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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812264/oxytocin-and-steroid-actions
#1
Gustav F Jirikowski, Scott D Ochs, Jack D Caldwell
Biosynthesis and secretion of the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin largely depends on steroid hormones. Estradiol, corticosterone, and vitamin D seem to be the most prominent actors. Due to their lipophilic nature, systemic steroids are thought to be capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, thus mediating central functions including neuroendocrine and behavioral control. The actual mode of action of steroids in hypothalamic circuitry is still unknown: Most of the oxytocinergic perikarya lack nuclear steroid receptors but express proteins suspected to be membrane receptors for steroids...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811300/epigenetic-regulation-by-the-menin-pathway
#3
Zijie Feng, Jian Ma, Xianxin Hua
There is a trend of increasing prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome serves as a genetic model to investigate how NETs develop and the underlying mechanisms. Menin, encoded by the MEN1 gene, at least partly acts as a scaffold protein by interacting with multiple partners to regulate cellular homeostasis of various endocrine organs. Menin has multiple functions including regulating several important signaling pathways by controlling gene transcription...
August 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811298/the-future-surgical-advances-in-men1-therapeutic-approaches-and-management-strategies
#4
Samira Mercedes Sadowski, Guillaume Cadiot, Eric Dansin, Pierre Goudet, Frédéric Triponez
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a hereditary autosomal dominant disorder associated with numerous neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recent advances in the management of MEN1 have led to a decrease in mortality due to excess hormones; however, they have also led to an increase in mortality from malignancy, particularly NETs. The main challenges are to localize these tumors, to select those that need therapy because of the risk of aggressive behavior, and to select the appropriate therapy associated with minimal morbidity...
August 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811081/prognostic-value-of-who-grade-in-pancreatic-neuro-endocrine-tumors-in-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1-results-from-the-dutchmen1-study-group
#5
Elfi B Conemans, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Gabriela M Raicu-Ionita, Carolina R C Pieterman, Wouter W de Herder, Olaf M Dekkers, Ad R Hermus, Anouk N van der Horst-Schrivers, Peter H Bisschop, Bas Havekes, Madeleine L Drent, H Th Marc Timmers, G Johan Offerhaus, Gerlof D Valk, Menno R Vriens
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of WHO grade in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is unknown. METHODS: We performed a cohort study using the Dutch National MEN1 database, which includes >90% of the Dutch MEN1 population with data collected between 1990 and 2014. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from the largest resected PanNET per patient were collected. MIB1 staining was performed and KI67 labeling index (LI) was determined by manual eye-counting under a microscope and by digital image analysis...
July 31, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810646/sex-comb-on-midleg-like-2-is-a-novel-specific-marker-for-the-diagnosis-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#6
Jiao-Jiao Yang, Hua Huang, Ming-Bing Xiao, Feng Jiang, Wen-Kai Ni, Yi-Fei Ji, Cui-Hua Lu, Run-Zhou Ni
Sex comb on midleg like-2 (SCML2) is a polycomb-group protein that encodes transcriptional repressors essential for appropriate development in the fly and in mammals. On the basis of previous findings, the present study aimed to explore the possibility of developing SCML2 into a new diagnostic marker for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). A total of 64 paired GEP-NET tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues were obtained from patients who had undergone surgical resection between January 2009 and January 2014, and the expression of SCML2 and two neuroendocrine markers, namely synaptophysin (Syn) and chromogranin A (CgA), in the tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808875/ssat-state-of-the-art-conference-current-surgical-management-of-gastric-tumors
#7
Jeffrey A Norton, Teresa Kim, Joseph Kim, Martin D McCarter, Kaitlyn J Kelly, Joyce Wong, Jason K Sicklick
INTRODUCTION: The current era of gastric surgery is marked by low morbidity and mortality rates, innovative strategies to approach resections with a minimally invasive fashion or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), as well as improved understanding of the biology of sporadic and hereditary stromal, neuroendocrine, and epithelial malignancies. METHODS: In 2017, the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract convened a State-of-the-Art Conference on Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors with both international experts and emerging leaders in the field of gastric surgery...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808504/goblet-cell-carcinoid-of-the-appendix-and-mixed-adenoneuroendocrine-carcinoma-report-of-three-cases
#8
Hatice Karaman, Fatma Şenel, Mustafa Güreli, Turan Ekinci, Ömer Topuz
Neuroendocrine neoplasms are the most common epithelial tumors among appendix tumors. Appendix tumors that are completely or partially composed of neuroendocrine cells are divided into two categories: Classic carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoid tumors (GCCT). They are known to progress more aggressively than classic (neuro) endocrine tumors. In this study, three cases with acute appendicitis symptoms are presented, including their clinical and histopathological findings. Microscopic examination detected GCCT in two cases and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma in one case, in addition to acute appendicitis...
