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planar cell polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196707/crumbs-moesin-and-yurt-regulate-junctional-stability-and-dynamics-for-a-proper-morphogenesis-of-the-drosophila-pupal-wing-epithelium
#1
Pauline Salis, Francois Payre, Philippe Valenti, Elsa Bazellieres, André Le Bivic, Giovanna Mottola
The Crumbs (Crb) complex is a key epithelial determinant. To understand its role in morphogenesis, we examined its function in the Drosophila pupal wing, an epithelium undergoing hexagonal packing and formation of planar-oriented hairs. Crb distribution is dynamic, being stabilized to the subapical region just before hair formation. Lack of crb or stardust, but not DPatj, affects hexagonal packing and delays hair formation, without impairing epithelial polarities but with increased fluctuations in cell junctions and perimeter length, fragmentation of adherens junctions and the actomyosin cytoskeleton...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196093/sonic-hedgehog-regulates-the-pathfinding-of-descending-serotonergic-axons-in-hindbrain-in-collaboration-with-wnt5a-and-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-1
#2
Jie Xie, Teng Zhao, Yaobo Liu
Previous studies have demonstrated that both Wnt5a and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) are involved in regulating the pathfinding of descending serotonergic (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) axons in an opposite manner in the brainstem. Shh and Wnt signaling pathways interact to guide post-crossing commissural axons, where Shh acts as a repellent directly and shaping the Wnt gradient indirectly by regulating the gradient expression of the frizzled-related protein 1 (Sfrp1). Whether such a mechanism functions in descending 5-HT axon guidance remains unknown...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189094/fijiwingspolarity-an-open-source-toolkit-for-semi-automated-detection-of-cell-polarity
#3
Leonard L Dobens, Anna Shipman, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye...
November 30, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180104/the-nkd-ef-hand-domain-modulates-divergent-wnt-signaling-outputs-in-zebrafish
#4
Autumn N Marsden, Sarah W Derry, Igor Schneider, C Anthony Scott, Trudi A Westfall, Lindy K Brastrom, Madeline Shea, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Wnt proteins regulate diverse biological responses by initiating two general outcomes: β-catenin-dependent transcription and β-catenin-independent activation of signaling cascades, the latter including modulation of calcium and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics (Planar Cell Polarity, PCP). It has been difficult to elucidate the mechanisms by which Wnt signals are directed to effect one or the other outcome due to shared signaling proteins between the β-catenin-dependent and -independent pathways, such as the Dishevelled binding protein Naked...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176774/epithelial-rotation-is-preceded-by-planar-symmetry-breaking-of-actomyosin-and-protects-epithelial-tissue-from-cell-deformations
#5
Ivana Viktorinová, Ian Henry, Pavel Tomancak
Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue...
November 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174888/trans-endocytosis-of-planar-cell-polarity-complexes-during-cell-division
#6
Bryan W Heck, Danelle Devenport
To coordinate epithelial architecture with proliferation, cell polarity proteins undergo extensive remodeling during cell division [1-3]. A dramatic example of polarity remodeling occurs in proliferative basal cells of mammalian epidermis whereupon cell division, transmembrane planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are removed from the cell surface via bulk endocytosis [4]. PCP proteins form intercellular complexes, linked by Celsr1-mediated homophilic adhesion, that coordinate polarity non-autonomously between cells [5, 6]...
November 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169144/targeting-the-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-cancer-update-on-effectors-and-inhibitors
#7
REVIEW
Nithya Krishnamurthy, Razelle Kurzrock
The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is a family of proteins that is implicated in many vital cellular functions like stem cell regeneration and organogenesis. Several intra-cellular signal transduction pathways are induced by Wnt, notably the Wnt/beta-catenin dependent pathway or canonical pathway and the non-canonical or beta-catenin-independent pathway, the latter includes the Wnt/Ca2+ and Planar Cell Polarity pathway (PCP). Wnt activation occurs at the intestinal crypt floor, and is critical to optimal maintenance of stem cells...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150691/mechanical-regulation-of-organ-asymmetry-in-leaves
#8
Jiyan Qi, Binbin Wu, Shiliang Feng, Shouqin Lü, Chunmei Guan, Xiao Zhang, Dengli Qiu, Yingchun Hu, Yihua Zhou, Chuanyou Li, Mian Long, Yuling Jiao
How appendages, such as plant leaves or animal limbs, develop asymmetric shapes remains a fundamental question in biology. Although ongoing research has revealed the genetic regulation of organ pattern formation, how gene activity ultimately directs organ shape remains unclear. Here, we show that leaf dorsoventral (adaxial-abaxial) polarity signals lead to mechanical heterogeneity of the cell wall, related to the methyl-esterification of cell-wall pectins in tomato and Arabidopsis. Numerical simulations predicate that mechanical heterogeneity is sufficient to produce the asymmetry seen in planar leaves...
