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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723416/unravelling-the-pharmacologic-opportunities-and-future-directions-for-targeted-therapies-in-gastro-intestinal-cancers-part-2-neuroendocrine-tumours-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-gastro-intestinal-stromal-tumours
#1
REVIEW
Cindy Neuzillet, Louis de Mestier, Benoît Rousseau, Olivier Mir, Mohamed Hebbar, Hemant M Kocher, Philippe Ruszniewski, Christophe Tournigand
Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the cancer cell molecular biology has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents, being more specific to cancer cells, were expected to be less toxic than conventional cytotoxic agents. However, their effects have sometimes been disappointing, due to intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, or to an activity restricted to some tumour settings, illustrating the importance of patient selection and early identification of predictive biomarkers of response to these therapies...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723135/development-of-dual-aptamers-for-constructing-sandwich-type-pancreatic-polypeptide-assay
#2
Shiya Qin, Nandi Chen, Xiaohai Yang, Qing Wang, Kemin Wang, Jin Huang, Jianbo Liu, Maogui Zhou
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a specific biomarker of nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs). Clinical significance of PP inspires researchers to make great efforts in developing sensitive and specific sensors. However, there is no existing biosensor for detecting PP that combines facility and functionality. Addressing this challenge, a pair of aptamers which could be used to develop a sandwich assay for PP is reported. First, several high affinity aptamers are screened through graphene oxide-based SELEX, and appropriate dual-aptamers which could bind to different epitopes of PP are identified through fluorescence assays...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722707/nutrition-inflammation-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Laurence Zitvogel, Federico Pietrocola, Guido Kroemer
Quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrition have a profound effect on leukocytes and thereby affect proinflammatory carcinogenic effects or anticancer immune responses. As a result, nutrition affects the incidence, natural progression and therapeutic response of malignant diseases, both in humans and in preclinical animal models. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms through which alimentary cues modulate metabolic, microbial and neuroendocrine circuitries and thus affect the probability of developing premalignant lesions that progress to clinically manifested disease and the response to therapeutic intervention...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722702/radiofrequency-ablation-of-hepatic-tumor-subjective-assessment-of-the-perilesional-vascular-network-on-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-before-and-after-ablation-can-reliably-predict-the-risk-of-local-recurrence
#4
Sireesha Yedururi, Silanath Terpenning, Sanjay Gupta, Patricia Fox, Sooyoung Shin Martin, Claudius Conrad, Evelyne M Loyer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether simple, subjective analysis of the perilesional vascular network can predict the risk of local recurrence after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver malignancies on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). METHODS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography's 103 patients (59 men and 44 women; mean age, 63 years (range, 31-84 years) with 134 lesions who underwent RFA between 2000 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary tumors include colorectal carcinoma (58 patients), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 13), breast carcinoma (n = 8), neuroendocrine tumor (n = 5), and others (n = 19)...
July 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721067/phase-i-dose-escalation-study-of-long-acting-pasireotide-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#5
James C Yao, Jennifer A Chan, Alain C Mita, Madan G Kundu, Karina Hermosillo Reséndiz, Ke Hu, Shoba Ravichandran, Jonathan R Strosberg, Edward M Wolin
This phase I study aimed at determining the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and characterizing the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and efficacy of pasireotide in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients were enrolled in two phases: dose-escalation phase (to determine the MTD) at a starting dose of 80 mg pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) i.m. followed by a dose-expansion phase (to evaluate safety and prelimi-nary efficacy). Associations between PK/pharmacodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated using linear regression analysis...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720645/influences-of-manganese-on-pubertal-development
#6
W Les Dees, Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava
The onset of puberty is the result of complex neuroendocrine interactions within hypothalamic region of the brain, as well as from genetic and environmental influences. These interactions ultimately result in the increased synthesis and release of luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone (LHRH). Manganese (Mn) is an essential environmental element known for years to be involved in numerous mammalian physiological processes, including growth and reproductive function. Studies in recent years have shown the ability of Mn to cross the blood-brain barrier and act within the hypothalamus to influence the timing of puberty...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720104/erratum-to-altered-neuroendocrine-control-and-association-to-clinical-symptoms-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Vegard Bruun Wyller, Valeria Vitelli, Dag Sulheim, Even Fagermoen, Anette Winger, Kristin Godang, Jens Bollerslev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719635/differential-protein-expression-profile-in-the-hypothalamic-gt1-7-cell-line-after-exposure-to-anabolic-androgenic-steroids
#8
Freddyson J Martínez-Rivera, Juliana Pérez-Laspiur, María E Santiago-Gascot, Abner G Alemán-Reyes, Emanuel García-Santiago, Yolanda Rodríguez-Pérez, Cristhian Calo-Guadalupe, Inelia Otero-Pagán, Roxsana N Ayala-Pagán, Magdiel Martínez, Yisel M Cantres-Rosario, Loyda M Meléndez, Jennifer L Barreto-Estrada
The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been considered a major public health problem during decades. Supraphysiological doses of AAS may lead to a variety of neuroendocrine problems. Precisely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is one of the body systems that is mainly influenced by steroidal hormones. Fluctuations of the hormonal milieu result in alterations of reproductive function, which are made through changes in hypothalamic neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719469/insm1-demonstrates-superior-performance-to-the-individual-and-combined-use-of-synaptophysin-chromogranin-and-cd56-for-diagnosing-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-thoracic-cavity
#9
Lisa M Rooper, Rajni Sharma, Qing Kay Li, Peter B Illei, William H Westra
Despite the importance of recognizing neuroendocrine differentiation when diagnosing tumors of the thoracic cavity, the sensitivity of traditional neuroendocrine markers is suboptimal, particularly for high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas such as small cell lung carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. To increase sensitivity, neuroendocrine markers are routinely ordered as panels of multiple immunostains where any single positive marker is regarded as sufficient evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719461/serotonin-atrx-and-daxx-expression-in-pituitary-adenomas-markers-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-sellar-region
#10
Olivera Casar-Borota, Johan Botling, Dan Granberg, Jerker Stigare, Johan Wikström, Henning Bünsow Boldt, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Fredrik Pontén, Jacqueline Trouillas
Differential diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemistry between a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (NET)/pituitary adenoma and a primary or secondary NET of nonpituitary origin in the sellar region may be difficult. Serotonin, a frequently expressed marker in the NETs, has not been systematically evaluated in pituitary NETs. Although mutations in ATRX or DAXX have been reported in a significant proportion of pancreatic NETs, the mutational status of ATRX and DAXX and their possible pathogenetic role in pituitary NETs are unknown...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718084/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-producing-insulin-and-vasopressin
#11
Omalkhaire M Alshaikh, Ju-Yoon Yoon, Bryan A Chan, Monika K Krzyzanowska, Jagdish Butany, Sylvia L Asa, Shereen Ezzat
The objective of the study is to report a rare case of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) producing insulin and vasopressin. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a metastatic pNET with refractory hypoglycemia and progressive severe hyponatremia. A 52-year-old patient had abdominal pain leading to the diagnosis of a tumor that was initially presumed to be splenic in origin. Investigations ultimately identified a pancreatic mass that on biopsy proved to be a pNET. Eventually, he developed extensive liver metastases, and with tumor progression, he manifested hypoglycemia and severe hyponatremia...
July 17, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717741/patient-reported-burden-of-a-neuroendocrine-tumor-net-diagnosis-results-from-the-first-global-survey-of-patients-with-nets
#12
Simron Singh, Dan Granberg, Edward Wolin, Richard Warner, Maia Sissons, Teodora Kolarova, Grace Goldstein, Marianne Pavel, Kjell Öberg, John Leyden
PURPOSE: Despite the considerable impact of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) on patients' daily lives, the journey of the patient with a NET has rarely been documented, with published data to date being limited to small qualitative studies. NETs are heterogeneous malignancies with nonspecific symptomology, leading to extensive health care use and diagnostic delays that affect survival. A large, international patient survey was conducted to increase understanding of the experience of the patient with a NET and identify unmet needs, with the aim of improving disease awareness and care worldwide...
