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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#1
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542176/measuring-personal-beliefs-and-perceived-norms-about-intimate-partner-violence-population-based-survey-experiment-in-rural-uganda
#2
Alexander C Tsai, Bernard Kakuhikire, Jessica M Perkins, Dagmar Vořechovská, Amy Q McDonough, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Jordan M Downey, David R Bangsberg
BACKGROUND: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540766/hiv-1-full-genome-phylogenetics-of-generalized-epidemics-in-sub-saharan-africa-impact-of-missing-nucleotide-characters-in-next-generation-sequences
#3
Oliver Ratmann, Chris Wymant, Caroline Colijn, Siva Danaviah, M Essex, Simon D W Frost, Astrid Gall, Simani Gaiseitsiwe, Mary Grabowski, Ronald Gray, Stephane Guindon, Arndt von Haeseler, Pontiano Kaleebu, Michelle Kendall, Alexey Kozlov, Justen Manasa, Bui Quang Minh, Sikhulile Moyo, Vladimir Novitsky, Rebecca Nsubuga, Sureshnee Pillay, Thomas C Quinn, David Serwadda, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandros Stamatakis, Jana Trifinopoulos, Maria Wawer, Andrew Leigh Brown, Tulio de Oliveira, Paul Kellam, Deenan Pillay, Christophe Fraser
To characterize HIV-1 transmission dynamics in regions where the burden of HIV-1 is greatest, the 'Phylogenetics and Networks for Generalised HIV Epidemics in Africa' consortium (PANGEA-HIV) is sequencing full-genome viral isolates from across sub-Saharan Africa. We report the first 3,985 PANGEA-HIV consensus sequences from four cohort sites (Rakai Community Cohort Study, n=2,833; MRC/UVRI Uganda, n=701; Mochudi Prevention Project, n=359; Africa Health Research Institute Resistance Cohort, n=92). Next-generation sequencing success rates varied: more than 80% of the viral genome from the gag to the nef genes could be determined for all sequences from South Africa, 75% of sequences from Mochudi, 60% of sequences from MRC/UVRI Uganda, and 22% of sequences from Rakai...
May 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539196/effects-of-the-informed-health-choices-podcast-on-the-ability-of-parents-of-primary-school-children-in-uganda-to-assess-claims-about-treatment-effects-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Daniel Semakula, Allen Nsangi, Andrew D Oxman, Matt Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Sarah Rosenbaum, Angela Morelli, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Margaret Kaseje, Iain Chalmers, Atle Fretheim, Doris Tove Kristoffersen, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: As part of the Informed Health Choices project, we developed a podcast called The Health Choices Programme to help improve the ability of people to assess claims about the benefits and harms of treatments. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the podcast on the ability of parents of primary school children in Uganda to assess claims about the effects of treatments. METHODS: We did this randomised controlled trial in central Uganda. We recruited parents of children aged 10-12 years who were in their fifth year of school at 35 schools that were participating in a linked trial of the Informed Health Choices primary school resources...
May 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539194/effects-of-the-informed-health-choices-primary-school-intervention-on-the-ability-of-children-in-uganda-to-assess-the-reliability-of-claims-about-treatment-effects-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Allen Nsangi, Daniel Semakula, Andrew D Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Matt Oxman, Sarah Rosenbaum, Angela Morelli, Claire Glenton, Simon Lewin, Margaret Kaseje, Iain Chalmers, Atle Fretheim, Yunpeng Ding, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Claims about what improves or harms our health are ubiquitous. People need to be able to assess the reliability of these claims. We aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to teach primary school children to assess claims about the effects of treatments (ie, any action intended to maintain or improve health). METHODS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we included primary schools in the central region of Uganda that taught year-5 children (aged 10-12 years)...
