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Insecure attachment

Ana Fonseca, Bárbara Nazaré, Maria Cristina Canavarro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of one's attachment representations on one's and the partner's caregiving representations. BACKGROUND: According to attachment theory, individual differences in parenting and caregiving behaviours may be a function of parents' caregiving representations of the self as caregiver, and of others as worthy of care, which are rooted on parents' attachment representations. Furthermore, the care-seeking and caregiving interactions that occur within the couple relationship may also shape individuals' caregiving representations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Jeffry A Simpson, W Steven Rholes
In this article, we discuss theory and research on how people who have different adult romantic attachment orientations fare across one of life's often happiest, but also most chronically stressful, events-the transition to parenthood. We first discuss central principles of attachment theory and then review empirical research revealing how two types of attachment insecurity-anxiety and avoidance-tend to prospectively predict unique patterns of relational and personal outcomes across this often challenging life event...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Manuela Gander, Diana Diamond, Anna Buchheim, Kathrin Sevecke
Forced displacements and their psychosocial consequences in adolescent refugees and their families have received increasing attention in recent years. Although supportive family relations play a key role in buffering the impact of traumatization in adolescents, parental ability to provide such is often subject to extreme pressure. Under conditions of forced dislocation and fear, maladaptive interpersonal strategies in the parent-child relationships may develop, contributing to the onset of psychopathology. We explore new aspects of attachment-related issues for the understanding and treatment of adolescent refugees who have experienced multiple traumas in their childhood...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Myra Sabir, Margaret A Johnson
We articulate the lifespan theory of change by which an attachment-focused integrative reminiscence intervention, "Life Writing", is expected to interrupt the continuing problem of insecure attachment in adults and reverse associated reduced health and well-being outcomes. Based on preliminary studies and previous research, Life Writing is expected to foster earned-secure attachment in adults who work through subjective memories of unresolved attachment trauma. Roughly two decades of research on integrative reminiscence interventions like Life Writing show their consistent and wide-ranging positive impact...
February 13, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Marco Innamorati, Laura Parolin, Angela Tagini, Alessandra Santona, Andrea Bosco, Pietro De Carli, Giovanni L Palmisano, Filippo Pergola, Diego Sarracino
In this study, bullying is examined in light of the "prosocial security hypothesis"- i.e., the hypothesis that insecure attachment, with temperamental dispositions such as sensation seeking, may foster individualistic, competitive value orientations and problem behaviors. A group of 375 Italian students (53% female; Mean age = 12.58, SD = 1.08) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding attachment security, social values, sensation seeking, and bullying behaviors. Path analysis showed that attachment to mother was negatively associated with bullying of others, both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values, while attachment to father was directly associated with victimization...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Sabrina Krause, Christina Boeck, Anja M Gumpp, Edit Rottler, Katharina Schury, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Buchheim, Harald Gündel, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christiane Waller
Background: Child maltreatment (CM) and attachment experiences are closely linked to alterations in the human oxytocin (OXT) system. However, human data about oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels in circulating immune cells and related them to circulating levels of OXT in peripheral blood. We hypothesized reduced OXTR protein levels, associated with both, experiences of CM and an insecure attachment representation. Methods: OXTR protein expressions were analyzed by western blot analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma OXT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 49 mothers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gery C Karantzas, Daniel Romano, Juwon Lee
Attachment theory is an important framework from which to examine familial aged care. Despite this, the role of attachment in later-life caregiving remains unclear. The current study presents a systematic review of papers within the last five years on attachment and various outcomes related to familial aged care. For the caregiver, attachment anxiety was associated with poorer mental health, and attachment insecurity with a more controlling manner of caregiving. The few studies conducted with care recipients found that attachment insecurity was associated with greater self-appraisals of dementia symptoms and a lower sense of security...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
Attachment is transmitted from one generation to the next. Adult attachment has been shown to predict the security or insecurity of children's attachment relationship with their parents. In search for the mechanism of intergenerational transmission of attachment sensitive parenting has been the main focus of research during the past four decades. Meta-analytic work confirmed the role of sensitive parenting, but a large explanatory gap remains to be explained. Parental mentalization has not yet fulfilled its promise as a bridge across the transmission gap...
