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planar cell polarity

Dianlei Guo, Zhaohui Yuan, Jiali Ru, Xinyu Gu, Wang Zhang, Fuxiang Mao, Hong Ouyang, Kaili Wu, Yizhi Liu, Chunqiao Liu
Purpose: Tissue closure/fusion is a fundamental process during organogenesis, driven in part by the Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway. This study explored the spatial and temporal aspects of PCP signaling in eyelid development through analysis of mice lacking Prickle 1, a core PCP component, and the Prickle1-dependent signaling networks underlying eyelid development. Methods: Wild type and Prickle 1 compound mutant mice with a hypomorphic and a null allele were bred and used to study eyelid morphogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Marrah E Lachowicz-Scroggins, Erin D Gordon, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Nathan D Jackson, Hannah J MacLeod, Louis Z Sharp, Matthew Sun, Max A Seibold, John V Fahy
Polarization of the airway epithelial cells (AECs) in the airway lumen is critical to the proper function of the mucociliary escalator and maintenance of lung health, but the cellular requirements for polarization of AECs are poorly understood. Using human AECs and cell lines, we demonstrate that cadherin-26 (CDH26) is abundantly expressed in differentiated AECs, localizes to the cell apices near ciliary membranes, and has functional cadherin domains with homotypic binding. We find a unique and non-redundant role for CDH26, previously uncharacterized in AECs, in regulation of cell-cell contact and cell integrity through maintaining cytoskeletal structures...
2018: Cell Discovery
C Yan Cheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Andreea Belu, Mehmet Yilmaz, Elmar Neumann, Andreas Offenhäusser, Gokhan Demirel, Dirk Mayer
Three dimensional, nanostructured surfaces have attracted considerable attention in biomedical research since they have proven to represent a powerful platform to influence cell fate. In particular, nanorods and nanopillars possess great potential for the control of cell adhesion and differentiation, gene and biomolecule delivery, optical and electrical stimulation and recording, as well as cell patterning. Here, we investigate the influence of asymmetric poly(dichloro-p-xylene) (PPX) columnar films on the adhesion and maturation of cortical neurons...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Jia Yuan, Wenbo Deng, Jeeyeon Cha, Xiaofei Sun, Jean-Paul Borg, Sudhansu K Dey
Embryo implantation is central to pregnancy success. Our previous understanding is limited by studying this phenomenon primarily in two dimensions. Here we employ 3D visualization, revealing that epithelial evaginations that form implantation chambers (crypts) consistently arise with preexisting glands, suggesting direct access of glands to embryos within the chamber. While the lobular domains of the glands become more developed, the ductal regions continue to elongate and progressively stretch following implantation...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Minwei He, Kangqi Li, Chuanfei Yu, Bingfeng Lv, Ning Zhao, Jinhai Deng, Lulu Cao, He Huang, Ang Yin, Taiping Shi, Lu Wang
FUZ is regarded as a planar cell polarity effector that controls multiple cellular processes during vertebrate development. However, the role of FUZ in tumor biology remains poorly studied. Our purpose of this study is to discover the physiological effects and mechanism of FUZ in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro. With the help of bioinformatics analysis, we noticed that the expression level of FUZ negatively correlates with prognosis of NSCLC patients. Exogenous FUZ expression markedly promoted cell proliferation of NSCLC cells...
February 5, 2018: Life Sciences
Hervé Alégot, Pierre Pouchin, Olivier Bardot, Vincent Mirouse
Tissue elongation and its control by spatiotemporal signals is a major developmental question. Currently, it is thought that Drosophila ovarian follicular epithelium elongation requires the planar polarization of the basal domain cytoskeleton and of the extra-cellular matrix, associated with a dynamic process of rotation around the anteroposterior axis. Here we show, by careful kinetic analysis of fat2 mutants, that neither basal planar polarization nor rotation is required during a first phase of follicle elongation...
February 8, 2018: ELife
F Ahmad, P V Debes, G Palomar, A Vasemägi
Even though parasitic infections are often costly or deadly for the host, we know very little which genes influence parasite susceptibility and disease severity. Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging and, at elevated water temperatures, potentially deadly disease of salmonid fishes that is caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. By screening > 7.6 K SNPs in 255 wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) and combining association mapping and random forest approaches, we identified several candidate genes for both the parasite resistance (inverse of relative parasite load; RPL) and the severe anemic response to the parasite...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Linxi Li, Baiping Mao, Siwen Wu, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
It is conceivable that spermatid apico-basal polarity and spermatid planar cell polarity (PCP) are utmost important to support spermatogenesis. The orderly arrangement of developing germ cells in particular spermatids during spermiogenesis are essential to obtain structural and nutrient supports from the fixed number of Sertoli cells across the limited space of seminiferous epithelium in the tubules following Sertoli cell differentiation by ∼17 day postpartum (dpp) in rodents and ∼12 years of age at puberty in humans...
February 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Takuya Tsuji, Ryosuke Nakamura, Tatsuya Katsuno, Yo Kishimoto, Atsushi Suehiro, Masaru Yamashita, Ryuji Uozumi, Tatsuo Nakamura, Ichiro Tateya, Koichi Omori
BACKGROUND: Planar cell polarity (PCP) coordinates the patterning and orientation of cells and their structures along tissue planes, and although its acquisition during the formation of airway epithelium has been described, the mechanisms for its maintenance and reconstruction are poorly understood. We aimed to clarify whether ambient environment change by orthotropic autologous transplantation affected PCP at the cellular level. METHODS: We performed orthotropic autologous transplantation by inverting tracheal segments in rats, and then performed morphological evaluation by microscopy...
