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sleep apnea cardiovascular

Kiminobu Tanizawa, Kazuo Chin
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is characterized by repetitive episodes of decreased or arrested respiratory airflow during sleep. SDB is common and affects approximately 20% of the Japanese general population. Most traits of normal sleep and SDB show familial aggregation, suggesting significant effects of genetic factors. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of SDB and has a high heritability. Regardless of high heritability, no risk locus for OSA has reached a genome-wide level of significance (P < 5×10-8 ) in linkage or candidate gene analysis...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Nuria Farré, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has emerged as a highly prevalent public health problem that imposes important mid-term and long-term consequences, namely cardiovascular, metabolic, cognitive and cancer-related alterations. OSA is characterized by increased upper airway resistance, alveolar hypoventilation, and recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recurrent collapse of the upper airway develops with sleep onset, and is associated with both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation. The microbiome is a vast and complex polymicrobial ecosystem that coexists with the human organism, and has been identified as playing significant roles in the development of host immunological phenotypes...
March 13, 2018: Chest
Daniel Shpilsky, Sebhat Erqou, Sanjay R Patel, Kevin E Kip, Oluremi Ajala, Aryan Aiyer, Patrick J Strollo, Steven E Reis, Oladipupo Olafiranye
Studies have reported an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Proposed mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the associations of OSA with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), and assess the impact of race on these associations. We used data from the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study, a community-based prospective cohort with approximately equal representation of black and white participants...
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Glaucia Carneiro, Maria T Zanella
OBJECTIVE: To analyze metabolic and hormonal disorders resulting from the association between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome that predispose to cardiovascular diseases and investigate the clinical benefits obtained from treatment approaches for both conditions. METHODS: A literature review between 1997 and 2017 was conducted in the PubMed search database. RESULTS: Obesity is the most important risk factor for OSA, and the progressive increase in its prevalence also affects OSA incidence...
March 10, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Raza M Alvi, Noor Tariq, Atul Malhotra, Magid Awadalla, Virginia Triant, Markella V Zanni, Tomas G Neilan
Background: Sleep apnea (SA) is common and has prognostic significance among broad groups of patients with heart failure (HF). Among persons living with HIV (PLHIV), both SA and HF are reported. However, there are no data characterizing the presence, associations and prognostic significance of SA among PLHIV with HF. Methods: We conducted a single center study of PLHIV admitted with HFrEF (LVEF of <50%) and analyzed the relationship of SA with 30-day HF hospital readmission rate, cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mirjam H Schipper, Korné Jellema, Diego Alvarez-Estevez, Johan Verbraecken, Roselyne M Rijsman
BACKGROUND: Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) have been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and there is a high prevalence of PLMS found in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We evaluated patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) for PLMS and respiratory related leg movements (RRLM), versus a control group without TIA. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with TIA and 34 patients with no vascular diagnosis were referred for polysomnography...
March 13, 2018: European Neurology
Victoria M Pak, Feng Dai, Brendan T Keenan, Nalaka S Gooneratne, Allan I Pack
Sleepiness and cardiovascular disease share common molecular pathways; thus, metabolic risk factors for sleepiness may also predict cardiovascular disease risk. Daytime sleepiness predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease, although the mechanism is unidentified. This study explored the associations between subjective sleepiness and metabolite concentrations in human blood plasma within the oxidative and inflammatory pathways, in order to identify mechanisms that may contribute to sleepiness and cardiovascular disease risk...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Rachel P Ogilvie, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Conrad Iber, Sanjay R Patel, Pamela L Lutsey
BACKGROUND: Although excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and both EDS and OSA have separately been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), their joint association with CVD risk is unknown. METHODS: Among 3874 Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) participants without prevalent CVD, moderate to severe OSA was defined by an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 on an in-home polysomnography. EDS was defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥11...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Jiuxing Liang, Xiangmin Zhang, Yuxi Luo, Tingting Wang, Lin Sun, Shaoxiong Huang
Sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the pathophysiology between them is not yet clear. This paper seeks to understand how respiratory events impact the cardiovascular system by heart rate variability. We compared the differences between successional pathological respiratory events (PR) and pure normal respiration (NR) during sleep. The transitions between normal and pathological respiration (TR) were also analyzed. Thirteen patients who suffered moderate or severe SAHS were enrolled in this study...
March 12, 2018: International Heart Journal
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Jesús Díaz-Gutiérrez, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Camilo Silva, Sonia Romero, Javier Salvador, Javier Escalada, Gema Frühbeck
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the utility of the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) value to discriminate between different cardiometabolic profiles and examine the role of body composition in predicting the associated increased risk for glucose impairment, beta-cell dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Subjects with normal fasting glucose completed a 2-hour OGTT and were categorized to the carbohydrate metabolism alterations (CMAs) or the control group based on a 2-hour glucose threshold of 7...