September 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143784/primary-cilium-dependent-signaling-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143117/the-expression-of-ve-cadherin-in-breast-cancer-cells-modulates-cell-dynamics-as-a-function-of-tumor-differentiation-and-promotes-tumor-endothelial-cell-interactions
#10
Maryam Rezaei, Jiahui Cao, Katrin Friedrich, Björn Kemper, Oliver Brendel, Marianne Grosser, Manuela Adrian, Gustavo Baretton, Georg Breier, Hans-Joachim Schnittler
The cadherin switch has profound consequences on cancer invasion and metastasis. The endothelial-specific vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) has been demonstrated in diverse cancer types including breast cancer and is supposed to modulate tumor progression and metastasis, but underlying mechanisms need to be better understood. First, we evaluated VE-cadherin expression by tissue microarray in 392 cases of breast cancer tumors and found a diverse expression and distribution of VE-cadherin. Experimental expression of fluorescence-tagged VE-cadherin (VE-EGFP) in undifferentiated, fibroblastoid and E-cadherin-negative MDA-231 (MDA-VE-EGFP) as well as in differentiated E-cadherin-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-VE-EGFP), respectively, displayed differentiation-dependent functional differences...
November 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142242/emergent-patterns-of-collective-cell-migration-under-tubular-confinement
#11
Wang Xi, Surabhi Sonam, Thuan Beng Saw, Benoit Ladoux, Chwee Teck Lim
Collective epithelial behaviors are essential for the development of lumens in organs. However, conventional assays of planar systems fail to replicate cell cohorts of tubular structures that advance in concerted ways on out-of-plane curved and confined surfaces, such as ductal elongation in vivo. Here, we mimic such coordinated tissue migration by forming lumens of epithelial cell sheets inside microtubes of 1-10 cell lengths in diameter. We show that these cell tubes reproduce the physiological apical-basal polarity, and have actin alignment, cell orientation, tissue organization, and migration modes that depend on the extent of tubular confinement and/or curvature...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141686/anisotropic-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-scaffolding-supports-a-multiplex-lattice-mosaic-of-photoreceptors-in-zebrafish-retina
#12
Mikiko Nagashima, Jeremy Hadidjojo, Linda K Barthel, David K Lubensky, Pamela A Raymond
BACKGROUND: The multiplex, lattice mosaic of cone photoreceptors in the adult fish retina is a compelling example of a highly ordered epithelial cell pattern, with single cell width rows and columns of cones and precisely defined neighbor relationships among different cone types. Cellular mechanisms patterning this multiplex mosaic are not understood. Physical models can provide new insights into fundamental mechanisms of biological patterning. In earlier work, we developed a mathematical model of photoreceptor cell packing in the zebrafish retina, which predicted that anisotropic mechanical tension in the retinal epithelium orients planar polarized adhesive interfaces to align the columns as cone photoreceptors are generated at the retinal margin during post-embryonic growth...
November 15, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139536/planar-polarity-of-the-extraembryonic-epithelia-in-the-preimplantation-porcine-conceptus
#13
Jacques-Edmond Flechon
The present review deals with the trophoblast structure during the free intrauterine life of the pig blastocyst. The term trophoblast is used here to describe the association of the first extraembryonic cell layers, the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm that are polarized epithelia, a fact established by ultrastructural and immunocytochemical data. The aim of this synthesis is to gather the relative works dispersed in the litterature and to explain the implication of the planar polarity of these cell layers on their developmental fate and roles...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138892/-partial-and-complete-joint-transplantation-with-fresh-osteochondral-allografts-the-flocsat-concept
#14
REVIEW
C Krettek, J-D Clausen, N Bruns, C Neunaber
Cartilage defects in adult patients do not heal well. Fresh osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation is based on mature, living, mechanically sound hyaline cartilage attached to a bone interface, which is brought into an osteochondral defect, where it becomes osseointegrated. According to current knowledge, intact hyaline cartilage tissue is immune privileged and does not, in contrast to bone, meniscus or ligaments, cause an immune reaction. The technique has the unique advantage of transplanting viable, mature and mechanically stable hyaline cartilage into the affected area...
