Read by QxMD icon Read

planar cell polarity

Jose Maria Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Marek Mlodzik
Planar cell polarity (PCP)-signaling and associated tissue polarization are evolutionarily conserved. A well documented feature of PCP-signaling in vertebrates is its link to centriole/cilia positioning, although the relationship of PCP and ciliogenesis is still debated. A recent report in Drosophila established that Frizzled (Fz)-PCP core signaling has an instructive input to polarized centriole positioning in non-ciliated Drosophila wing epithelia as a PCP read-out. Here, we review the impact of this observation in the context of recent descriptions of the relationship(s) of core Fz-PCP signaling and cilia/centriole positioning in epithelial and non-epithelial cells...
October 24, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Hanseol Kim, Jihye Ryu, Chaeyoung Lee
A genome-wide association study was conducted to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for human telomerase.We tested the genetic associations of nucleotide variants with expression of the genes encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase RNA components (TERC) in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 373 Europeans.Our results revealed 6 eQTLs associated with hTERT (P < 5 × 10). One eQTL (rs17755753) was located in the intron 1 of the gene encoding R-spondin-3 (RSPO3), a well-known Wnt signaling regulator...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xiaojing Qiao, Yahui Liu, Peiqiang Li, Zhongzhong Chen, Huili Li, Xueyan Yang, Richard H Finnell, Zhangmin Yang, Ting Zhang, Bin Qiao, Yufang Zheng, Hongyan Wang
The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is critical for proper embryonic development of the neural tube and heart. Mutations in these genes have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTDs), but not in congenital heart defects (CHDs) in humans. We systematically identified the mutation patterns of CELSR1-3 , one family of the core PCP genes, in human cohorts composed of 352 NTD cases, 412 CHD cases, and matched controls. A total of 72 disease-specific rare novel coding mutations were identified, of which 37 were identified in CHD cases, and 36 were identified in NTD patients...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Ting Yu, Guangnan Zhou, Xia Hu, Shuji Ye
Understanding the transport behavior of the cholesterol molecules within cell membrane is a key challenge in cell biology at present. Here, we applied sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) to characterize the transport and organization of the cholesterol in different kinds of planar solid-supported lipid bilayers by combining achiral and chiral-sensitive polarization measurements. This method allows us to distinguish cholesterol organizations in the tail to tail, head to tail, head to head, and side-by-side manners...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Malene Rask Andersen, Muhammad Farooq, Karen Koefoed, Klaus W Kjaer, Ane Simony, Sren Tvorup Christensen, Lars Allan Larsen
STUDY DESIGN: Mutation analysis of a candidate disease gene in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate if damaging mutations in the planar cell polarity gene VANGL1 could be identified in AIS patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: AIS is a spinal deformity which occurs in 1-3% of the population. The cause of AIS is often unknown, but genetic factors are important in the etiology...
October 17, 2016: Spine
Jyoti R Misra, Kenneth D Irvine
The protocadherins Dachsous and Fat initiate a signaling pathway that controls growth and planar cell polarity by regulating the membrane localization of the atypical myosin Dachs. How Dachs is regulated by Fat signaling has remained unclear. Here we identify the vamana gene as playing a crucial role in regulating membrane localization of Dachs and in linking Fat and Dachsous to Dachs regulation. Vamana, an SH3-domain-containing protein, physically associates with and co-localizes with Dachs and promotes its membrane localization...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
Jose Maria Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Michael Smith, Marek Mlodzik
Most mutant alleles in the Fz-PCP pathway genes were discovered in classic Drosophila screens looking for recessive loss-of-function mutations. Nonetheless, although Fz-PCP signaling is sensitive to increased doses of PCP gene products, not many screens have been performed in the wing under genetically engineered Fz over-expression conditions, mostly because the Fz phenotypes were strong and/or not easy to score and quantify. Here we present a screen based on an unexpected mild Frizzled gain-of-function phenotype...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
V Malheiro, F Lehner, V Dinca, P Hoffmann, K Maniura-Weber
The typical foreign body response (FBR) to synthetic implants is characterized by local inflammation and tissue fibrosis. Silicone implants have been associated with the development of adverse capsular contraction (ACC); a form of excessive FBR to the material that often requires the replacement of the implant. It has been shown that surface roughening of silicone can reduce the prevalence of ACC, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Macrophages are key cells in FBR. They exert their control mainly by polarizing into pro-inflammatory (M1) or pro-healing (M2) cells...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Roger D Farley
Light and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the development of book lungs in embryos of the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. There is a bilateral cluster of temporary lamellae that form just posterior to the second opisthosomal (O2) limb buds. These lamellae are replaced by advanced embryo (AE) book lungs that continue into postembryonic stages. Results herein agree with earlier suggestions that the O2 limb buds become the AE book lungs. Each O2 limb bud merges with the ventral surface of the O2 segment where the limb bud/book lung is internalized by covering with epidermis...
