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Milly Marston, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Sylvia Kusemererwa, Mark Urassa, Denna Michael, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between HIV natural history and fertility by duration of infection in East and Southern Africa before the availability of antiretroviral therapy, and assess potential biases in estimates of age-specific sub-fertility when using retrospective birth histories in cross-sectional studies. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of prospective population-based HIV cohort studies in Masaka (Uganda) Kisesa (Tanzania), and Manicaland (Zimbabwe)...
October 20, 2016: AIDS
Adewale L Oyeyemi, Terry L Conway, Rufus A Adedoyin, Kingsley K Akinroye, Richmond Aryeetey, Felix Assah, Kelli L Cain, Kavita A Gavand, Sandra S Kasoma, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Estelle V Lambert, Richard Larouche, Sarah J Mos, Reginald Ocansey, Vincent O Onywera, Antonio Prista, Mark S Tremblay, James F Sallis
PURPOSE: Development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related non-communicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Tamale Andrew, Ejobi Francis, Muyanja Charles, Irene Naigaga, Nakavuma Jessica, Ocaido Micheal, Kato Charles Drago, Sente Celsus
Without surveillance studies on mercury (Hg) levels in predominant fish species and parts eaten in a fishing community, the FAO/WHO guidelines might be surpassed, hence health risk. A monitoring study in a developing country with 29 Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and 34 Lates niloticus (Nile perch) from landing sites provided muscle, bellyfat and liver samples for Mercury detection using Inductive Couple Plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The study shows that fish eaten in the fishing community are small with fewer risks from mercury...
December 31, 2016: Cogent Food Agric
Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
BACKGROUND: A large number of caregivers in Uganda rely on the private drug delivery sector to manage childhood illnesses such as malaria. In rural settings where the formal private sector is scarce, unlicensed retail drug outlets are an important initial source of care for households. Despite their abundance, little is known about them. This study explores unlicensed retail drug outlet vendors' perceptions of their practice and social environment in one rural district of Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was conducted with vendors from unlicensed retail drug outlets across all 10 sub-counties of Butaleja District...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
Wai Jia Tam, Philip Yap
Approximately two-thirds of the world's older adults live in developing nations. By 2050, as many as 80% of such older people will live in low- and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, the number of individuals aged 60 and older is projected to reach 163 million. Despite this demographic wave, the majority of Africa has limited access to qualified geriatric health care.(3) Although foreign aid and capacity-building efforts can help to close this gap over time, it is likely that failure to understand the unique context of Africa's older adults, many of whom are marginalized, will lead to inadequacies in service delivery and poor health outcomes...
October 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Iulia Bădescu, M Anne Katzenberg, David P Watts, Daniel W Sellen
OBJECTIVES: Determining nutritional development in wild primates is difficult through observations because confirming dietary intake is challenging. Physiological measures are needed to determine the relative contributions of maternal milk and other foods at different ages, and time of weaning. We used fecal stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N) and fecal nitrogen concentrations (%N) from wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Uganda, to derive physiological dietary indicators during the transition from total reliance on maternal milk to adult foods after weaning...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Helen J Sims-Williams, Hugh P Sims-Williams, Edith Mbabazi Kabachelor, James Fotheringham, Benjamin C Warf
OBJECTIVE Myelomeningocele (MM) is a neural tube defect complicated by neurological deficits below the level of the spinal lesion and, in many cases, hydrocephalus. Long-term survival of infants treated for MM in a low- and middle-income country has never been reported. This retrospective cohort study reports 10-year outcomes and factors affecting survival for infants undergoing MM repair at CURE Children's Hospital of Uganda. METHODS Patients were traced by telephone or home visit. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Aditya H Gaur, Hilda Kizito, Wasana Prasitsueubsai, Natella Rakhmanina, Mohammed Rassool, Rana Chakraborty, Jagmohan Batra, Pope Kosalaraksa, Wicharn Luesomboon, Danielle Porter, Yongwu Shao, Michael Myers, Lillian Ting, Devi SenGupta, Erin Quirk, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prodrug tenofovir alafenamide is associated with improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of this single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adolescents. METHODS: We did a 48 week, single-arm, open-label trial in treatment-naive adolescents with HIV from ten hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA...
October 17, 2016: Lancet HIV
Cornelia Wiegand, Peter Mugisha, Grace K Mulyowa, Peter Elsner, Uta-Christina Hipler, Yvonne Gräser, Silke Uhrlaß, Pietro Nenoff
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection common among prepubertal children in sub-Saharan Africa and mainly caused by Trichophyton and Microsporum species. Accurate identification is challenging as conventional methods like culture and microscopy are slow and mostly based on morphological characteristics, which make them less sensitive and specific. Modern molecular methods, like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, are gaining acceptance and are quick as well as accurate. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical patterns of tinea capitis and to accurately identify the most common causative dermatophytes affecting the scalps of children aged 1 to 16 years attending the Skin Clinic at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mbarara, Uganda, East Africa, using both conventional mycological methods and PCR-ELISA for detection of dermatophyte DNA...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Stevens M B Kisaka, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Simon Kasasa, Francis Ocen, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba
BACKGROUND: Most tuberculosis (TB) case management guidelines emphasize microbiological cure as treatment goal without highlighting quality of life outcomes. This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and related factors in the pre-treatment, intensive and continuation phases of anti-TB therapy among sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Mbale region, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Henry Zakumumpa, Modupe Oladunni Taiwo, Alex Muganzi, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Human resources for health (HRH) constraints are a major barrier to the sustainability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior approaches to HRH constraints have taken a top-down trend of generalized global strategies and policy guidelines. The objective of the study was to examine the human resources for health strategies adopted by front-line providers in Uganda to sustain ART delivery beyond the initial ART scale-up phase between 2004 and 2009...