March 9, 2018: Obesity
Wei Du, Jun Liu, Jianlong Zhou, Dan Ye, Yan OuYang, Qingnan Deng
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on all-cause mortality in patients with COPD. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (year 2005-2008). Eligible subjects were ≥20 years who had no COPD or OSA (n=9,237), had only OSA (n=366), had only COPD (n=695), and had OSA/COPD overlap syndrome (n=90). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with overall mortality...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Haruo Hanyu
There is a wide range of potentially modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and dementia, including cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, sleep-apnea syndrome), psychosocial factors (e.g., depression), health behaviors (e.g., low level of physical or mental activity, smoking status), and head trauma. In the elderly, weight loss associated with frailty and sarcopenia is another risk factor for dementia. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of dementia has declined in the US and European countries during the last 20 years...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Glaucylara Reis Geovanini, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Russell Tracy, Nancy S Jenny, Ary L Goldberger, Madalena D Costa, Yongmei Liu, Peter Libby, Susan Redline
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associates with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Immune abnormalities and surges in sympathetic activity accompany OSA and CVD. We hypothesized that OSA associates with leukocytosis partially by abnormalities in autonomic nervous system (ANS) function that would suggest a pathway linking OSA and CVD. METHODS: Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective cohort of individuals initially without overt CVD, underwent polysomnography and assays for white blood cells (WBC) and subsets...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Hasan Emre Koçak, Ayşe Şermin Filiz Acipayam, Harun Acipayam, Bilgen Çakil Erdoğan, Mustafa Suphi Elbistanli, Kamil Hakan Kaya
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) secondary to adenoid hypertrophy causes systemic microvascular dysfunction. This is a prospective single-blinded case-control study. As the patient group, 81 patients diagnosed to have OSAS secondary to adenoid hypertrophy at our hospital between January 2016 and May 2016; as the control group, 26 healthy pediatric volunteers who presented to the hospital for health screening were included in this study. Three groups of OSAS patients were defined as mild, moderate, and severe respectively, according to the lateral nasopharynx x-ray...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Gaurav Gadodia, Srikant Rangaraju, Syed A Raza, Ammar Razzak, Labib Marmarchi, Brittaine Davis, Laura Henriquez, Lynn M Trotti, David Rye, Fadi Nahab
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and periodic limb movements (PLMs) have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There is limited data on the relationship between OSA and PLMs with atrial fibrillation and resistant hypertension in stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients. METHODS: Consecutive stroke and TIA patients referred by a vascular neurologist for diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2015 were included in a retrospective analysis...
March 2018: Neurologist
Karina Woodling, Juan Fiorda-Diaz, Bradley A Otto, Christie A Barnes, Alberto A Uribe, Sergio D Bergese, Vedat Yildiz, Nicoleta Stoicea, Michael G Guertin
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be related to episodes of oxygen de-saturation, hypercapnia, cardiovascular dysfunction, cor-pulmonale, and pulmonary hypertension. STOP-BANG is an acronym for eight specific questions used to assess the likelihood of OSA. If the individual exhibits three or more of these indicators, he/she should be considered to be at high risk for OSA complications. Therefore, the decision of proceeding with inpatient versus outpatient ENT surgery still remains controversial...
February 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Max Jonathan Stumpf, Christian Alexander Schaefer, Jan Krycki, Robert Schueler, Carmen Pizarro, Georg Nickenig, Martin Steinmetz, Dirk Skowasch, Izabela Tuleta
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Aim of this present study was to evaluate and extend recent research on the influence of obstructive sleep apnea on vascular strain. METHODS: A total number of 98 patients were integrated in the study. Patients were grouped according to the Apnea-Hypopnea-Index (AHI) in patients with mild-to-moderate OSA (5/h ≤ AHI < 30/h), severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30/h) and controls (AHI < 5/h)...
2018: PloS One
Francesco Baratta, Daniele Pastori, Tommaso Bucci, Mario Fabiani, Valerio Fabiani, Marco Brunori, Lorenzo Loffredo, Rossella Lillo, Gaetano Pannitteri, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, poor adherence is a limiting factor, and a significant proportion of patients are unable to tolerate CPAP. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of long-term non-compliance with CPAP. METHODS: CPAP treatment was prescribed to all consecutive patients with moderate or severe OSAS (AHI ≥15 events/h) (n = 295) who underwent a full-night CPAP titration study at home between February 1, 2002 and December 1, 2016...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine
Şenay Aydin, Cengiz Özdemir, Cem Ismail Küçükali, Sinem Nedime Sökücü, Murat Giriş, Uğur Akcan, Erdem Tüzün
BACKGROUND/AIM: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with intermittent episodes of hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular problems. Our aim was to investigate whether OSAS-related hypoxia alters the expression of rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), a marker of chronic hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ROCK1 and ROCK2 levels were measured by immunoblotting in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 47 OSAS patients and 17 healthy controls...
March 2018: In Vivo
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