September 28, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Yifei Zhang, Xing Wang, Hitoshi Matakatsu, Richard Fehon, Seth S Blair
Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue...
October 3, 2016: ELife
Li-Juan Liu, Shui-Xiang Xie, Ya-Tang Chen, Jing-Ling Xue, Chuan-Jie Zhang, Fan Zhu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world. Several signaling pathways, including the wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signaling pathway, have been shown to be commonly activated in HCC. The Wnt signaling pathway can be triggered via both catenin β1 (CTNNB1)-dependent (also known as "canonical") and CTNNB1-independent (often referred to as "non-canonical") pathways. Specifically, the canonical Wnt pathway is one of those most frequently reported in HCC. Aberrant regulation from three complexes (the cell-surface receptor complex, the cytoplasmic destruction complex and the nuclear CTNNB1/T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor transcriptional complex) are all involved in HCC...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Basile Tarchini, Abigail L D Tadenev, Nicholas Devanney, Michel Cayouette
Sensory perception in the inner ear relies on the hair bundle, the highly polarized brush of movement detectors crowning hair cells. We previously showed that, in the mouse cochlea, the edge of the forming bundle is defined by the 'bare zone', a microvilli-free sub-region of apical membrane specified by the mInsc-LGN-Gαi protein complex. We now report that LGN and Gαi also occupy the very tip of stereocilia that directly abut the bare zone. We demonstrate that LGN and Gαi are both essential to promote the elongation and differential identity of stereocilia across rows...
September 22, 2016: Development
Chih-Wen Chu, Sergei Y Sokol
The coordinated orientation of cells across the tissue plane, known as planar cell polarity (PCP), is manifested by the segregation of core PCP proteins to different sides of the cell. Secreted Wnt ligands are involved in many PCP-dependent processes, yet whether they act as polarity cues has been controversial. We show that in Xenopus early ectoderm, the Prickle3/Vangl2 complex was polarized to anterior cell edges and this polarity was disrupted by several Wnt antagonists. In midgastrula embryos, Wnt5a, Wnt11, and Wnt11b, but not Wnt3a, acted across many cell diameters to orient Prickle3/Vangl2 complexes away from their sources regardless of their positions relative to the body axis...
