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sleep apnea cardiovascular

Kun Qian, Christoph Janott, Vedhas Pandit, Zixing Zhang, Clemens Heiser, Winfried Hohenhorst, Michael Herzog, Werner Hemmert, Bjoern Schuller
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a serious chronic disease and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Snoring is a typical symptom of OSA patients. Knowledge of the origin of obstruction and vibration within the upper airways is essential for a targeted surgical approach. Aim of this paper is to systematically compare different acoustic features, and classifiers for their performance in the classification of the excitation location of snore sounds. METHODS: Snore sounds from 40 male patients have been recorded during Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy, and categorized by ENT experts...
October 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
A Amaddeo, L de Sanctis, J Olmo Arroyo, J-P Giordanella, P-J Monteyrol, B Fauroux
Obesity, along with hypertrophy of the adenoids and the tonsils, represents one of the major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and the severity of OSA and is a major factor in the persistence and aggravation of OSA over time. Neurocognitive dysfunction and abnormal behavior are the most important and frequent end-organ morbidities associated with OSA in children. Other deleterious consequences such as cardiovascular stress and metabolic syndrome are less common in children than in adults with OSA...
October 18, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Mohan Raizada
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent modifiable risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and disorders directly influencing CVD (i.e. obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, etc.). About one billion people worldwide have HTN, with American adults having 90% lifetime risk of developing HTN. Despite aggressive campaign for lifestyle changes and advances in drug therapy, HTN remains an immense health, emotional, and economic challenge. This is due, in part, to the fact that ∼50% of HTN patients' blood pressure remains uncontrolled and ∼20% of HTN patients are resistant to or require > antihypertensive drugs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anping Cai, Ling Wang, Yingling Zhou, Jiyan Chen, Yingqing Feng, Qi Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Current study sought to evaluate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus hypertension (HTN) on prevalent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). DESIGN AND METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study and a total of 1889 subjects were enrolled. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured by polysomnography and OSA degree was classified as mild (AHI 5-14.9) and moderate-severe (AHI ≥ 15), and AHI < 5 was considered no-OSA. Mean and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was detected by pulse oximetry...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Craig Anderson, Doug McEvoy, Jiguang Wang
OBJECTIVE: There is uncertainty over whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can prevent serious cardiovascular (CV) events. DESIGN AND METHOD: SAVE (NCT00738179; ACTRN12608000409370) was designed to determine whether treatment of OSA with CPAP reduces the risk of serious CV events in patients with established CV disease. Participants were centrally randomised to CPAP treatment or usual care between 2008 and 2013,with follow-up completed late 2015 and the results will be announced in August 2016...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kazuomi Kario, Deepak Bhatt, Sandeep Brar, George Bakris
OBJECTIVE: Dynamic changes in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) are associated with basal autonomic function and cardiovascular risk. We examined the influence of ethnicity on these parameters by comparing ambulatory BP dynamics in Japanese, African American (AA), and white populations with treatment-resistant hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: Both HTN-Japan (N = 41) and SYMPLICITY HTN-3 (N = 384 white and 140 AA) enrolled patients with office systolic BP ≥ 160 mmHg and 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP ≥ 135 mmHg while on ≥3 antihypertensive medications...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mitsuo Kuwabara, Satoshi Hoshide, Haruna Hamasaki, Toshikazu Shiga, Kazuomi Kario
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes blood pressure (BP) surge while OSA episode occurs which could lead to increase the cardiovascular risk. We recently developed a triggered nocturnal BP monitoring (TNP) that initiates BP measurement when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of the nocturnal BP parameters measured by TNP, classification of nocturnal hypertension(HT) and its reproducibility. DESIGN AND METHOD: 147 outpatients in whom polysomnography (PSG) was planned for the diagnosis of OSA (mean age 59...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chooza Moon, Cynthia H Phelan, Diane R Lauver, Lisa C Bratzke
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs), including obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, are common among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but clinicians often do not pay enough attention to SRBDs. The purpose of this narrative review is to update advanced practice registered nurses on the literature focusing on the relationship between SRBDs and CVD (eg, hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and stroke) and on treatments that can improve SRBDs in patients with CVD...
November 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Gang Deng, Zhan-Dong Qiu, Da-Yong Li, Yu Fang, Su-Ming Zhang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Aldosterone was reported to be increased in patients with OSA and correlated with OSA severity. Many studies investigated the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC) in OSA patients. The results, however, were inconsistent. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of CPAP therapy on PAC by performing a meta-analysis. Literature search was carried out in electronic databases including PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Yun Li, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Ilia Kritikou, Maria Basta, Slobodanka Pejovic, Jordan Gaines, Edward O Bixler
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Objective and subjective measures of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are only weakly associated. No study, however, has examined whether these two measures of EDS differ in terms of underlying mechanisms and prognostic value. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin-6 (IL-6) appear to promote sleepiness/fatigue, while the stress hormone cortisol promotes vigilance. We hypothesized that objective sleepiness is associated with increased levels of IL-6 and decreased levels of cortisol...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Michele De Benedetto, Luana Conte, Francesco De Nuccio
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive interruptions of breathing, causing a Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) that can be a key step in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, in fact, there is scientific evidence showing the close relationship between OSA and atherosclerosis, even in those patients who do not show co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cigarette smoking and obesity, which normally are able to activate the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Nadia Gildeh, Panagis Drakatos, Sean Higgins, Ivana Rosenzweig, Brian D Kent
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
I Tuleta, F Stöckigt, U R Juergens, C Pizarro, J W Schrickel, G Kristiansen, G Nickenig, D Skowasch
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent hypoxia as a surrogate of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with different cardiovascular complications. However, the effects of intermittent hypoxia on the lung tissue are less known. Therefore, the aim of our present study was to investigate if intermittent hypoxia may influence oxidative stress, inflammation, and protease/antiprotease system in the lung. Additionally, potential protective properties of anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative drugs have been evaluated...