February 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717527/vagal-paraganglioma-presenting-as-a-neck-mass-associated-with-cough-on-palpation
#13
Richard Heyes, Nizar Taki, Miriam A O'Leary
A 70-year-old female presented with a neck mass and sporadic dry cough, often leading to fits of coughing severe enough to cause vomiting. The patient reported that touching the mass triggered the cough. On examination, a 2.5 cm right-sided level two neck mass deep to the sternocleidomastoid was present. Palpation of the mass immediately triggered coughing. Cross-sectional imaging proposed vagal paraganglioma as the chief differential, which was confirmed following surgical excision. The patient reported complete resolution of her severe dry cough after surgery...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717395/brain-imaging-before-primary-lung-cancer-resection-a-controversial-topic
#14
Zoe Hudson, Eveline Internullo, Anthony Edey, Isabel Laurence, Davide Bianchi, Alfredo Addeo
OBJECTIVE: International and national recommendations for brain imaging in patients planned to undergo potentially curative resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are variably implemented throughout the United Kingdom [Hudson BJ, Crawford MB, and Curtin J et al (2015) Brain imaging in lung cancer patients without symptoms of brain metastases: a national survey of current practice in EnglandClin Radiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2015.02.007]. However, the recommendations are not based on high-quality evidence and do not take into account cost implications and local resources...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716942/maternal-photoperiod-programs-hypothalamic-thyroid-status-via-the-fetal-pituitary-gland
#15
Cristina Sáenz de Miera, Béatrice Bothorel, Catherine Jaeger, Valérie Simonneaux, David Hazlerigg
In wild mammals, offspring development must anticipate forthcoming metabolic demands and opportunities. Within species, different developmental strategies may be used, dependent on when in the year conception takes place. This phenotypic flexibility is initiated before birth and is linked to the pattern of day length (photoperiod) exposure experienced by the mother during pregnancy. This programming depends on transplacental communication via the pineal hormone melatonin. Here, we show that, in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), the programming effect of melatonin is mediated by the pars tuberalis (PT) of the fetal pituitary gland, before the fetal circadian system and autonomous melatonin production is established...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716505/%C3%AE-methyltyrosine-a-tyrosine-hydroxylase-inhibitor-decreases-stress-response-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Renan Idalencio, Heloísa Helena de Alcantara Barcellos, Fabiana Kalichak, João Gabriel Santos da Rosa, Thiago Acosta Oliveira, Murilo Sander de Abreu, Michele Fagundes, Fernanda Dametto, Letícia Marcheto, Caio Maximino de Oliveira, Leonardo José Gil Barcellos
In this article, we show that the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor α-Methyl-L-tyrosine (AMPT) decreased the responsiveness of the zebrafish stress axis to an acute stressful challenge. These effects were specific for responses to stimulation, since unstimulated (basal) cortisol levels were not altered by AMPT. Moreover, AMPT decreased the stress response 15 min after stimulation, but not after that time period. To our knowledge, this is the first report about the effects of AMPT on the neuroendocrine axis of adult zebrafish in acute stress responses...
July 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716240/a-study-of-neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-patients-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#17
Aniruddha More, Rajesh Verma, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Praveen Kumar Sharma, Ravi Uniyal, Shweta Pandey, Madhukar Mittal
BACKGROUND: Endocrine dysfunction is known to occur in various infectious diseases of the brain. The neuroendocrine dysfunction is not well studied in patients of Tuberculous meningitis (TBM). In this study, we aimed at knowing pattern of endocrine dysfunction in newly diagnosed patients of tuberculous meningitis, structural changes occurring in hypothalamic-pituitary region, assessing its predictors and correlative factors related to outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715719/isolated-caudate-lobectomy-left-sided-approach-case-reports
#18
Orlando Jorge M Torres, Rodrigo Rodrigues Vasques, Ozimo Pereira Gama-Filho, Miguel Eugenio L Castelo-Branco, Camila Cristina S Torres
INTRODUCTION: The caudate lobe is a distinct liver lobe and surgical resection requires expertise and precise anatomic knowledge. Left-sided approach was described for resection of small tumors originated in the Spiegel lobe but now the procedure has been performed even for tumors more than five centimeters. The aim of this study is to present three cases of tumor of caudate lobe underwent isolated lobectomy by left-sided approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Three patients with metastasis of colorectal cancer, carcinoma hepatocellular and metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor underwent resection...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714296/-68-ga-somatostatin-analogue-pet-ct-analysis-of-costs-and-benefits-in-a-public-hospital-setting
#19
Tatiana Segard, Laurence Mja Morandeau, Elizabeth A Geelhoed, Roslyn J Francis
INTRODUCTION: Between 2009 and 2012, (68) Ga-somatostatin analogue PET-CT progressively replaced (111) In-octreotide scintigraphy for imaging neuroendocrine tumours in WA public hospitals due to published literature demonstrating improved diagnostic accuracy and increased availability. Despite significantly improved sensitivity and specificity, (68) Ga-somatostatin analogue PET is currently unfunded in Australia. This study sought to undertake cost analysis of the two modalities in a public hospital setting and to compare them with regard to patient factors such as imaging time and radiation dose...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714258/renal-neuroendocrine-control-of-desiccation-and-cold-tolerance-by-drosophila-suzukii
#20
Selim Terhzaz, Lucy Alford, Joseph G C Yeoh, Richard Marley, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological, and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. However, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in D. suzukii. The close phylogenetic relationship of D. suzukii with D. melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in D. suzukii. RESULTS: Capa, Leucokinin, DH44 and DH31 neuropeptides demonstrate a high level of conservation between D...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
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