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planar cell polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045873/nanoscale-membrane-budding-induced-by-ctxb-and-detected-via-polarized-localization-microscopy
#1
Abir M Kabbani, Christopher V Kelly
For endocytosis and exocytosis, membranes transition among planar, budding, and vesicular topographies through nanoscale reorganization of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. However, prior attempts to understand the initial stages of nanoscale bending have been limited by experimental resolution. Through the implementation of polarized localization microscopy, this article reports the inherent membrane bending capability of cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB) in quasi-one-component-supported lipid bilayers. Membrane buds were first detected with <50 nm radius, grew to >200 nm radius, and extended into longer tubules with dependence on the membrane tension and CTxB concentration...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033332/disruption-of-core-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-regulates-renal-tubule-morphogenesis-but-is-not-cystogenic
#2
Koshi Kunimoto, Roy D Bayly, Eszter K Vladar, Tyson Vonderfecht, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Jeffrey D Axelrod
Oriented cell division (OCD) and convergent extension (CE) shape developing renal tubules, and their disruption has been associated with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) genes, the majority of which encode proteins that localize to primary cilia. Core planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls OCD and CE in other contexts, leading to the hypothesis that disruption of PCP signaling interferes with CE and/or OCD to produce PKD. Nonetheless, the contribution of PCP to tubulogenesis and cystogenesis is uncertain, and two major questions remain unanswered...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994649/planar-cell-polarity-signaling-coordinates-oriented-cell-division-and-cell-rearrangement-in-clonally-expanding-growth-plate-cartilage
#3
Yuwei Li, Ang Li, Jason Junge, Marianne Bronner
Both oriented cell divisions and cell rearrangements are critical for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. However, little is known about how these two cellular events are integrated. Here we examine the linkage between these processes in chick limb cartilage. By combining retroviral-based multicolor clonal analysis with live imaging, the results show that single chondrocyte precursors can generate both single-column and multi-column clones through oriented division followed by cell rearrangements. Focusing on single column formation, we show that this stereotypical tissue architecture is established by a pivot-like process between sister cells...
October 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993416/regulation-of-axon-guidance-by-the-wnt-receptor-ror-cam-1-in-the-pvt-guidepost-cell-in%C3%A2-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Jason Chien, Ranjan Devkota, Nebeyu Yosef, Catarina Mörck
The Caenorhabditis elegans ventral nerve cord (VNC) consists of two asymmetric bundles of neurons and axons that are separated by the midline. How the axons are guided to stay on the correct sides of the midline remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the conserved Wnt signaling pathway along with the Netrin and Robo pathways constitute a combinatorial code for midline guidance of PVP and PVQ axons that extend into the VNC. Combined loss of the Wnts CWN-1, CWN-2 and EGL-20 or loss of the Wnt receptor CAM-1 caused more than 70 % of PVP and PVQ axons to inappropriately cross over from the left side to the right side...
October 9, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980068/a-unique-methylation-pattern-co-segregates-with-neural-tube-defect-statuses-in-han-chinese-pedigrees
#5
Ruiping Zhang, Lirong Cao, Yizheng Wang, Yulian Fang, Linsheng Zhao, Weidong Li, Ou-Yan Shi, Chun-Quan Cai
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a complex trait associated with gene-environment interactions. Folic acid deficiency and planar cell polarity gene mutations account for some NTD cases; however, the etiology of NTDs is still little understood. In this study, in three Han Chinese NTD pedigrees (two with multiple affected children), with no information on folic acid deficiency or supplement, we examined genome-wide methylation profiles of each individual in these families. We further compared methylation status among cases and normal individuals within the pedigrees...
October 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968740/activity-dependent-neuroplasticity-induced-by-an-enriched-environment-reverses-cognitive-deficits-in-scribble-deficient-mouse
#6
Muna L Hilal, Maité M Moreau, Claudia Racca, Vera L Pinheiro, Nicolas H Piguel, Marie-Josée Santoni, Steve Dos Santos Carvalho, Jean-Michel Blanc, Yah-Se K Abada, Ronan Peyroutou, Chantal Medina, Hélène Doat, Thomas Papouin, Laurent Vuillard, Jean-Paul Borg, Rivka Rachel, Aude Panatier, Mireille Montcouquiol, Stéphane H R Oliet, Nathalie Sans
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is well known to play a critical role during prenatal brain development; whether it plays specific roles at postnatal stages remains rather unknown. Here, we investigated the role of a key PCP-associated gene scrib in CA1 hippocampal structure and function at postnatal stages. We found that Scrib is required for learning and memory consolidation in the Morris water maze as well as synaptic maturation and NMDAR-dependent bidirectional plasticity. Furthermore, we unveiled a direct molecular interaction between Scrib and PP1/PP2A phosphatases whose levels were decreased in postsynaptic density of conditional knock-out mice...
