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planar cell polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230212/establishment-of-planar-cell-polarity-is-coupled-to-regional-cell-cycle-exit-and-cell-differentiation-in-the-mouse-utricle
#1
Xiaoyu Yang, Xiaoqing Qian, Rui Ma, Xinwei Wang, Juanmei Yang, Wenwei Luo, Ping Chen, Fanglu Chi, Dongdong Ren
Sensory hair cells are coordinately oriented within each inner ear sensory organ to exhibit a particular form of planar cell polarity (PCP) necessary for mechanotransduction. However, the developmental events associated with establishing PCP in the vestibule are unclear, hindering data interpretation and employment of the vestibule for PCP studies. Herein, we investigated PCP of the mouse vestibular organs. We further characterised cell cycle exit, cell differentiation, and PCP establishment in the utricle...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222105/stat3-cdc25a-dependent-cell-proliferation-promotes-embryonic-axis-extension-during-zebrafish-gastrulation
#2
Yinzi Liu, Diane S Sepich, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel
Cell proliferation has generally been considered dispensable for anteroposterior extension of embryonic axis during vertebrate gastrulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a conserved controller of cell proliferation, survival and regeneration, is associated with human scoliosis, cancer and Hyper IgE Syndrome. Zebrafish Stat3 was proposed to govern convergence and extension gastrulation movements in part by promoting Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling, a conserved regulator of mediolaterally polarized cell behaviors...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220837/a-novel-role-of-the-organizer-gene-goosecoid-as-an-inhibitor-of-wnt-pcp-mediated-convergent-extension-in-xenopus-and-mouse
#3
Bärbel Ulmer, Melanie Tingler, Sabrina Kurz, Markus Maerker, Philipp Andre, Dina Mönch, Marina Campione, Kirsten Deißler, Mark Lewandoski, Thomas Thumberger, Axel Schweickert, Abraham Fainsod, Herbert Steinbeißer, Martin Blum
Goosecoid (Gsc) expression marks the primary embryonic organizer in vertebrates and beyond. While functions have been assigned during later embryogenesis, the role of Gsc in the organizer has remained enigmatic. Using conditional gain-of-function approaches in Xenopus and mouse to maintain Gsc expression in the organizer and along the axial midline, neural tube closure defects (NTDs) arose and dorsal extension was compromised. Both phenotypes represent convergent extension (CE) defects, arising from impaired Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197104/angled-growth-of-the-dental-lamina-is-accompanied-by-asymmetrical-expression-of-the-wnt-pathway-receptor-frizzled-6
#4
Iveta Putnová, Hana Dosedělová, Vitezslav Bryja, Marie Landová, Marcela Buchtová, Jan Štembírek
Frizzled 6 (FZD6) belongs to a family of proteins that serve as receptors in the WNT signaling pathway. FZD6 plays an important role in the establishment of planar cell polarity in many embryonic processes such as convergent extension during gastrulation, neural tube closure, or hair patterning. Based on its role during hair development, we hypothesized that FZD6 may have similar expression pattern and function in the dental lamina, which is also a distinct epithelial protrusion growing characteristically angled into the mesenchyme...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196803/neural-tube-closure-cellular-molecular-and-biomechanical-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Gabriel L Galea, Ana Rolo, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Neural tube closure has been studied for many decades, across a range of vertebrates, as a paradigm of embryonic morphogenesis. Neurulation is of particular interest in view of the severe congenital malformations - 'neural tube defects' - that result when closure fails. The process of neural tube closure is complex and involves cellular events such as convergent extension, apical constriction and interkinetic nuclear migration, as well as precise molecular control via the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, Shh/BMP signalling, and the transcription factors Grhl2/3, Pax3, Cdx2 and Zic2...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191668/inflammatory-demyelination-induces-ependymal-modifications-concomitant-to-activation-of-adult-svz-stem-cell-proliferation
#6
Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Sara Gil-Perotín, Paula Garcia-Belda, Aurelien Dauphin, Sabah Mozafari, Vanja Tepavcevic, Jose Manuel Garcia Verdugo, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren
Ependymal cells (E1/E2) and ciliated B1cells confer a unique pinwheel architecture to the ventricular surface of the subventricular zone (SVZ), and their cilia act as sensors to ventricular changes during development and aging. While several studies showed that forebrain demyelination reactivates the SVZ triggering proliferation, ectopic migration, and oligodendrogenesis for myelin repair, the potential role of ciliated cells in this process was not investigated. Using conventional and lateral wall whole mount preparation immunohistochemistry in addition to electron microscopy in a forebrain-targeted model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (tEAE), we show an early decrease in numbers of pinwheels, B1 cells, and E2 cells...