February 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Noam Schneck, Tao Tu, Christina A Michel, George A Bonanno, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Grieving individuals demonstrate attentional bias toward reminders of the deceased versus neutral stimuli. We sought to assess bias toward reminders of the deceased versus a living attachment figure and to evaluate similarities and differences in the neural correlates of deceased- and living-related attention. We also sought to identify grief process variables associated with deceased-related attentional bias. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects grieving the death of a first-degree relative or partner within 14 months performed an emotional Stroop task, using words related to a deceased or a living attachment figure, and a standard Stroop task, to identify general selective attention, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Yael Lahav, Alana Siegel, Zahava Solomon
Spouses of traumatized war veterans might suffer from distress following indirect exposure to combat and direct exposure to domestic abuse. Yet the effect of this twofold trauma exposure is far from being fully understood. Theory views attachment security as a personal resource mitigating adversity, whereas attachment insecurities intensify distress. Nevertheless, there are mixed results concerning the effects of attachment in the aftermath of trauma. Furthermore, the role of trauma exposure levels regarding the effects of attachment remains largely uninvestigated...
March 9, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
S W Marshall, I P Albery, D Frings
Attachment styles have been shown to be an important predictor of relationship quality and well-being. They have also been linked with ability to function well in groups. Insecure attachment styles are thought to be an underlying cause of addiction and represent a target for change in one-to-one therapy. How attachment styles themselves affect group therapy for addiction is understudied. The current study addresses this gap by examining the effects of attachment styles on relapse and treatment retention amongst a population of people attending addiction therapy groups...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Cathrine Axfors, Sara Sylvén, Alkistis Skalkidou, Mia Ramklint
OBJECTIVES: (i) To evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the Attachment Style Questionnaire - Short Form (ASQ-SF) for use in pregnant women and (ii) to compare the reliability and factor structure of the short- and full version-ASQ among pregnant women. BACKGROUND: Adult attachment insecurity is currently included as a major risk factor in studies of perinatal health. None of the self-report measures with a Swedish translation have been psychometrically evaluated in a pregnant cohort...
November 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Susanna Pallini, Antonio Chirumbolo, Mara Morelli, Roberto Baiocco, Fiorenzo Laghi, Nancy Eisenberg
Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Nan Zhu, Skyler T Hawk, Lei Chang
Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2)...
March 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Tsachi Ein-Dor, Willem J M I Verbeke, Michal Mokry, Pascal Vrtička
Attachment in the context of intimate pair bonds is most frequently studied in terms of the universal strategy to draw near, or away, from significant others at moments of personal distress. However, important interindividual differences in the quality of attachment exist, usually captured through secure versus insecure - anxious and/or avoidant - attachment orientations. Since Bowlby's pioneering writings on the theory of attachment, it has been assumed that attachment orientations are influenced by both genetic and social factors - what we would today describe and measure as gene by environment interaction mediated by epigenetic DNA modification - but research in humans on this topic remains extremely limited...
March 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Melanie A Blair, George Nitzburg, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
Psychotic like experiences (PLE's) are common in the general population, particularly during adolescence, which has generated interest in how PLE's emerge, and the extent to which they reflect either risk for, or resilience to, psychosis. The "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) model is one effort to model the effect of risk factors on PLEs. The ADC model proposes attachment insecurity as an early environmental insult that can contribute to altered neurodevelopment, increasing the likelihood of PLE's and psychosis...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
R Chris Fraley, Glenn I Roisman
Why are some adults secure or insecure in their relationships? The authors review four lessons they have learned from longitudinal research on the developmental antecedents of adult attachment styles. First, although adult attachment appears to have its origins in early caregiving experiences, those associations are weak and inconsistent across measurement domains. Second, attachment styles appear to be more malleable in childhood and adolescence than in adulthood, leading to asymmetries in socialization and selection processes...
February 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Omri Gillath, Gery C Karantzas, Juwon Lee
The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age)...
February 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Anne-Julie Lafrenaye-Dugas, Natacha Godbout, Martine Hébert
While it is documented that clients consulting in sex therapy tend to report high rates of childhood interpersonal traumas (e.g., physical, psychological and sexual abuse), which are associated to insecure attachment and poorer therapeutic alliance, the interrelations of these variables have not yet been evaluated in this specific population. This study examined the associations between attachment, cumulative trauma and therapeutic alliance in 278 sex therapy patients who filled out self-report questionnaires...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
Samantha J Teague, Louise K Newman, Bruce J Tonge, Kylie M Gray
This paper investigates the role of caregiver mental health and parenting practices as predictors of attachment in children with intellectual disability/developmental delay, comparing between children with ASD (n = 29) and children with other developmental disabilities (n = 20). Parents reported that children with ASD had high levels of anxiety and stress, and attachment insecurity in children (less closeness and more conflict in attachment relationships, and more inhibited attachment behaviours) compared with children with other developmental disabilities...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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