November 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136474/characterization-of-the-sub-micrometer-hierarchy-levels-in-the-twist-bend-nematic-phase-with-nanometric-helices-via-photopolymerization-explanation-for-the-sign-reversal-in-the-polar-response
#15
Vitaly P Panov, Sithara P Sreenilayam, Yuri Panarin, Jagdish K Vij, Chris Welch, Georg H Mehl
Photo-polymerization of a reactive mesogen mixed with a mesogenic dimer, shown to exhibit the twist-bend nematic phase NTB, reveals the complex structure of the self-deformation patterns observed in planar cells. The polymerized reactive mesogen retains the structure formed by liquid crystalline molecules in the twist bend phase, thus enabling observation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Hierarchical ordering scales from tens of nanometers to micrometers are imaged in detail. Submicron features, anticipated from earlier X-ray experiments, are visualized directly...
November 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122990/expression-of-cobll1-encoding-novel-ror1-binding-partner-is-robust-predictor-of-survival-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#16
Hana Plešingerová, Pavlína Janovská, Archana Mishra, Lucie Smyčková, Lucie Poppová, Antonín Libra, Karla Plevová, Petra Ovesná, Lenka Radová, Michael Doubek, Šárka Pavlová, Šárka Pospíšilová, Vítězslav Bryja
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease with upregulated expression of the transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase ROR1, a member of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway. In this study, we identified COBLL1 as a novel interaction partner of ROR1. COBLL1 shows clear bimodal expression with high levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with mutated IGHV and approximately 30% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV. In the remaining 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with unmutated IGHV, COBLL1 expression is low...
November 9, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111415/the-planar-cell-polarity-vangl2-protein-from-genetics-to-cellular-and-molecular-functions
#17
REVIEW
Eric Bailly, Alexandra Walton, Jean-Paul Borg
Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the capacity of a tissue, typically, but not exclusively, an epithelium, to transmit directional information across the tissue plane such that its cellular constituents can differentiate, divide or move in a coordinated manner and along a common axis, generally orthogonal to the apical-basal axis. PCP relies on a core module of highly conserved proteins originally identified in Drosophila which can act intra- and extracellularly. In this review, we focuse on the vertebrate ortholog of one of these core PCP components, namely the Vangl2 protein...
October 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107170/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-planar-cell-polarity-pathway-contributions-to-cancer-malignancy
#18
REVIEW
Kacey VanderVorst, Jason Hatakeyama, Anastasia Berg, Hyun Lee, Kermit L Carraway
While the mutational activation of oncogenes drives tumor initiation and growth by promoting cellular transformation and proliferation, increasing evidence suggests that the subsequent re-engagement of largely dormant developmental pathways contributes to cellular phenotypes associated with the malignancy of solid tumors. Genetic studies from a variety of model organisms have defined many of the components that maintain epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP), or cellular polarity in the axis orthogonal to the apical-basal axis...
November 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097183/vangl2-interacts-with-integrin-%C3%AE-v-to-regulate-matrix-metalloproteinase-activity-and-cell-adhesion-to-the-extracellular-matrix
#19
Tammy N Jessen, Jason R Jessen
Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are implicated in a variety of morphogenetic processes including embryonic cell migration and potentially cancer progression. During zebrafish gastrulation, the transmembrane protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) is required for PCP and directed cell migration. These cell behaviors occur in the context of a fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM). While it is thought that interactions with the ECM regulate cell migration, it is unclear how PCP proteins such as VANGL2 influence these events...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091679/tunable-angular-shearing-interferometer-based-on-wedged-liquid-crystal-cells
#20
Romain Laberdesque, Aurélie Jullien, Umberto Bortolozzo, Nicolas Forget, Stefania Residori
The concept of a liquid crystal wedge as a tunable angular shearing interferometer is introduced and demonstrated to combine both high stability and high tunability. Different wedges are fabricated from planar aligned nematic liquid crystal cells with thickness gradients. These wedges are shown to produce stable interferograms from the polarization interference between the ordinary and extraordinary waves propagating in different directions at the output of the cell. The fringe periods, ranging from 70 μm to 1...
November 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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