February 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177589/the-evolution-of-amniote-gastrulation-the-blastopore-primitive-streak-transition
#7
REVIEW
Matthew J Stower, Federica Bertocchini
In the animal kingdom, gastrulation, the process by which the primary germ layers are formed involves a dramatic transformation in the topology of the cells that give rise to all of the tissues of the adult. Initially formed as a mono-layer, this tissue, the epiblast, becomes subdivided through the internalization of cells, thereby forming a two (bi-laminar) or three (tri-laminar) layered embryo. This morphogenetic process coordinates the development of the fundamental body plan and the three-body axes (antero-posterior, dorso-ventral, and left-right) and begins a fundamental segregation of cells toward divergent developmental fates...
February 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161642/drosophila-tensin-plays-an-essential-role-in-cell-migration-and-planar-polarity-formation-during-oogenesis-by-mediating-integrin-dependent-extracellular-signals-to-actin-organization
#8
In Jun Cha, Jang Ho Lee, Kyoung Sang Cho, Sung Bae Lee
Oogenesis in Drosophila involves very dynamic cellular changes such as cell migration and polarity formation inside an ovary during short period. Previous studies identified a number of membrane-bound receptors directly receiving certain types of extracellular inputs as well as intracellular signalings to be involved in the regulation of these dynamic cellular changes. However, yet our understanding on exactly how these receptor-mediated extracellular inputs lead to dynamic cellular changes remains largely unclear...
March 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159525/celsr1-coordinates-the-planar-polarity-of-vestibular-hair-cells-during-inner-ear-development
#9
Jeremy S Duncan, Michelle L Stoller, Andrew F Francl, Fadel Tissir, Danelle Devenport, Michael R Deans
Vestibular hair cells of the inner ear are specialized receptors that detect mechanical stimuli from gravity and motion via the deflection of a polarized bundle of stereocilia located on their apical cell surfaces. The orientation of stereociliary bundles is coordinated between neighboring cells by core PCP proteins including the large adhesive G-protein coupled receptor Celsr1. We show that mice lacking Celsr1 have vestibular behavioral phenotypes including circling. In addition, we show that Celsr1 is asymmetrically distributed at cell boundaries between hair cells and neighboring supporting cells in the developing vestibular and auditory sensory epithelia...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153580/from-planar-cell-polarity-to-ciliogenesis-and-back-the-curious-tale-of-the-ppe-and-cplane-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Paul N Adler, John B Wallingford
Why some genes are more popular than others remains an open question, but one example of this phenomenon involves the genes controlling planar cell polarity (PCP), the polarization of cells within a plane of a tissue. Indeed, the so-called 'core' PCP genes such as dishevelled, frizzled, and prickle have been extensively studied both in animal models and by human genetics. By contrast, other genes that influence PCP signaling have received far less attention. Among the latter are inturned, fuzzy, and fritz, but recent work should bring these once obscure regulators into the limelight...
January 30, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139653/corrigendum-mitotic-internalization-of-planar-cell-polarity-proteins-preserves-tissue-polarity
#11
Danelle Devenport, Daniel Oristian, Evan Heller, Elaine Fuchs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130914/enhancement-of-dielectrophoresis-using-fractal-gold-nanostructured-electrodes
#12
Anil Koklu, Ahmet C Sabuncu, Ali Beskok
Dielectrophoretic motions of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (yeast) cells and colloidal gold are investigated using electrochemically modified electrodes exhibiting fractal topology. Electrodeposition of gold on electrodes generated repeated patterns with a fern-leaf type self-similarity. A particle tracking algorithm is used to extract dielectrophoretic particle velocities using fractal and planar electrodes in two different medium conductivities. The results show increased dielectrophoretic force when using fractal electrodes...
