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planar cell polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798065/self-organization-process-in-newborn-skin-organoid-formation-inspires-strategy-to-restore-hair-regeneration-of-adult-cells
#1
Mingxing Lei, Linus J Schumacher, Yung-Chih Lai, Wen-Tau Juan, Chao-Yuan Yeh, Ping Wu, Ting-Xin Jiang, Ruth E Baker, Randall Bruce Widelitz, Li Yang, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Organoids made from dissociated progenitor cells undergo tissue-like organization. This in vitro self-organization process is not identical to embryonic organ formation, but it achieves a similar phenotype in vivo. This implies genetic codes do not specify morphology directly; instead, complex tissue architectures may be achieved through several intermediate layers of cross talk between genetic information and biophysical processes. Here we use newborn and adult skin organoids for analyses. Dissociated cells from newborn mouse skin form hair primordia-bearing organoids that grow hairs robustly in vivo after transplantation to nude mice...
August 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796562/loss-of-endothelial-planar-cell-polarity-and-cellular-clearance-mechanisms-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Maria Mercedes Campos, Mones S Abu-Asab
Apoptosis, autophagosomes, and lysosomes are lacking in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes. Necrosis, not apoptosis, appeared to be the prominent type of cell death in RPE, which led to the accumulation of cell debris within and on both sides of Bruch's membrane. The endothelium of the choriocapillaris had an altered planar cell polarity which encompassed the disappearance of fenestrations, the thickening of cytoplasm, and anterior nuclear dislocation. There were no significant differences in RPE and choroidal aberrations between macular and temporal regions...
August 10, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760393/sculpting-epithelia-with-planar-polarized-actomyosin-networks-principles-from-drosophila
#3
REVIEW
Tony J C Harris
Drosophila research has revealed how planar polarized actomyosin networks affect various types of tissue morphogenesis. The networks are positioned by both tissue-wide patterning factors (including Even-skipped, Runt, Engrailed, Invected, Hedgehog, Notch, Wingless, Epidermal Growth Factor, Jun N-terminal kinase, Sex combs reduced and Fork head) and local receptor complexes (including Echinoid, Crumbs and Toll receptors). Networks with differing super-structure and contractile output have been discovered. Their contractility can affect individual cells or can be coordinated across groups of cells, and such contractility can drive or resist physical change...
July 28, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754924/dynamic-scaffolds-for-neuronal-signaling-in-silico-analysis-of-the-tanc-protein-family
#4
Alessandra Gasparini, Silvio C E Tosatto, Alessandra Murgia, Emanuela Leonardi
The emergence of genes implicated across multiple comorbid neurologic disorders allows to identify shared underlying molecular pathways. Recently, investigation of patients with diverse neurologic disorders found TANC1 and TANC2 as possible candidate disease genes. While the TANC proteins have been reported as postsynaptic scaffolds influencing synaptic spines and excitatory synapse strength, their molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we conducted a comprehensive in silico analysis of the TANC protein family to characterize their molecular role and understand possible neurobiological consequences of their disruption...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746879/daple-coordinates-planar-polarized-microtubule-dynamics-in-ependymal-cells-and-contributes-to-hydrocephalus
#5
Maki Takagishi, Masato Sawada, Shinya Ohata, Naoya Asai, Atsushi Enomoto, Kunihiko Takahashi, Liang Weng, Kaori Ushida, Hosne Ara, Shigeyuki Matsui, Kozo Kaibuchi, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Masahide Takahashi
Motile cilia in ependymal cells, which line the cerebral ventricles, exhibit a coordinated beating motion that drives directional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and guides neuroblast migration. At the apical cortex of these multi-ciliated cells, asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins is required for the planar polarization of microtubule dynamics, which coordinates cilia orientation. Daple is a disheveled-associating protein that controls the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway and cell motility...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739340/regulation-of-cell-polarity-by-cell-adhesion-receptors
#6
REVIEW
Klaus Ebnet, Daniel Kummer, Tim Steinbacher, Amrita Singh, Masanori Nakayama, Maja Matis
The ability of cells to polarize is an intrinsic property of almost all cells and is required for the devlopment of most multicellular organisms. To develop cell polarity, cells integrate various signals derived from intrinsic as well as extrinsic sources. In the recent years, cell-cell adhesion recptors have turned out as important regulators of cellular polarization. By interacting with conserved cell polarity proteins, they regulate the recruitment of polarity complexes to specific sites of cell-cell adhesion...
