma-can-be-further-optimized-analysis-of-the-relative-prognostic-strength-of-individual-architectural-patterns-in-1275-patients-from-the-canary-retrospective-cohort
#18
Jesse K McKenney, Wei Wei, Sarah Hawley, Heidi Auman, Lisa F Newcomb, Hilary D Boyer, Ladan Fazli, Jeff Simko, Antonio Hurtado-Coll, Dean A Troyer, Maria S Tretiakova, Funda Vakar-Lopez, Peter R Carroll, Matthew R Cooperberg, Martin E Gleave, Raymond S Lance, Dan W Lin, Peter S Nelson, Ian M Thompson, Lawrence D True, Ziding Feng, James D Brooks
Histologic grading remains the gold standard for prognosis in prostate cancer, and assessment of Gleason score plays a critical role in active surveillance management. We sought to optimize the prognostic stratification of grading and developed a method of recording and studying individual architectural patterns by light microscopic evaluation that is independent of standard Gleason grade. Some of the evaluated patterns are not assessed by current Gleason grading (eg, reactive stromal response). Individual histologic patterns were correlated with recurrence-free survival in a retrospective postradical prostatectomy cohort of 1275 patients represented by the highest-grade foci of carcinoma in tissue microarrays...
November 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610457/femtomole-infrared-spectroscopy-at-the-electrified-metal-solution-interface
#19
Tyler A Morhart, Amanda Quirk, Michael J Lardner, Tim E May, Scott M Rosendahl, Ian J Burgess
Characterization of surface adsorbed species using infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides valuable information concerning interfacial chemical and physical processes. However, in situ infrared studies of surface areas approaching the IR diffraction limit, such as micrometer scale electrodes, require a hitherto unrealized means to obtain high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra from femtomole quantities of adsorbed molecules. A major methodological breakthrough is described that couples the high brilliance of synchrotron-sourced infrared microscopy with attenuated total reflection surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (ATR-SEIRAS)...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577777/hard-x-ray-polarizer-to-enable-simultaneous-three-dimensional-nanoscale-imaging-of-magnetic-structure-and-lattice-strain
#20
Jonathan Logan, Ross Harder, Luxi Li, Daniel Haskel, Pice Chen, Robert Winarski, Peter Fuesz, Deborah Schlagel, David Vine, Christa Benson, Ian McNulty
Recent progress in the development of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, a new technique for simultaneous three-dimensional imaging of strain and magnetization at the nanoscale, is reported. This progress includes the installation of a diamond X-ray phase retarder at beamline 34-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the phase retarder for tuning X-ray polarization is demonstrated with temperature-dependent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on a gadolinium foil in transmission and on a Gd5Si2Ge2 crystal in diffraction geometry with a partially coherent, focused X-ray beam...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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