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planar cell polarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069902/wnt-regulation-of-embryonic-development-likely-involves-pathways-independent-of-nuclear-ctnnb1
#1
Paula Tribulo, James I Moss, Manabu Ozawa, Zongliang Jiang, Cindy Tian, Peter J Hansen
The bovine was used to examine potential for WNT signaling to affect the preimplantation embryo. Expression of seven key genes involved in canonical WNT signaling declined to a nadir at the morula or blastocyst stage. Expression of 80 genes associated with WNT signaling in the morula and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) of the blastocyst was also evaluated. Many genes associated with WNT signaling were characterized by low transcript abundance. Seven genes were different between ICM and TE, and all of them were overexpressed in TE as compared to ICM, including WNT6, FZD1, FZD7, LRP6, PORCN, APC, and SFRP1...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059551/wnt-signaling-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#2
Robert Böscke, Eszter K Vladar, Michael Könnecke, Birgit Hüsing, Robert Linke, Ralph Pries, Norbert Reiling, Jeffrey D Axelrod, Jayakar V Nayak, Barbara Wollenberg
The signaling pathways that sustain the disease process of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain poorly understood. We sought to determine the expression levels of Wnt signaling genes in CRSwNP, and to study the role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation and epithelial remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Microarrays and RT-qPCR comparing gene expression in matched nasal polyps (NP) and inferior turbinates (IT) revealed that WNT2B, WNT3A, WNT4, WNT7A, WNT7B and FZD2 were upregulated, and FZD1, LRP5, LRP6 and WIF1 downregulated in NPs...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057866/evidence-for-opposing-roles-of-celsr3-and-vangl2-in-glutamatergic-synapse-formation
#3
Sonal Thakar, Liqing Wang, Ting Yu, Mao Ye, Keisuke Onishi, John Scott, Jiaxuan Qi, Catarina Fernandes, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Darwin K Berg, Yimin Zou
The signaling mechanisms that choreograph the assembly of the highly asymmetric pre- and postsynaptic structures are still poorly defined. Using synaptosome fractionation, immunostaining, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Celsr3 and Vangl2, core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, are localized at developing glutamatergic synapses and interact with key synaptic proteins. Pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus of Celsr3 knockout mice exhibit loss of ∼50% of glutamatergic synapses, but not inhibitory synapses, in culture...
January 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052552/celsr2-encoding-a-planar-cell-polarity-protein-is-a-putative-gene-in-joubert-syndrome-with-cortical-heterotopia-microophthalmia-and-growth-hormone-deficiency
#4
Thierry Vilboux, May Christine V Malicdan, Joseph C Roney, Andrew R Cullinane, Joshi Stephen, Deniz Yildirimli, Joy Bryant, Roxanne Fischer, Meghana Vemulapalli, James C Mullikin, Peter J Steinbach, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Joubert syndrome is a ciliopathy characterized by a specific constellation of central nervous system malformations that result in the pathognomonic "molar tooth sign" on imaging. More than 27 genes are associated with Joubert syndrome, but some patients do not have mutations in any of these genes. Celsr1, Celsr2, and Celsr3 are the mammalian orthologues of the drosophila planar cell polarity protein, flamingo; they play important roles in neural development, including axon guidance, neuronal migration, and cilium polarity...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041906/apc-c-fzr-cdh1-dependent-regulation-of-planar-cell-polarity-establishment-via-nek2-kinase-acting-on-dishevelled
#5
Ursula Weber, Marek Mlodzik
The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, well known for its role in cell-cycle progression. However, it has been linked to additional functions, mainly in neuronal contexts, when using the co-activator Cdh1/Fzr. Here, our data indicate a post-mitotic requirement for the APC/C(Fzr/Cdh1) in epithelial cell patterning and planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila. PCP signaling is critical for development by establishing cellular asymmetries and orientation within the plane of an epithelium, via differential localization of distinct complexes of core PCP factors...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030539/local-cell-death-changes-the-orientation-of-cell-division-in-the-developing-drosophila-wing-imaginal-disc-without-using-fat-or-dachsous-as-orienting-signals
#6
Abhijit Kale, Gerard Rimesso, Nicholas E Baker
Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit preferred cell division orientations according to location within the disc. These orientations are altered if cell death occurs within the epithelium, such as is caused by cell competition or by genotypes affecting cell survival. Both normal cell division orientations, and their orientations after cell death, depend on the Fat-Dachsous pathway of planar cell polarity (PCP). The hypothesis that cell death initiates a planar polarity signal was investigated. When clones homozygous for the pineapple eye (pie) mutation were made to initiate cell death, neither Dachsous nor Fat was required in pie cells for the re-orientation of nearby cells, indicating a distinct signal for this PCP pathway...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013027/forces-directing-germ-band-extension-in-drosophila-embryos
#7
REVIEW
Deqing Kong, Fred Wolf, Jörg Großhans
Body axis elongation by convergent extension is a conserved developmental process found in all metazoans. Drosophila embryonic germ-band extension is an important morphogenetic process during embryogenesis, by which the length of the germ-band is more than doubled along the anterior-posterior axis. This lengthening is achieved by typical convergent extension, i.e. narrowing the lateral epidermis along the dorsal-ventral axis and simultaneous extension along the anterior-posterior axis. Germ-band extension is largely driven by cell intercalation, whose directionality is determined by the planar polarity of the tissue and ultimately by the anterior-posterior patterning system...