July 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734144/expression-of-planar-cell-polarity-genes-during-mouse-tooth-development
#7
Nobuko Obara, Yuko Suzuki, Kazuharu Irie, Shunichi Shibata
OBJECTIVE: Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the cell polarity across the tissue plane and controls various cell behaviors and structures. Although the expression of several PCP signaling components has been detected in tooth germs, knowledge of the gene expression patterns of these PCP components during tooth development remains incomplete. The aim of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial changes in PCP gene expression during tooth development. DESIGN: Expression of Celsr1 and 2, Fzd3 and 6, Vangl1 and 2, and Dvl1-3 genes was analyzed in mouse molar germs from the bud to the bell stage using in situ hybridization...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731148/molecular-genetics-and-targeted-therapy-of-wnt-related-human-diseases-review
#8
Masuko Katoh, Masaru Katoh
Canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled and LRP5/6 receptors is transduced to the WNT/β-catenin and WNT/stabilization of proteins (STOP) signaling cascades to regulate cell fate and proliferation, whereas non-canonical WNT signaling through Frizzled or ROR receptors is transduced to the WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP), WNT/G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and WNT/receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cascades to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and directional cell movement. WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade crosstalks with RTK/SRK and GPCR-cAMP-PKA signaling cascades to regulate β-catenin phosphorylation and β-catenin-dependent transcription...
September 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721594/exome-analysis-in-an-estonian-multiplex-family-with-neural-tube-defects-a-case-report
#9
Liina Pappa, Mart Kals, Paula Ann Kivistik, Andres Metspalu, Ann Paal, Tiit Nikopensius
INTRODUCTION: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of common and severe congenital birth defects that occur during early embryonic development due to incomplete closure of the neural tube. The genetic architecture of human NTDs, including spina bifida and hydrocephalus, is highly heterogeneous, with multiple genes/loci and both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions involved. Hence, the variation in outcomes also most likely relates to a combination of the severity of different variants in multiple genes and genetic modifiers affecting the biochemical traits...
July 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718442/wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-new-opportunities-for-cancer-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Avais M Daulat, Jean-Paul Borg
Cancer cells are addicted to a large spectrum of extracellular cues implicated in initiation, stem cell renewal, tumor growth, dissemination in the body, and resistance to treatment. Wingless/Int-1 (Wnt) ligands and their associated signaling cascades contribute to most of these processes, paving the way for opportunities in therapeutic development. The developmental Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is the most recently described branch of Wnt signaling strongly implicated in cancer development at early and late stages...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716607/seven-pass-cadherins-celsr1-3
#11
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet, Fadel Tissir
Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors 1, 2 and 3 (CELSR1-3) form a family of three atypical cadherins with multiple functions in epithelia and in the nervous system. During the past decade, evidence has accumulated for a key role of CELSR1 in epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP), and for CELSR2 and CELSR3 in ciliogenesis and neural development, especially neuron migration and axon guidance in the central, peripheral and enteric nervous systems. Phenotypes in mutant mice indicate that CELSR proteins work in concert with FZD3 and FZD6, but several questions remain...
July 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715414/kinesin-1-promotes-chondrocyte-maintenance-during-skeletal-morphogenesis
#12
Adrian Santos-Ledo, Marina Garcia-Macia, Philip D Campbell, Marta Gronska, Florence L Marlow
During skeletal morphogenesis diverse mechanisms are used to support bone formation. This can be seen in the bones that require a cartilage template for their development. In mammals the cartilage template is removed, but in zebrafish the cartilage template persists and the bone mineralizes around the cartilage scaffold. Remodeling of unmineralized cartilage occurs via planar cell polarity (PCP) mediated cell rearrangements that contribute to lengthening of elements; however, the mechanisms that maintain the chondrocyte template that supports perichondral ossification remain unclear...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703283/wnt-signaling-pathways-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-b-cell-lymphomas
#13
REVIEW
Pavlína Janovská, Vítězslav Bryja
In this review, we discuss the intricate roles of the WNT signaling network in the development and progression of mature B cell-derived hematological malignancies, with a focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and related B cell lymphomas. We review the current literature and highlight the differences between the β-catenin-dependent and independent branches of WNT signaling. Special attention is paid to the role of the non-canonical WNT/Planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, mediated by the WNT5-ROR1-Dishevelled (DVL) signaling axis in CLL...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697798/a-proteomic-analysis-of-lrrk2-binding-partners-reveals-interactions-with-multiple-signaling-components-of-the-wnt-pcp-pathway
#14
Alena Salašová, Chika Yokota, David Potěšil, Zbyněk Zdráhal, Vítězslav Bryja, Ernest Arenas
BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant mutations in the Park8 gene encoding Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been identified to cause up to 40% of the genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. However, the function and molecular pathways regulated by LRRK2 are largely unknown. It has been shown that LRRK2 serves as a scaffold during activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling via its interaction with the β-catenin destruction complex, DVL1-3 and LRP6. In this study, we examine whether LRRK2 also interacts with signaling components of the WNT/Planar Cell Polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway, which controls the maturation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, the main cell type lost in Parkinson's disease patients...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674183/n-terminal-part-of-dishevelled-dep-domain-is-required-for-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-mammalian-cells
#15
Petra Paclíková, Ondřej Bernatík, Tomasz Witold Radaszkiewicz, Vítězslav Bryja
Dishevelled (DVL) proteins are key mediators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. All DVL proteins contain three conserved domains -- DIX, PDZ and DEP. There is a consensus in the field that DIX domain is critical for Wnt/β-catenin signaling but contradictory evidence exists regarding the function of the DEP domain. It has been difficult until recently to test the importance of the DEP domain rigorously because of the interference with endogenous DVL, expressed in all Wnt-responsive cell lines. In this study, we took advantage of DVL KO (DVL1/DVL2/DVL3-triple knockout) cells, fully deficient in Wnt3a-induced signaling events, and performed series of rescue experiments...