October 13, 2016: Lung
I Jullian-Desayes, B Revol, E Chareyre, P Camus, C Villier, J C Borel, J L Pepin, M Joyeux-Faure
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of apnea and hypopnea during sleep. Little is known about the potential impact of therapy drugs on the underlying respiratory disorder. Any influence should be taken into account and appropriate action taken, including drug withdrawal if necessary. Here, we review drugs in terms of their possible impact on OSA; drugs which 1) may worsen OSA; 2) are unlikely to have an impact on OSA; 3) those for which data are scarce or contradictory, and 4) drugs with a potentially improving effect...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Wei-Te Wu, Su-Shan Tsai, Yu-Jen Lin, Ming-Hsiu Lin, Trong-Neng Wu, Tung-Sheng Shih, Saou-Hsing Liou
BACKGROUND: Professional drivers' work under conditions predisposes them for development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the effect of SDB on CVD risk among professional drivers has never been investigated. A cohort study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of overnight pulse oximeter as a sleep apnea screening tool to assess the 8-year risk of CVD events. METHODS: The Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study (TBDCS) recruited 1014 professional drivers in Taiwan since 2005...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
Since the initial report 40 years ago on pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as a distinct and prevalent clinical entity, substantial advances have occurred in the delineation of diagnostic and treatment approaches. However, despite emerging and compelling evidence that OSAS increases the risk for cognitive, cardiovascular and metabolic end-organ morbidities, routine assessment of such morbidities is seldom conducted in clinical practice. One of the major reasons for such discrepancies resides in the relatively labor-intensive and onerous steps that would be required to detect the presence of any of such morbidities, further adding to the already elevated cost of diagnosing the disorder...
October 6, 2016: Chest
Pnina Weiss, Meir Kryger
Positive airway pressure (PAP) is considered first-line therapy for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and may also be considered for mild obstructive sleep apnea, particularly if it is symptomatic or there are concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Continuous PAP is most commonly used. Other modes, such as bilevel airway pressure, autotitrating positive airway pressure, average volume assured pressure support, and adaptive support ventilation, play important roles in the management of sleep-related breathing disorders...
October 6, 2016: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Katarzyna Foryś, Mariusz Foryś, Katarzyna Piotrowicz
The obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a mortality risk factor of the cardiovascular system diseases. One of the elements of this relationship is the occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias. The arrhytmias in question are resistant to drug therapy so it is suggested to consider electrotherapy. However, the coexistence of OSA and thus recurrent episodes of nocturnal hypoxia, may have significant impact on the diagnosis and the treatment applied as shown in the following cases. In some cases, the decision of electrotherapy should be preceded by the use of therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hadi A R Khafaji, Kadhim Sulaiman, Rajvir Singh, Khalid F Alhabib, Nidal Asaad, Alawi Alsheikh-Ali, Mohammed Al-Jarallah, Bassam Bulbanat, Wael Almahmeed, Mustafa Ridha, Nooshin Bazargani, Haitham Amin, Ahmed Al-Motarreb, Husam Al Faleh, Abdelfatah Elasfar, Prashanth Panduranga, Jassim Al Suwaidi
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence, clinical characteristics, contributing factors, management and outcome of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF). METHODS: Data were derived from Gulf Care (Gulf acute heart failure registry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute heart failure during February to November 2012 in seven Middle Eastern countries...
December 2015: Acute Cardiac Care
Keri S Taylor, Hisayoshi Murai, Philip J Millar, Nobuhiko Haruki, Derek S Kimmerly, Beverley L Morris, George Tomlinson, T Douglas Bradley, John S Floras
Obstructive apnea during sleep elevates the set point for efferent sympathetic outflow during wakefulness. Such resetting is attributed to hypoxia-induced upregulation of peripheral chemoreceptor and brain stem sympathetic function. Whether recurrent arousal from sleep also influences daytime muscle sympathetic nerve activity is unknown. We therefore tested, in a cohort of 48 primarily nonsleepy, middle-aged, male (30) and female (18) volunteers (age: 59±1 years, mean±SE), the hypothesis that the frequency of arousals from sleep (arousal index) would relate to daytime muscle sympathetic burst incidence, independently of the frequency of apnea or its severity...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
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