November 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960852/novel-mutation-of-lrp6-identified-in-chinese-han-population-links-canonical-wnt-signaling-to-neural-tube-defects
#7
Zhiwen Shi, Xueyan Yang, Bin-Bin Li, Shuxia Chen, Luming Yang, Liangping Cheng, Ting Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Yufang Zheng
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most frequent cause of human congenital abnormalities, are debilitating birth defects due to failure of neural tube closure. It has been shown that noncanonical WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is required for convergent extension (CE), the initiation step of neural tube closure (NTC). But the effect of canonical WNT//β-catenin signaling during NTC is still elusive. LRP6 (low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins 6) was identified as a co-receptor for WNT/β-catenin signaling, but recent studies showed that it also can mediate WNT/PCP signaling...
September 29, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935705/a-tectorin-based-matrix-and-planar-cell-polarity-genes-are-required-for-normal-collagen-fibril-orientation-in-the-developing-tectorial-membrane
#8
Richard J Goodyear, Xiaowei Lu, Michael R Deans, Guy P Richardson
The tectorial membrane is an extracellular structure of the cochlea. It develops on the surface of an epithelium and contains collagen fibrils embedded in a tectorin-based matrix. The collagen fibrils are oriented radially with an apically-directed slant - a feature considered critical for hearing. To determine how this pattern is generated, collagen-fibril formation was examined in mice lacking a tectorin-based matrix, epithelial cilia, or the planar-cell-polarity genes Vangl2 and Ptk7 In wild-type mice, collagen-fibril bundles appear within a tectorin-based matrix at E15...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931858/loss-of-p73-in-ependymal-cells-during-the-perinatal-period-leads-to-aqueductal-stenosis
#9
Masashi Fujitani, Ryohei Sato, Toshihide Yamashita
The p53 family member p73 plays a critical role in brain development. p73 knockout mice exhibit a number of deficits in the nervous system, such as neuronal death, hydrocephalus, hippocampal dysgenesis, and pheromonal defects. Among these phenotypes, the mechanisms of hydrocephalus remain unknown. In this study, we generated a p73 knock-in (KI) mutant mouse and a conditional p73 knockout mouse. The homozygous KI mutants showed aqueductal stenosis. p73 was expressed in the ependymal cell layer and several brain areas...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928959/cell-polarity-cell-adhesion-and-spermatogenesis-role-of-cytoskeletons
#10
REVIEW
Linxi Li, Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Tito Jesus, Elizabeth Tang, Nan Li, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge, C Yan Cheng
In the rat testis, studies have shown that cell polarity, in particular spermatid polarity, to support spermatogenesis is conferred by the coordinated efforts of the Par-, Crumbs-, and Scribble-based polarity complexes in the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, planar cell polarity (PCP) is conferred by PCP proteins such as Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) in the testis. On the other hand, cell junctions at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (steps 8-19) interface are exclusively supported by adhesion protein complexes (for example, α6β1-integrin-laminin-α3,β3,γ3 and nectin-3-afadin) at the actin-rich apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) since the apical ES is the only anchoring device in step 8-19 spermatids...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923514/cell-polarity-and-planar-cell-polarity-pcp-in-spermatogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Haiqi Chen, Dolores D Mruk, Wing-Yee Lui, Chris K C Wong, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
In adult mammalian testes, spermatids, most notably step 17-19 spermatids in stage IV-VIII tubules, are aligned with their heads pointing toward the basement membrane and their tails toward the tubule lumen. On the other hand, these polarized spermatids also align across the plane of seminiferous epithelium, mimicking planar cell polarity (PCP) found in other hair cells in cochlea (inner ear). This orderly alignment of developing spermatids during spermiogenesis is important to support spermatogenesis, such that the maximal number of developing spermatids can be packed and supported by a fixed population of differentiated Sertoli cells in the limited space of the seminiferous epithelium in adult testes...
September 28, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918952/a-dual-function-for-prickle-in-regulating-frizzled-stability-during-feedback-dependent-amplification-of-planar-polarity
#12
Samantha J Warrington, Helen Strutt, Katherine H Fisher, David Strutt
The core planar polarity pathway coordinates epithelial cell polarity during animal development, and loss of its activity gives rise to a range of defects, from aberrant morphogenetic cell movements to failure to correctly orient structures, such as hairs and cilia. The core pathway functions via a mechanism involving segregation of its protein components to opposite cells ends, where they form asymmetric intracellular complexes that couple cell-cell polarity. This segregation is a self-organizing process driven by feedback interactions between the core proteins themselves...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891640/a-site-ordered-double-perovskite-camnti2o6-as-a-multifunctional-piezoelectric-and-ferroelectric-photovoltaic-material
#13
Gaoyang Gou, Nenian Charles, Jing Shi, James M Rondinelli
The double perovskite CaMnTi2O6, is a rare A-site ordered perovskite oxide that exhibits a sizable ferroelectric polarization and relatively high Curie temperature. Using first-principles calculations combined with detailed symmetry analyses, we identify the origin of the ferroelectricity in CaMnTi2O6. We further explore the material properties of CaMnTi2O6, including its ferroelectric polarization, dielectric and piezoelectric responses, magnetic order, electronic structure, and optical absorption coefficient...