July 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665270/meru-couples-planar-cell-polarity-with-apical-basal-polarity-during-asymmetric-cell-division
#16
Jennifer J Banerjee, Birgit L Aerne, Maxine V Holder, Simon Hauri, Matthias Gstaiger, Nicolas Tapon
Polarity is a shared feature of most cells. In epithelia, apical-basal polarity often coexists, and sometimes intersects with planar cell polarity (PCP), which orients cells in the epithelial plane. From a limited set of core building blocks (e.g. the Par complexes for apical-basal polarity and the Frizzled/Dishevelled complex for PCP), a diverse array of polarized cells and tissues are generated. This suggests the existence of little-studied tissue-specific factors that rewire the core polarity modules to the appropriate conformation...
June 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660073/ryk-regulates-wnt5a-repulsion-of-mouse-corticospinal-tract-through-modulating-planar-cell-polarity-signaling
#17
Xin Duan, Yarong Gao, Yaobo Liu
It was previously reported a role for Ryk in mediating Wnt5a repulsion of the corticospinal tract (CST) in mice. Recent evidence has shown that Ryk regulates planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling through interacting with Vangl2. Here, in vivo, in vitro and biochemical analyses were applied to investigate the molecular cross-talk between the Ryk and PCP signaling pathways, revealing that PCP pathway components play important roles in CST anterior-posterior guidance. Ryk-Vangl2 interactions are crucial for PCP signaling to mediate Wnt5a repulsion of CST axons...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653906/organ-sculpting-by-patterned-extracellular-matrix-stiffness
#18
Justin Crest, Alba Diz-Muñoz, Dong-Yuan Chen, Daniel A Fletcher, David Bilder
How organ-shaping mechanical imbalances are generated is a central question of morphogenesis, with existing paradigms focusing on asymmetric force generation within cells. We show here that organs can be sculpted instead by patterning anisotropic resistance within their extracellular matrix (ECM). Using direct biophysical measurements of elongating Drosophila egg chambers, we document robust mechanical anisotropy in the ECM-based basement membrane (BM) but not in the underlying epithelium. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) on wild-type BM in vivo reveals an anterior-posterior (A-P) symmetric stiffness gradient, which fails to develop in elongation-defective mutants...
June 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627768/spatially-resolved-large-magnetization-in-ultrathin-bifeo3
#19
Er-Jia Guo, Jonathan R Petrie, Manuel A Roldan, Qian Li, Ryan D Desautels, Timothy Charlton, Andreas Herklotz, John Nichols, Johan van Lierop, John W Freeland, Sergei V Kalinin, Ho Nyung Lee, Michael R Fitzsimmons
Here, a quantitative magnetic depth profile across the planar interfaces in BiFeO3 /La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 (BFO/LSMO) superlattices using polarized neutron reflectometry is obtained. An enhanced magnetization of 1.83 ± 0.16 μB /Fe in BFO layers is observed when they are interleaved between two manganite layers. The enhanced magnetic order in BFO persists up to 200 K. The depth dependence of magnetic moments in BFO/LSMO superlattices as a function of the BFO layer thickness is also explored. The results show the enhanced net magnetic moment in BFO from the LSMO/BFO interface extends 3-4 unit cells into BFO...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614361/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-frizzled-6-in-the-small-intestine-of-pigs-sus-scrofa
#20
Lijun Zou, Xiaocheng Wang, Liping Jiang, Shengping Wang, Xia Xiong, Huansheng Yang, Wei Gao, Min Gong, Chien-An A Hu, Yulong Yin
Frizzled 6 (FZD6) encodes an integral membrane protein that functions in multiple signal transduction pathways, for example, as a receptor in Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway for polarized cell migration and organ morphogenesis. Mutations in FZD6 have been identified in a variety of tumors. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Sus scrofa FZD6 (Sfz6) was cloned and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrates that the Sfz6 gene encodes the 712 amino-acid (aa) protein with seven transmembrane domain...
2017: PloS One
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