December 22, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002749/hexagonal-patterning-of-the-insect-compound-eye-facet-area-variation-defects-and-disorder
#8
Sangwoo Kim, Justin J Cassidy, Boyuan Yang, Richard W Carthew, Sascha Hilgenfeldt
The regular hexagonal array morphology of facets (ommatidia) in the Drosophila compound eye is accomplished by regulation of cell differentiation and planar cell polarity during development. Mutations in certain genes disrupt regulation, causing a breakdown of this perfect symmetry, so that the ommatidial pattern shows onset of disorder in the form of packing defects. We analyze a variety of such mutants and compare them to normal (wild-type), finding that mutants show increased local variation in ommatidial area, which is sufficient to induce a significant number of defects...
December 20, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001338/wdpcp-regulates-the-ciliogenesis-of-human-sinonasal-epithelial-cells-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#9
Yun Ma, Yueqi Sun, Lijie Jiang, Kejun Zuo, Hexin Chen, Jiebo Guo, Fenghong Chen, Yinyan Lai, Jianbo Shi
Damage to the mucociliary clearance system is a typical change in the pathogenesis in chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the mechanisms underlying cilia loss remain unclear. WDPCP is a key protein essential for ciliogenesis, and is also an effector of the planar cell polarity signaling system. In this study, we sought to determine the role of WDPCP in cilia loss in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We demonstrated the expression of WDPCP in human sinonasal epithelium from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and control subjects...
December 21, 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955617/planar-cell-polarity-genes-frizzled3a-vangl2-and-scribble-are-required-for-spinal-commissural-axon-guidance
#10
Simon D Sun, Ashley M Purdy, Gregory S Walsh
BACKGROUND: A fundamental feature of early nervous system development is the guidance of axonal projections to their targets in order to assemble neural circuits that control behavior. Spinal commissural neurons are an attractive model to investigate the multiple guidance cues that control growth cone navigation both pre- and post-midline crossing, as well as along both the dorsal-ventral (D-V) and anterior-posterior (A-P) axes. Accumulating evidence suggests that guidance of spinal commissural axons along the A-P axis is dependent on components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway...
December 12, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942226/history-and-progression-of-fat-cadherins-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Xiaofeng Zhang, Jinghua Liu, Xiao Liang, Jiang Chen, Junjie Hong, Libo Li, Qiang He, Xiujun Cai
Intercellular adhesions are vital hubs for signaling pathways during multicellular development and animal morphogenesis. In eukaryotes, under aberrant intracellular conditions, cadherins are abnormally regulated, which can result in cellular pathologies such as carcinoma, kidney disease, and autoimmune diseases. As a member of the Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion super-family, Fat proteins were first described in the 1920s as an inheritable lethal mutant phenotype in Drosophila, consisting of four member proteins, FAT1, FAT2, FAT3, and FAT4, all of which are highly conserved in structure...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930878/heterogeneity-of-%C3%AE-cells
#12
Shoen Kume
Loss of β-cell mass and function leads to the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. β-cell neogenesis from endogenous progenitor pools is expected as a potential cell source for the treatment of diabetes. However, the existence of β-cell progenitors was challenged by Dor et al(1) , that self-replication of pre-existing β-cells is the major mechanism for β-cell regeneration. Our knowledge of the pancreatic β-cells would lead to a better understanding and manipulation of the maturation or proliferation of β-cells for regenerative medicine...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926869/robust-asymmetric-localization-of-planar-polarity-proteins-is-associated-with-organization-into-signalosome-like-domains-of-variable-stoichiometry
#13
Helen Strutt, Jessica Gamage, David Strutt
In developing epithelia, the core planar polarity proteins physically interact with each other and localize asymmetrically at opposite cell ends, forming intercellular complexes that link the polarity of neighboring cells. Using quantitative imaging to examine the composition of the core protein complex in vivo, we find that complex composition is unexpectedly plastic. The transmembrane proteins Frizzled and Flamingo form a stoichiometric nucleus in the complex, while the relative levels of the other four core proteins can vary independently...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926854/structural-characterization-and-statistical-mechanical-model-of-epidermal-patterns
#14
Duyu Chen, Wen Yih Aw, Danelle Devenport, Salvatore Torquato
In proliferating epithelia of mammalian skin, cells of irregular polygon-like shapes pack into complex, nearly flat two-dimensional structures that are pliable to deformations. In this work, we employ various sensitive correlation functions to quantitatively characterize structural features of evolving packings of epithelial cells across length scales in mouse skin. We find that the pair statistics in direct space (correlation function) and Fourier space (structure factor) of the cell centroids in the early stages of embryonic development show structural directional dependence (statistical anisotropy), which is a reflection of the fact that cells are stretched, which promotes uniaxial growth along the epithelial plane...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925688/rare-deleterious-pard3-variants-in-the-apkc-binding-region-are-implicated-in-the-pathogenesis-of-human-cranial-neural-tube-defects-via-disrupting-apical-tight-junction-formation
#15
Xiaoli Chen, Yu An, Yonghui Gao, Liu Guo, Lei Rui, Hua Xie, Mei Sun, Siv Lam Hung, Xiaoming Sheng, Jizhen Zou, Yihua Bao, Hongyan Guan, Bo Niu, Zandong Li, Richard H Finnell, James F Gusella, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang
Increasing evidence that mutation of planar cell polarity (PCP) genes contributes to human cranial NTD susceptibility prompted us to hypothesize that rare variants of genes in the core apical-basal polarity (ABP) pathway are risk factors for cranial NTDs. In this study, we screened for rare genomic variation of PARD3 in 138 cranial NTD cases and 274 controls. Overall, the rare deleterious variants of PARD3 were significantly associated with increased risk for cranial NTDs (11/138 vs.7/274, p<0.05, OR = 3...