July 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808318/stress-induced-polarization-of-immune-neuroendocrine-phenotypes-in-gallus-gallus
#9
F Nicolas Nazar, Inma Estevez, Silvia G Correa, Raul H Marin
Immune-neuroendocrine phenotypes (INPs) stand for population subgroups differing in immune-neuroendocrine interactions. While mammalian INPs have been characterized thoroughly in rats and humans, avian INPs were only recently described in Coturnix coturnix (quail). To assess the scope of this biological phenomenon, herein we characterized INPs in Gallus gallus (a domestic hen strain submitted to a very long history of strong selective breeding pressure) and evaluated whether a social chronic stress challenge modulates the individuals' interplay affecting the INP subsets and distribution...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808088/the-armadillo-protein-p0071-controls-kif3-motor-transport
#10
Alexander Becher, Tim Eiseler, Marc Porzner, Paul Walther, René Keil, Susanne Bobrovich, Mechthild Hatzfeld, Thomas Seufferlein
We here report a novel function of the armadillo protein p0071 during KIF3/kinesin-2-mediated transport. Secretion of chromogranin A and matrix metallopeptidase 9 from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells or pancreatic cancer cells, respectively, was substantially reduced following knockdown of p0071. Vesicle tracking indicated impaired directional persistence of vesicles upon p0071 depletion. This suggests a disturbed balance between plus- and minus-end directed microtubule transport in cells lacking p0071...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807337/evaluation-of-cd43-expression-in-non-hematopoietic-malignancies
#11
Bjorn H Batdorf, Steven H Kroft, Paul R Hosking, Alexandra M Harrington, Alexander C Mackinnon, Horatiu Olteanu
OBJECTIVES: CD43 is normally expressed only on the surface of leukocytes, and is considered a sensitive and specific marker for hematologic malignancies. As such, it may have diagnostic utility in confirming hematolymphoid lineage in cases that are negative for CD45. Aberrant CD43 expression has been described in non-hematopoietic tumors, although literature data on this topic is variable and sometimes contradictory. To clarify and expand on existing literature findings, we evaluated CD43 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large cohort (307) of non-hematopoietic neoplasms, including poorly differentiated malignancies...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807335/recent-updates-on-grading-and-classification-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#12
REVIEW
Joo Young Kim, Seung-Mo Hong, Jae Y Ro
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are originating from neuroendocrine cells in diffuse endocrine systems. NETs are diagnosed by characteristic histologic features and immunoprofiles. Recent 2010 WHO classification for gastroenteropancreatic NETs introduced grading system based on mitotic count and Ki-67 proliferation index. Gastroenteropancreatic NETs are classified as NET grade 1, NET grade 2, and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NET grade 3). However, the carcinoid is still used in classification of NETs of the lung and uterine cervix...