February 2, 2018: Respiratory Research
Zheying Zhang, Yongxia Wang, Jinghang Zhang, Jiateng Zhong, Rui Yang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality, and is a major health problem. Collagen type I α 1 (COL1A1) is a major component of collagen type I. Recently, it was reported to be overexpressed in a variety of tumor tissues and cells. However, the function of COL1A1 in CRC remains unclear. Herein, the present study demonstrated that COL1A1 was upregulated in CRC tissues and the paired lymph node tissues. Transwell assays showed that COL1A1 promoted CRC cell migration in vitro...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yuan Chen, Peng Zhang, Peiyuan Tang, Peng Lv, Xin Li, Yuanguo Wang, Yang Lv, Yimei Liu
Thymoma is the most common neoplasm of the anterosuperior mediastinum. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has a role in a variety of human cancers. The present objective was to examine c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mRNA and protein expression in thymoma cells undergoing apoptosis subsequent to downregulation of Wnt4. Wnt4 and JNK mRNA and protein expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in 15 thymoma tissues and 6 thymus cyst tissues...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Yizhe Zhao, Anyong Qing, Yang Meng, Zelin Song, Chuan Lin
Metamaterial of dual-square array is proposed to design a dual-band circular polarizer. The novel design of asymmetric unit cell and layout of duplicate arrays significantly enhances the coupling between electric and magnetic fields. Simulation and measurement results show that the polarizer presents wide angle circular dichroism and circular birefringence. Moreover, the polarization conversion of the proposed metamaterial changes with frequency, incident angle, and polarization of incident waves. The fundamental mechanism behind is concluded to be the angle-dependent chirality and dispersion of our novel design...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jinling Fu, Mikiko Nagashima, Chuanyu Guo, Pamela A Raymond, Xiangyun Wei
Purpose: Human Crb1 is implicated in some forms of retinal degeneration, suggesting a role in photoreceptor maintenance. Multiple Crumbs (Crb) polarity genes are expressed in vertebrate retina, although their functional roles are not well understood. To gain further insight into Crb and photoreceptor maintenance, we compared retinal cell densities between wild-type and Tg(RH2-2:Crb2b-sfEX/RH2-2:GFP)pt108b transgenic zebrafish, in which the extracellular domain of Crb2b-short form (Crb2b-sfEX) is expressed in the retina as a secreted protein, which disrupts the planar organization of RGB cones (red, green, and blue) by interfering with Crb2a/2b-based cone-cone adhesion...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Maria A Zuriaga, Jose J Fuster, Susan Maclauchlan, Noyan Gokce, Kenneth Walsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Hamze Beati, Irina Peek, Paulina Hordowska, Mona Honemann-Capito, Jade Glashauser, Fabian A Renschler, Parisa Kakanj, Andreas Ramrath, Maria Leptin, Stefan Luschnig, Silke Wiesner, Andreas Wodarz
In epithelia, cells adhere to each other in a dynamic fashion, allowing the cells to change their shape and move along each other during morphogenesis. The regulation of adhesion occurs at the belt-shaped adherens junction, the zonula adherens (ZA). Formation of the ZA depends on components of the Par-atypical PKC (Par-aPKC) complex of polarity regulators. We have identified the Lin11, Isl-1, Mec-3 (LIM) protein Smallish (Smash), the orthologue of vertebrate LMO7, as a binding partner of Bazooka/Par-3 (Baz), a core component of the Par-aPKC complex...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Rajratan Basu
A small quantity of monolayer graphene flakes is doped in a nematic liquid crystal (LC), and the effective polar anchoring strength coefficient between the LC and the alignment substrate is found to increase by an order of magnitude. The hexagonal pattern of graphene can interact with the LC's benzene rings via π-π electron stacking, enabling the LC to anchor to the graphene surface homogeneously (i.e., planar anchoring). When the LC cell is filled with the graphene-doped LC, some graphene flakes are preferentially attached to the alignment layer and modify the substrate's anchoring property...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Rajratan Basu, Samuel A Shalov
In a conventional liquid crystal (LC) cell, polyimide layers are used to align the LC homogeneously in the cell, and transmissive indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are used to apply the electric field to reorient the LC along the field. It is experimentally presented here that monolayer graphene films on the two glass substrates can function concurrently as the LC aligning layers and the transparent electrodes to fabricate an LC cell, without using the conventional polyimide and ITO substrates. This replacement can effectively decrease the thickness of all the alignment layers and electrodes from about 100 nm to less than 1 nm...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Tenghao Li, Qingming Chen, Weixing Yu, Xuming Zhang
This paper presents the device design and performance analysis of a novel design of planar optical cross-connect (OXC) using nematic liquid crystal (NLC) waveguides. It employs N × N switching matrix in cross-bar fabric. In each unit cell, the input light is set in either the transverse electric (TE) mode or the transverse magnetic (TM) mode by electrically reorienting the NLC in the waveguide. The light then enters a passive waveguide and is routed to different paths depending on the polarization state (TE/TM mode)...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
Eneko Largo, Douglas P Gladue, Johana Torralba, Vicente M Aguilella, Antonio Alcaraz, Manuel V Borca, José L Nieva
Permeabilization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is instrumental in the progression of host-cell infection by many viral pathogens. We have described that permeabilization of ER model membranes by the pore-forming domain of the Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) p7 protein depends on two sequence determinants: the C-terminal transmembrane helix, and the preceding polar loop that regulates its activity. Here, by combining ion-channel activity measurements in planar lipid bilayers with imaging of single Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs), we demonstrate that point substitutions directed to conserved residues within these regions affect ER-like membrane permeabilization following distinct mechanisms...
January 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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