May 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539190/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-schools-status-and-implications-of-low-coverage-in-ethiopia-kenya-mozambique-rwanda-uganda-and-zambia
#6
Camille Morgan, Michael Bowling, Jamie Bartram, Georgia Lyn Kayser
Adequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools impacts health, educational outcomes, and gender disparities. Little multi-country research has been published on WaSH in rural schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this multi-national cross-sectional WaSH study, we document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity, and reliability in 2270 schools that were randomly sampled in rural regions of six Sub-Saharan African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Data collection included: school WaSH surveys containing internationally established WaSH indicators, direct observation, and field- and laboratory-based microbiological water quality testing...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539125/do-anti-malarials-in-africa-meet-quality-standards-the-market-penetration-of-non-quality-assured-artemisinin-combination-therapy-in-eight-african-countries
#7
Paul N Newton, Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: Quality of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is important for ensuring malaria parasite clearance and protecting the efficacy of artemisinin-based therapies. The extent to which non quality-assured ACT (non-QAACT), or those not granted global regulatory approval, are available and used to treat malaria in endemic countries is poorly documented. This paper uses national and sub-national medicine outlet surveys conducted in eight study countries (Benin, Kinshasa and Kantanga [Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC], Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) between 2009 and 2015 to describe the non-QAACT market and to document trends in availability and distribution of non-QAACT in the public and private sector...
May 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535793/intermittent-preventive-treatment-for-malaria-among-children-in-a-refugee-camp-in-northern-uganda-lessons-learned
#8
Matthew E Coldiron, Estrella Lasry, Malika Bouhenia, Debashish Das, Peter Okui, Dan Nyehangane, Juliet Mwanga, Celine Langendorf, Greg Elder, Léon Salumu, Rebecca F Grais
Northern Uganda hosts a large population of refugees from South Sudan, and malaria is one of the major health problems in the area. In 2015, intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTc) was implemented in two refugee camps among children aged 6 months to 14 years. Three distributions of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) were conducted at 8-week intervals. The first dose was directly administered at IPTc distribution sites and the second and third doses were given to caregivers to administer at home...
May 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535179/reduced-frequency-of-cells-latently-infected-with-replication-competent-hiv-1-in-virally-suppressed-individuals-living-in-rakai-uganda
#9
Jessica L Prodger, Jun Lai, Steven J Reynolds, Jeanne C Keruly, Richard D Moore, Jingo Kasule, Taddeo Kityamuweesi, Paul Buule, David Serwadda, Martha Nason, Adam A Capoferri, Stephen F Porcella, Robert F Siliciano, Andrew D Redd, Janet D Siliciano, Thomas C Quinn
Background: HIV-1 persists in latently infected resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4), posing a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Previous studies have quantified this pool of latently infected cells in Americans; however, no study has quantified this reservoir in sub-Saharan Africans, who make up the largest population of HIV-1-infected individuals globally. Methods: Peripheral blood was collected from 70 virally suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals from Rakai District, Uganda, who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) during chronic infection...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534868/a-new-long-term-daily-satellite-based-rainfall-dataset-for-operational-monitoring-in-africa
#10
Ross I Maidment, David Grimes, Emily Black, Elena Tarnavsky, Matthew Young, Helen Greatrex, Richard P Allan, Thorwald Stein, Edson Nkonde, Samuel Senkunda, Edgar Misael Uribe Alcántara
Rainfall information is essential for many applications in developing countries, and yet, continually updated information at fine temporal and spatial scales is lacking. In Africa, rainfall monitoring is particularly important given the close relationship between climate and livelihoods. To address this information gap, this paper describes two versions (v2.0 and v3.0) of the TAMSAT daily rainfall dataset based on high-resolution thermal-infrared observations, available from 1983 to the present. The datasets are based on the disaggregation of 10-day (v2...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534313/class-based-chronicities-of-suffering-and-seeking-help-comparing-addiction-treatment-programs-in-uganda
#11
Julia Vorhölter
Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article looks at changing discourses and practices in the field of mental health care in Uganda. In particular, it analyzes two psychotherapeutic institutions designed to treat drug- and alcohol-addiction, and their accessibility and affordability for people from different class backgrounds. The first center is a high-class residential facility near Kampala which offers state-of-the-art addiction therapy, but is affordable only for the rich. The second center, a church-funded organization in Northern Uganda, cares mainly for people from poor, rural families who cannot afford exp/tensive treatment...
May 22, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534032/cooking-fuel-and-respiratory-symptoms-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#12
Crystal M North, Linda Valeri, Peter W Hunt, A Rain Mocello, Jeffrey N Martin, Yap Boum, Jessica E Haberer, David R Bangsberg, David C Christiani, Mark J Siedner
Household air pollution (HAP) and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load...