August 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807108/etiologies-and-management-of-cutaneous-flushing-malignant-causes
#13
REVIEW
Azeen Sadeghian, Hailey Rouhana, Brittany Oswald-Stumpf, Erin Boh
The second article in this 2-part continuing medical education series reviews the following malignant causes of flushing: mastocytosis, medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid tumors, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, bronchogenic carcinoma, vasointestinal polypeptide secreting tumors, and renal cell carcinoma. The information provided will allow physicians to better distinguish patients who have worrisome presentations that require a more thorough investigation. Appropriate diagnostic workup and treatment options for these malignancies are reviewed...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806619/a-long-term-recurrence-free-survival-of-a-patient-with-the-mixed-adeno-neuroendocrine-bile-duct-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Wataru Izumo, Ryota Higuchi, Takehisa Yazawa, Shuichiro Uemura, Yutaro Matsunaga, Masahiro Shiihara, Toru Furukawa, Masakazu Yamamoto
INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine tumors arising primarily in the bile duct are rare. And among these tumors, mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is quite uncommon. We report a patient with MANEC who achieved long-term recurrence-free survival. And our case report includes analysis previous case reports. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 66-year-old man underwent investigation for persistent anorexia and fatigue. Laboratory tests showed that the values of hepatobiliary enzymes were increased...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805598/screening-frequency-and-histologic-type-influence-the-efficacy-of-cervical-cancer-screening-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#15
Ying-Cheng Chiang, Yun-Yuan Chen, Shu-Feng Hsieh, Chun-Ju Chiang, San-Lin You, Wen-Fang Cheng, Mei-Shu Lai, Chi-An Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of age, screening interval, and histologic type on the effect of Pap smears in cervical cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Cancer Registry and Cervical Cancer Screening Registration System for the period from 2002 to 2010. Age, Pap smear interval, FIGO stage, and histology were further analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 12,294 women with cervical cancer were enrolled, including 10,040 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 1720 with adenocarcinoma (ADC), 401 with adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), and 133 with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SMC)...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804908/influence-of-abiraterone-acetate-on-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-chemotherapy-naive-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#16
Baijun Dong, Liancheng Fan, Yanqing Wang, Chenfei Chi, Xiaowei Ma, Rui Wang, Wen Cai, Xiaoguang Shao, Jiahua Pan, Yinjie Zhu, Xun Shangguan, Zhixiang Xin, Jianian Hu, Shaowei Xie, Xiaonan Kang, Lixin Zhou, Wei Xue
BACKGROUND: To determine the influence of abiraterone Acetate (AA) on neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: We conducted an analysis in 115 chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients who would be treated with chemotherapy. The serum levels of chromogranin A (CgA), neurone-specific enolase (NSE) were measured in 67 mCRPC patients without AA treatment and 48 patients after the failure of AA treatment, in which these markers were also measured in 34 patients before and after 6 months of AA treatment...
August 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804807/plasma-cortisol-response-cannot-be-classically-conditioned-in-a-taste-endocrine-paradigm-in-humans
#17
Liubov Petrakova, Karoline Boy, Marisa Kügler, Sven Benson, Harald Engler, Lars Möller, Manfred Schedlowski
RATIONALE: Peripheral immune responses can be modified by associative learning procedures. Less is known, however, whether and to what extent neuroendocrine parameters can be classically conditioned. OBJECTIVES: In this randomized double-blind study, we modified an established paradigm to behaviorally condition endocrine responses in humans. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy male participants received a distinctively flavored green drink as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (CRH group, N = 17) or NaCl (placebo group, N = 14) as the unconditioned stimulus (US) during two subsequent acquisition trials...
August 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803831/localization-of-connexin-43-gap-junctions-and-hemichannels-in-tanycytes-of-adult-mice
#18
Anett Szilvásy-Szabó, Edina Varga, Zsuzsa Beliczai, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Tanycytes are specialized glial cells lining the lateral walls and the floor of the third ventricle behind the optic chiasm. In addition to functioning as barrier cells, they also have an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine axes and energy homeostasis. To determine whether tanycytes communicate with each other via Connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junctions, individual tanycytes were loaded with Lucifer yellow (LY) through a patch pipette. In all cases, LY filled a larger group of tanycytes as well as blood vessels adjacent to tanycyte processes...
August 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803235/18f-fdg-uptake-in-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors-correlates-with-both-ki-67-and-vhl-pathway-inactivation
#19
Margot Bucau, Astrid Laurent-Bellue, Nicolas Poté, Olivia Hentic, Jérôme Cros, Nidaa Mikail, Vinciane Rebours, Philippe Ruszniewski, Rachida Lebtahi, Anne Couvelard
<br>Introduction: 18FDG PET-scanner positivity correlates with poor prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) are markers of agressivity in tumors. Together with pVHL, they are involved in tumor cell metabolism via the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to compare, in a series of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NET), the 18-FDG uptake and expression of proliferation marker Ki-67, GLUT-1, CA9 and pVHL...
August 11, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803232/digestive-system-mixed-neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#20
Louis de Mestier, Jérôme Cros, Cindy Neuzillet, Olivia Hentic, Axel Egal, Nelly Muller, Olivier Bouché, Guillaume Cadiot, Philippe Ruszniewski, Anne Couvelard, Pascal Hammel
Mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN) are a heterogeneous subgroup of rare neoplasms that represent about a third of all poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNEC). MiNEN combine a neuroendocrine component, usually a PDNEC, and a non-neuroendocrine component, generally an adenocarcinoma, both accounting for at least 30% of the neoplasm. MiNEN are classified as high-, intermediate-, or low-grade malignancies depending on the metastatic potential of the tumour components. High-grade malignant component should be considered even if it represents <30% of the tumour...
August 12, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
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