October 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885142/sonic-hedgehog-switches-on-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-in-commissural-axon-growth-cones-by-reducing-levels-of-shisa2
#14
Keisuke Onishi, Yimin Zou
Commissural axons switch on responsiveness to Wnt attraction during midline crossing and turn anteriorly only after exiting the floor plate. We report here that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Smoothened signaling downregulates Shisa2, which inhibits the glycosylation and cell surface presentation of Frizzled3 in rodent commissural axon growth cones. Constitutive Shisa2 expression causes randomized turning of post-crossing commissural axons along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Loss of Shisa2 led to precocious anterior turning of commissural axons before or during midline crossing...
September 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883443/planar-polarized-rab35-functions-as-an-oscillatory-ratchet-during-cell-intercalation-in-the-drosophila-epithelium
#15
Cayla E Jewett, Timothy E Vanderleest, Hui Miao, Yi Xie, Roopa Madhu, Dinah Loerke, J Todd Blankenship
The coordination between membrane trafficking and actomyosin networks is essential to the regulation of cell and tissue shape. Here, we examine Rab protein distributions during Drosophila epithelial tissue remodeling and show that Rab35 is dynamically planar polarized. Rab35 compartments are enriched at contractile interfaces of intercalating cells and provide the first evidence of interfacial monopolarity. When Rab35 function is disrupted, apical area oscillations still occur and contractile steps are observed...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869926/outer-inner-and-planar-polarity-in-the-arabidopsis-root
#16
REVIEW
Moritaka Nakamura, Markus Grebe
Plant roots control uptake of water and nutrients and cope with environmental challenges. The root epidermis provides the first selective interface for nutrient absorption, while the endodermis produces the main apoplastic diffusion barrier in the form of a structure called the Casparian strip. The positioning of root hairs on epidermal cells, and of the Casparian strip around endodermal cells, requires asymmetries along cellular axes (cell polarity). Cell polarity is termed planar polarity, when coordinated within the plane of a given tissue layer...
September 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862660/dynamic-response-of-graphitic-flakes-in-nematic-liquid-crystals-confinement-and-host-effect
#17
Weiwei Tie, Surjya Sarathi Bhattacharyya, Yuanhao Gao, Zhi Zheng, Eun Jeong Shin, Tae Hyung Kim, MinSu Kim, Joong Hee Lee, Seung Hee Lee
Electric field-induced reorientation of suspended graphitic (GP) flakes and its relaxation back to the original state in a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host are of interest not only in academia, but also in industrial applications, such as polarizer-free and optical film-free displays, and electro-optic light modulators. As the phenomenon has been demonstrated by thorough observation, the detailed study of the physical properties of the host NLC (the magnitude of dielectric anisotropy, elastic constants, and rotational viscosity), the size of the GP flakes, and cell thickness, are urgently required to be explored and investigated...
September 1, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860115/afadin-orients-cell-division-to-position-the-tubule-lumen-in-developing-renal-tubules
#18
Lei Gao, Zhufeng Yang, Chitkale Hiremath, Susan E Zimmerman, Blake Long, Paul R Brakeman, Keith E Mostov, David M Bryant, Katherine Luby-Phelps, Denise K Marciano
In many types of tubules, continuity of the lumen is paramount to tubular function, yet how tubules generate lumen continuity in vivo is not known. We recently found that the F-actin-binding protein afadin is required for lumen continuity in developing renal tubules, though its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that afadin is required for lumen continuity by orienting the mitotic spindle during cell division. Using an in vitro 3D cyst model, we find that afadin localizes to the cell cortex adjacent to the spindle poles and orients the mitotic spindle...
October 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856763/the-fly-eye-through-the-looking-glass
#19
REVIEW
Justin P Kumar
The developing eye-antennal disc of Drosophila melanogaster has been studied for more than a century and it has been used as a model system to study diverse processes such as tissue specification, organ growth, programmed cell death, compartment boundaries, pattern formation, cell fate specification, and planar cell polarity. The findings that have come out of these studies have informed our understanding of basic developmental processes as well as human disease. For example, the isolation of a white-eyed fly ultimately led to a greater appreciation of the role that sex chromosomes play in development, sex determination, and sex linked genetic disorders...
August 30, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837644/prickle1-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-of-apical-spiral-ganglion-neurons-but-not-hair-cell-polarity-in-the-murine-cochlea
#20
Tian Yang, Jennifer Kersigo, Shu Wu, Bernd Fritzsch, Alexander G Bassuk
In the mammalian organ of Corti (OC), the stereocilia on the apical surface of hair cells (HCs) are uniformly organized in a neural to abneural axis (or medial-laterally). This organization is regulated by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. Mutations of PCP genes, such as Vangl2, Dvl1/2, Celsr1, and Fzd3/6, affect the formation of HC orientation to varying degrees. Prickle1 is a PCP signaling gene that belongs to the prickle / espinas / testin family. Prickle1 protein is shown to be asymmetrically localized in the HCs of the OC, and this asymmetric localization is associated with loss of PCP in Smurf mutants, implying that Prickle1 is involved in HC PCP development in the OC...
2017: PloS One
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