April 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531553/hiv-1-viral-load-measurement-in-venous-blood-and-fingerprick-blood-using-abbott-realtime-hiv-1-dbs-assay
#13
Ning Tang, Vihanga Pahalawatta, Andrea Frank, Zowie Bagley, Raquel Viana, John Lampinen, Gregor Leckie, Shihai Huang, Klara Abravaya, Carole L Wallis
BACKGROUND: HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531247/the-health-cost-of-tobacco-use-in-uganda
#14
Nigar Nargis, Kellen Nyamurungi, Sebastian Olakira Baine, Daniel Kadobera
The economic cost of tobacco use is well documented in high-income countries. It has been measured in relatively fewer low-and middle-income countries, and much less in sub-Saharan Africa despite the longstanding recognition of significant current and future health risk to people attributed by tobacco use in this region. This article fills this gap by estimating the economic cost of tobacco use in Uganda, a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa. This study estimates the economic cost of tobacco use in Uganda using the cost-of-illnesses approach based on data collected from a survey of patients and caregivers in four major service centers in Mulago National Referral Hospital, namely, Uganda Cancer Institute, Uganda Heart Institute, Chest Clinic and Diabetic Clinic, key informant interviews and secondary sources for the year 2014...
May 22, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528560/design-and-implementation-of-a-community-health-worker-hiv-treatment-and-prevention-intervention-in-an-hiv-hot-spot-fishing-community-in-rakai-uganda
#15
Amanda Long, Ismail Mbabali, Heidi E Hutton, Alvin G Thomas, Eva Bugos, Jeremiah Mulamba, Kathy Rivet Amico, Fred Nalugoda, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Gertrude Nakigozi, Larry W Chang
Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The intervention, utilizing a novel, theory-based approach, trained 10 community residents in an HIV hot spot fishing community to use motivational interviewing strategies and a mobile phone-based counseling application. During the first 3 months, 771 residents (median 82/health scout, range 27-160) were counseled...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526075/testing-times-trends-in-availability-price-and-market-share-of-malaria-diagnostics-in-the-public-and-private-healthcare-sector-across-eight-sub-saharan-african-countries-from-2009-to-2015
#16
Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521838/does-the-use-of-the-informed-healthcare-choices-ihc-primary-school-resources-improve-the-ability-of-grade-5-children-in-uganda-to-assess-the-trustworthiness-of-claims-about-the-effects-of-treatments-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#17
Allen Nsangi, Daniel Semakula, Andrew D Oxman, Matthew Oxman, Sarah Rosenbaum, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Laetitia Nyirazinyoye, Margaret Kaseje, Iain Chalmers, Atle Fretheim, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: The ability to appraise claims about the benefits and harms of treatments is crucial for informed health care decision-making. This research aims to enable children in East African primary schools (the clusters) to acquire and retain skills that can help them make informed health care choices by improving their ability to obtain, process and understand health information. The trial will evaluate (at the individual participant level) whether specially designed learning resources can teach children some of the key concepts relevant to appraising claims about the benefits and harms of health care interventions (treatments)...
May 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521509/the-cost-of-accessing-infant-hiv-medications-and-health-services-in-uganda
#18
Julie N Bergmann, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Jamila K Stockman
Patient costs are a critical barrier to the elimination of mother to child HIV transmission. Despite the Ugandan government providing free public HIV services, infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis coverage remains low (25%). To understand costs mothers incur in accessing ARV prophylaxis for their infants, we conducted a mixed methods study to quantify and identify their direct costs. We used cross-sectional survey data and focus group discussions from 49 HIV-positive mothers in Uganda. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the direct costs (e...
May 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519898/evaluating-the-effect-of-a-year-long-film-focused-environmental-education-program-on-ugandan-student-knowledge-of-and-attitudes-toward-great-apes
#19
Austin Leeds, Kristen E Lukas, Corinne J Kendall, Michelle A Slavin, Elizabeth A Ross, Martha M Robbins, Dagmar van Weeghel, Richard A Bergl
Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP)...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518032/isolated-case-of-marburg-virus-disease-kampala-uganda-2014
#20
Luke Nyakarahuka, Joseph Ojwang, Alex Tumusiime, Stephen Balinandi, Shannon Whitmer, Simon Kyazze, Sam Kasozi, Milton Wetaka, Issa Makumbi, Melissa Dahlke, Jeff Borchert, Julius Lutwama, Ute Ströher, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol, Trevor R Shoemaker
In September 2014, a single fatal case of Marburg virus was identified in a healthcare worker in Kampala, Uganda. The source of infection was not identified, and no secondary cases were identified. We describe the rapid identification, laboratory diagnosis, and case investigation of the third Marburg virus outbreak in Uganda.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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