October 19, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Henry Zakumumpa, Sara Bennett, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Uganda implemented a national ART scale-up program at public and private health facilities between 2004 and 2009. Little is known about how and why some health facilities have sustained ART programs and why others have not sustained these interventions. The objective of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the long-term sustainability of ART programs at six health facilities in Uganda which received donor support to commence ART between 2004 and 2009. METHODS: A case-study approach was adopted...
October 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Ruth Kigozi, Kate Zinszer, Arthur Mpimbaza, Asadu Sserwanga, Simon P Kigozi, Moses Kamya
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors play a major role in transmission of malaria given their relationship to both the development and survival of the mosquito and parasite. The associations between environmental factors and malaria can be used to inform the development of early warning systems for increases in malaria burden. The objective of this study was to assess temporal relationships between rainfall, temperature and vegetation with malaria morbidity across three different transmission settings in Uganda...
October 19, 2016: Malaria Journal
Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Derrick E Mimbe, Bernard Erima, Edison A Mworozi, Monica Millard, Hannah Kibuuka, Luswa Lukwago, Josephine Bwogi, Jocelyn Kiconco, Titus Tugume, Sophia Mulei, Christine Ikomera, Sharon Tsui, Stephen Malinzi, Simon Kasasa, Rodney Coldren, Denis K Byarugaba
INTRODUCTION: Influenza surveillance was conducted in Uganda from October 2008 to December 2014 to identify and understand the epidemiology of circulating influenza strains in out-patient clinic attendees with influenza-like illness and inform control strategies. METHODOLOGY: Surveillance was conducted at five hospital-based sentinel sites. Nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples, epidemiological and clinical data were collected from enrolled patients. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify and subtype influenza strains...
2016: PloS One
E Nelson Kankaka, G Kigozi, D Kayiwa, N Kighoma, F Makumbi, T Murungi, D Nabukalu, R Nampijja, S Watya, D Namuguzi, F Nalugoda, G Nakigozi, D Sserwadda, M Wawer, R H Gray
Early infant circumcision (EIC) is the most common neonatal surgical procedure in males.(1) It has also been incorporated as a component in combination HIV prevention in 14 of Sub-Saharan African countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision coverage.(2,3) EIC has advantages over adult circumcision due to lower adverse events, no risk of early resumption of sex and potentially lower cost(4-6) . Sub-Saharan African countries have low physician coverage, but comparatively higher coverage of non-physicians who could facilitate roll out of circumcision for HIV prevention...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Elizabeth M Irungu, Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Elly Katabira, Nulu Bulya, Elizabeth Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Stephen Asiimwe, Edna Tindimwebwa, Connie Celum, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduce HIV-1 transmission within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Prioritizing couples at highest HIV-1 transmission risk for ART and PrEP would maximize impact and minimize costs. METHODS: The Partners Demonstration Project is an open-label, delivery study of integrated PrEP and ART for HIV-1 prevention among high risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. We evaluated the feasibility of using a validated risk score that weighs a combination of easily measurable factors (age, children, marital status, male circumcision status, condom use, plasma HIV-1 levels) to identify couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission for enrollment...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Amanda K Debes, Robert H Gilman, Carolyne Onyango-Makumbi, Andrea Ruff, Richard Oberhelman, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The objective of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of TB diagnosis using Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS), Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), and empiric treatment for all patients, in addition to current clinical diagnostic practices in children less than 5 years of age in a national tuberculosis (TB) referral hospital in Uganda. METHODS: A decision analysis was conducted from the healthcare perspective, with a primary outcome of incremental cost effectiveness expressed as cost per year of life gained (YLG)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Julius T Kamwesiga, Lena von Koch, Anders Kottorp, Susanne Guidetti
BACKGROUND: Knowledge is scarce about the impact of stroke in Uganda, and culturally adapted, psychometrically tested patient-reported outcome measures are lacking. The Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 is recommended, but it has not been culturally adapted and validated in Uganda. OBJECTIVE: To culturally adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 in the Ugandan context on a small scale. METHOD: The Stroke Impact Scale 3...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Alexey Martyushev, Shinji Nakaoka, Kei Sato, Takeshi Noda, Shingo Iwami
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe, often fatal Ebola virus disease (EVD), for which no approved antivirals exist. Recently, some promising anti-EBOV drugs, which are experimentally potent in animal models, have been developed. However, because the quantitative dynamics of EBOV replication in humans is uncertain, it remains unclear how much antiviral suppression of viral replication affects EVD outcome in patients. Here, we developed a novel mathematical model to quantitatively analyse human viral load data obtained during the 2000/01 Uganda EBOV outbreak and evaluated the effects of different antivirals...
October 12, 2016: Antiviral Research
Emily A Blumberg, Jay A Fishman
In 1952, Dick et al published a series of studies of a new virus isolated from sentinel rhesus macaque monkeys in the Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda (1). The first human isolation of Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred 2 years later in Nigeria. Cases of human infection were uncommonly identified until a major outbreak in Yap Island, Micronesia in 2007. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
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