September 23, 2016: ELife
Satoshi Yamashita, Tatsuo Michiue
Planar cell polarity is an important property of epithelial tissue. The boundary propagation model was proposed as the mechanism of PCP induction, while it has been doubted whether it can induce PCP on wide tissue. Using simulation, a set of proteins can be shown to induce PCP, but it does not explain why and how the set can induce PCP. In this study, we made theoretical model and simulation model to explore when and how the boundary propagation induce PCP. We incorporated multipolar cell in our model. Intracellular interactions have been thought to amplify polarity of a cell, but we propose instead that they are to keep a cell-cell interface polarized, and bipolarity of cell is obtained as a result...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hiroko Torii, Atsuhiro Yoshida, Tatsuya Katsuno, Takayuki Nakagawa, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori, Makoto Kinoshita, Norio Yamamoto
Septins are guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins that are evolutionally conserved in all eukaryotes other than plants. They function as multimeric complexes that interact with membrane lipids, actomyosin, and microtubules. Based on these interactions, septins play essential roles in the morphogenesis and physiological functions of many mammalian cell types including the regulation of microtubule stability, vesicle trafficking, cortical rigidity, planar cell polarity, and apoptosis. The inner ear, which perceives auditory and equilibrium sensation with highly differentiated hair cells, has a complicated gross morphology...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
Benoit Aigouy, André Le Bivic
The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. In contrast, we report that other key adherens junction proteins, Bazooka and the myosin regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash) are unilateral, i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lin Su, Zhen Zhang, Liang Gan, Qian Jiang, Ping Xiao, Jizhen Zou, Qi Li, Hong Jiang
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of intrinsic ganglion cells in the lower intestine. Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this disease are under active investigation. As core genes in the planar cell polarity pathway, Celsr3 and Fzd3 are believed to play vital roles in the development of the murine enteric nervous system. The potential association of CELSR3 and FZD3 with the development of HSCR in humans, however, is still unknown. We determined the genotypes of eight CELSR3 and FZD3 polymorphisms in 113 patients...
September 13, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Yanshu Wang, John Williams, Amir Rattner, Shu Wu, Alexander G Bassuk, Andre M Goffinet, Jeremy Nathans
The dorsal surface of the mouse tongue is covered by ~7,000 papillae, asymmetric epithelial protrusions that are precisely oriented to create a stereotyped macroscopic pattern. Within the context of this large-scale pattern, neighboring papillae exhibit a high degree of local order that minimizes the differences in their orientations. We show here that the orientations of lingual papillae are under the control of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) genes Vangl1, Vangl2, and Celsr1. Using K14-Cre and Nkx2.5-Cre to induce conditional knockout of Vangl1 and/or Vangl2 in the tongue epithelium, we observe more severe disruptions to local order among papillae with inactivation of larger numbers of Vangl genes, a greater role for Vangl2 than Vangl1, and a more severe phenotype with the Vangl2 Looptail (Lp) allele than the Vangl2 null allele, consistent with a dominant negative mode of action of the Vangl2(Lp) allele...
September 6, 2016: Developmental Biology
Nathan D Okerlund, Robert E Stanley, Benjamin N R Cheyette
The transmembrane protein Vangl2, a key regulator of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, is involved in dendrite arbor elaboration, dendritic spine formation and glutamatergic synapse formation in mammalian central nervous system neurons. Cultured forebrain neurons from Vangl2 knockout mice have simpler dendrite arbors, fewer total spines, less mature spines and fewer glutamatergic synapse inputs on their dendrites than control neurons. Neurons from mice heterozygous for a semidominant Vangl2 mutation have similar but not identical phenotypes, and these phenotypes are also observed in Golgi-stained brain tissue from adult mutant mice...
July 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Hortensja Ł Brzóska, Angela M d'Esposito, Maria Kolatsi-Joannou, Vishal Patel, Peter Igarashi, Yunping Lei, Richard H Finnell, Mark F Lythgoe, Adrian S Woolf, Eugenia Papakrivopoulou, David A Long
The mammalian kidney contains nephrons comprising glomeruli and tubules joined to ureteric bud-derived collecting ducts. It has a characteristic bean-like shape, with near-complete rostrocaudal symmetry around the hilum. Here we show that Celsr1, a planar cell polarity (PCP) gene implicated in neural tube morphogenesis, is required for ureteric tree growth in early development and later in gestation prevents tubule overgrowth. We also found an interaction between Celsr1 and Vangl2 (another PCP gene) in ureteric tree growth, most marked in the caudal compartment of the kidneys from compound heterozygous mutant mice with a stunted rump...
September 2, 2016: Kidney International
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"