January 28, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115485/ick-ciliary-kinase-is-essential-for-planar-cell-polarity-formation-in-inner-ear-hair-cells-and-hearing-function
#13
Shio Okamoto, Taro Chaya, Yoshihiro Omori, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Shun Kubo, Hirofumi Sakaguchi, Takahisa Furukawa
: Cellular asymmetries play crucial roles in development and organ function. The planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway is involved in the establishment of cellular asymmetry within the plane of a cell sheet. Inner ear sensory hair cells, which have several rows of staircase-like stereocilia and one kinocilium located at the vertex of the stereocilia protruding from the apical surface of each hair cell, exhibit a typical form of PCP. While connections between cilia and PCP signaling in vertebrate development have been reported, their precise nature is not well understood...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096212/planar-cell-polarity-in-moving-cells-think-globally-act-locally
#14
REVIEW
Crystal F Davey, Cecilia B Moens
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is best known for its role in polarizing epithelial cells within the plane of a tissue but it also plays a role in a range of cell migration events during development. The mechanism by which the PCP pathway polarizes stationary epithelial cells is well characterized, but how PCP signaling functions to regulate more dynamic cell behaviors during directed cell migration is much less understood. Here, we review recent discoveries regarding the localization of PCP proteins in migrating cells and their impact on the cell biology of collective and individual cell migratory behaviors...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069902/wnt-regulation-of-embryonic-development-likely-involves-pathways-independent-of-nuclear-ctnnb1
#15
Paula Tribulo, James I Moss, Manabu Ozawa, Zongliang Jiang, Cindy Tian, Peter J Hansen
The bovine was used to examine potential for WNT signaling to affect the preimplantation embryo. Expression of seven key genes involved in canonical WNT signaling declined to a nadir at the morula or blastocyst stage. Expression of 80 genes associated with WNT signaling in the morula and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the blastocyst was also evaluated. Many genes associated with WNT signaling were characterized by low transcript abundance. Seven genes were different between ICM and TE, and all of them were overexpressed in TE as compared to ICM, including WNT6, FZD1, FZD7, LRP6, PORCN, APC, and SFRP1...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059551/wnt-signaling-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#16
Robert Böscke, Eszter K Vladar, Michael Könnecke, Birgit Hüsing, Robert Linke, Ralph Pries, Norbert Reiling, Jeffrey D Axelrod, Jayakar V Nayak, Barbara Wollenberg
The signaling pathways that sustain the disease process of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain poorly understood. We sought to determine the expression levels of Wnt signaling genes in CRSwNP, and to study the role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation and epithelial remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Microarrays and RT-qPCR comparing gene expression in matched nasal polyps (NP) and inferior turbinates (IT) revealed that WNT2B, WNT3A, WNT4, WNT7A, WNT7B and FZD2 were upregulated, and FZD1, LRP5, LRP6 and WIF1 downregulated in NPs...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057866/evidence-for-opposing-roles-of-celsr3-and-vangl2-in-glutamatergic-synapse-formation
#17
Sonal Thakar, Liqing Wang, Ting Yu, Mao Ye, Keisuke Onishi, John Scott, Jiaxuan Qi, Catarina Fernandes, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Darwin K Berg, Yimin Zou
The signaling mechanisms that choreograph the assembly of the highly asymmetric pre- and postsynaptic structures are still poorly defined. Using synaptosome fractionation, immunostaining, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Celsr3 and Vangl2, core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, are localized at developing glutamatergic synapses and interact with key synaptic proteins. Pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus of Celsr3 knockout mice exhibit loss of ∼50% of glutamatergic synapses, but not inhibitory synapses, in culture...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052552/celsr2-encoding-a-planar-cell-polarity-protein-is-a-putative-gene-in-joubert-syndrome-with-cortical-heterotopia-microophthalmia-and-growth-hormone-deficiency
#18
Thierry Vilboux, May Christine V Malicdan, Joseph C Roney, Andrew R Cullinane, Joshi Stephen, Deniz Yildirimli, Joy Bryant, Roxanne Fischer, Meghana Vemulapalli, James C Mullikin, Peter J Steinbach, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Joubert syndrome is a ciliopathy characterized by a specific constellation of central nervous system malformations that result in the pathognomonic "molar tooth sign" on imaging. More than 27 genes are associated with Joubert syndrome, but some patients do not have mutations in any of these genes. Celsr1, Celsr2, and Celsr3 are the mammalian orthologues of the drosophila planar cell polarity protein, flamingo; they play important roles in neural development, including axon guidance, neuronal migration, and cilium polarity...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041906/apc-c-fzr-cdh1-dependent-regulation-of-planar-cell-polarity-establishment-via-nek2-kinase-acting-on-dishevelled
#19
Ursula Weber, Marek Mlodzik
The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, well known for its role in cell-cycle progression. However, it has been linked to additional functions, mainly in neuronal contexts, when using the co-activator Cdh1/Fzr. Here, our data indicate a post-mitotic requirement for the APC/C(Fzr/Cdh1) in epithelial cell patterning and planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila. PCP signaling is critical for development by establishing cellular asymmetries and orientation within the plane of an epithelium, via differential localization of distinct complexes of core PCP factors...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030539/local-cell-death-changes-the-orientation-of-cell-division-in-the-developing-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc-without-using-fat-or-dachsous-as-orienting-signals
#20
Abhijit Kale, Gerard Rimesso, Nicholas E Baker
Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit preferred cell division orientations according to location within the disc. These orientations are altered if cell death occurs within the epithelium, such as is caused by cell competition or by genotypes affecting cell survival. Both normal cell division orientations, and their orientations after cell death, depend on the Fat-Dachsous pathway of planar cell polarity (PCP). The hypothesis that cell death initiates a planar polarity signal was investigated. When clones homozygous for the pineapple eye (pie) mutation were made to initiate cell death, neither Dachsous nor Fat was required in pie cells for the re-orientation of nearby cells, indicating a distinct signal for this PCP pathway...
2016: PloS One
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