December 7, 2016: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911818/planar-cell-polarity-signaling-in-the-uterus-directs-appropriate-positioning-of-the-crypt-for-embryo-implantation
#16
Jia Yuan, Jeeyeon Cha, Wenbo Deng, Amanda Bartos, Xiaofei Sun, Hsin-Yi Henry Ho, Jean-Paul Borg, Terry P Yamaguchi, Yingzi Yang, Sudhansu K Dey
Blastocyst implantation is a complex process requiring coordination of a dynamic sequence of embryo-uterine interactions. Blood vessels enter the uterus from the mesometrium, demarcating the uterus into mesometrial (M) and antimesometrial (AM) domains. Implantation occurs along the uterine longitudinal axis within specialized implantation chambers (crypts) that originate within the evaginations directed from the primary lumen toward the AM domain. The morphological orientation of crypts in rodent uteri was recognized more than a century ago, but the mechanism remained unknown...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900010/a-novel-mutation-of-the-fat2-gene-in-spinal-meningioma
#17
Genshu Tate, Koji Kishimoto, Toshiyuki Mitsuya
Meningiomas may be classified as neurofibromin 2 (NF2)-associated and non-NF2 meningiomas depending on the presence or absence of molecular alterations in the NF2 gene. One of the characteristic histological features of meningiomas is the whorl formation of neoplastic arachnoid cells. NF2 is a human homolog of the Drosophila gene, Merlin (Mer). In humans, NF2 is the gene responsible for the disease neurofibromatosis type II, which results in the development of brain tumors, including acoustic neurinoma and meningioma...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896618/loss-of-liver-kinase-b1-causes-planar-polarity-defects-in-cochlear-hair-cells-in-mice
#18
Yuqin Men, Aizhen Zhang, Liwen Zhang, Yecheng Jin, Zhishuo Wang, Jing Zhao, Xiaolin Yu, Jian Zhang, Jiangang Gao
The tumor suppressor gene liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also called STK11, encodes a serine/threonine kinase. LKB1 plays crucial roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and polarity. In this study, LKB1 conditional knockout mice (LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice) were generated using Pax2-Cre mice to investigate the function of LKB1 in inner ear hair cells during early embryonic period. LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice died perinatally. Immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy revealed that stereociliary bundles in LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice were clustered and misoriented, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875771/nemo-like-kinase-1-nlk1-and-paraxial-protocadherin-papc-cooperatively-control-xenopus-gastrulation-through-regulation-of-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-pcp-signaling
#19
Rahul Kumar, Anja Ciprianidis, Susanne Theiß, Herbert Steinbeißer, Lilian T Kaufmann
The Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway directs cell migration during vertebrate gastrulation and is essential for proper embryonic development. Paraxial protocadherin (PAPC, Gene Symbol pcdh8.2) is an important activator of Wnt/PCP signaling during Xenopus gastrulation, but how PAPC activity is controlled is incompletely understood. Here we show that Nemo-like kinase 1 (Nlk1), an atypical mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, physically associates with the C-terminus of PAPC. This interaction mutually stabilizes both proteins by inhibiting polyubiquitination...
October 28, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856247/the-drosophila-f-box-protein-slimb-controls-dsmurf-protein-turnover-to-regulate-the-hippo-pathway
#20
Liangchang Hu, Ping Wang, Runan Zhao, Shanshan Li, Feng Wang, Chaojie Li, Lei Cao, Shian Wu
SMAD ubiquitination regulatory factors 1 and 2 (Smurf1/2) are members of the HECT domain E3 ligase family which play crucial roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression, planar cell polarity, cancer metastasis and cell apoptosis. We recently showed that the Drosophila homolog dSmurf controls the stability of Warts kinase to regulate the Hippo pathway. In the current study, we found that the F-box protein Slimb controls dSmurf protein level to regulate the Hippo pathway. Slimb physically associates with dSmurf as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation assay in S2 cells...
January 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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