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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#1
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931922/qualitative-analysis-of-the-risks-and-practices-associated-with-the-spread-of-african-swine-fever-within-the-smallholder-pig-value-chains-in-uganda
#2
Michel Dione, Emily Ouma, Felix Opio, Brian Kawuma, Danilo Pezo
A study was undertaken between September 2014 and December 2014 to assess the perceptions of smallholder pig value chain actors of the risks and practices associated with the spread of African swine fever (ASF) disease within the pig value chains. Data was collected from 136 value chain actors and 36 key informants through 17 group discussions and two key informant interview (KII) sessions respectively using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools. Results from this study revealed that according to value chain actors and stakeholders, the transporting, slaughtering, and collecting/bulking nodes represent the highest risk, followed by the inputs and services (feeds and drugs) supply nodes...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930607/counseling-framework-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-on-the-integrated-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#3
Jennifer F Morton, Connie Celum, John Njoroge, Agnes Nakyanzi, Imeldah Wakhungu, Edna Tindimwebwa, Snaidah Ongachi, Eric Sedah, Emmanuel Okwero, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Jessica E Haberer, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928077/prevention-of-early-mortality-by-presumptive-tuberculosis-therapy-study-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Yukari C Manabe, William Worodria, Frank van Leth, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Afsatou Ndama Traore, Josefo Ferro, Nadine Pakker, Matthias Frank, Martin P Grobusch, Robert Colebunders, Frank Cobelens
Early mortality after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs in 9-39% of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. A significant proportion of deaths are attributable to tuberculosis (TB). Low baseline CD4 T-cell count and low body mass index (BMI) are strongly associated with early mortality. We hypothesized that initiation of ART concurrent with presumptive anti-TB chemotherapy in high-risk patients would reduce mortality within the first 6 months by treating unrecognized TB. From October 2011 to December 2012, ART-naive, smear-negative participants with a CD4 T-cell count < 50 cells/μL and BMI < 18 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to undergo either empiric four-drug anti-TB treatment followed 2 weeks later by efavirenz-based ART (N = 23) (ART + TB) or ART only (N = 20)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927247/frequency-and-distribution-patterns-of-opportunistic-infections-associated-with-hiv-aids-in-uganda
#5
John Rubaihayo, Nazarius M Tumwesigye, Joseph Konde-Lule, Henry Wamani, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Fredrick Makumbi
BACKGROUND: We conducted a study to assess the frequency and distribution patterns of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and opportunistic cancers (OCs) in different geographical areas before and after HAART in Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional serial review of observation data for adult HIV positive patients (≥15 years) enrolled with the AIDS support organization (TASO) in Uganda covering the period from January 2001 to December 2013. Both AIDS defining OIs/OCs and non-AIDS defining OIs were analyzed...
December 7, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926458/changes-in-relative-and-absolute-concentrations-of-plasma-phospholipid-fatty-acids-observed-in-a-randomized-trial-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-supplementation-in-uganda
#6
Xiaoling Song, Pho Diep, Jeannette M Schenk, Corey Casper, Jackson Orem, Zeina Makhoul, Johanna W Lampe, Marian L Neuhouser
Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925175/to-expand-coverage-or-increase-frequency-quantifying-the-tradeoffs-between-equity-and-efficiency-facing-cervical-cancer-screening-programs-in-low-resource-settings
#7
Nicole G Campos, Vivien Tsu, Jose Jeronimo, Mercy Mvundura, Kyueun Lee, Jane J Kim
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with 85% of the disease burden residing in less developed regions. To inform evidence-based decision-making as cervical cancer screening programs are planned, implemented, and scaled in low- and middle-income countries, we used cost and test performance data from the START-UP demonstration project in Uganda and a microsimulation model of HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis to quantify the health benefits, distributional equity, cost-effectiveness, and financial impact of either 1) improving access to cervical cancer screening or 2) increasing the number of lifetime screening opportunities for women who already have access...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924422/spatial-overlap-between-people-and-non-human-primates-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#8
Sarah B Paige, Johanna Bleecker, Jonathan Mayer, Tony Goldberg
In western Uganda, the landscape surrounding Kibale National Park (KNP) contains households, trading centers, roads, fields, and forest fragments. The mosaic arrangement of these landscape features is thought to enhance human-primate interaction, leading to primate population declines and increased bi-directional disease transmission. Using a social-ecological systems research framework that captures the complexity of interaction among people, wildlife, and environment, we studied five forest fragments near KNP and conducted intensive on-the-ground mapping to identify locations of human-primate spatial overlap...
December 6, 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923379/schoolgirls-experience-and-appraisal-of-menstrual-absorbents-in-rural-uganda-a-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-reusable-sanitary-pads
#9
Julie Hennegan, Catherine Dolan, Maryalice Wu, Linda Scott, Paul Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Governments, multinational organisations, and charities have commenced the distribution of sanitary products to address current deficits in girls' menstrual management. The few effectiveness studies conducted have focused on health and education outcomes but have failed to provide quantitative assessment of girls' preferences, experiences of absorbents, and comfort. Objectives of the study were, first, to quantitatively describe girls' experiences with, and ratings of reliability and acceptability of different menstrual absorbents...
December 7, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923009/counseling-framework-for-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-on-the-integrated-use-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#10
Jennifer F Morton, Connie Celum, John Njoroge, Agnes Nakyanzi, Imeldah Wakhungu, Edna Tindimwebwa, Snaidah Ongachi, Eric Sedah, Emmanuel Okwero, Kenneth Ngure, Josephine Odoyo, Nulu Bulya, Jessica E Haberer, Jared M Baeten, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: For HIV-serodiscordant couples, integrated delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive partners and time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for negative partners virtually eliminates HIV transmission. Standardized messaging, sensitive to the barriers and motivators to HIV treatment and prevention, is needed for widespread scale-up of this approach. METHODS: Within the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective interventional project among 1013 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we offered ART to eligible HIV-positive partners and PrEP to HIV-negative partners before ART initiation and through the HIV-positive partner's first 6 months of ART use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918334/challenges-of-anesthesia-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-access-to-safe-obstetric-anesthesia-in-east-africa
#11
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Thomas M Chokwe, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Theogene Twagirumugabe, Gerald Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: The United Nations 2015 Millennium Development Goals targeted a 75% reduction in maternal mortality. However, in spite of this goal, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births remains unacceptably high across Sub-Saharan Africa. Because many of these deaths could likely be averted with access to safe surgery, including cesarean delivery, we set out to assess the capacity to provide safe anesthetic care for mothers in the main referral hospitals in East Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at 5 main referral hospitals in East Africa: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi...
December 1, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917207/experiences-of-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-qualitative-study-of-adults-attending-uganda-cancer-institute
#12
Peter B Wampaalu, Lars E Eriksson, Allen Naamala, Rose C Nabirye, Lena Wettergren
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a global public health challenge and how patients in countries with poor healthcare infrastructure experience cancer treatment is largely unknown. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to describe adult Ugandan cancer patients' experiences of undergoing chemotherapy treatment. METHODOLOGY: Using a qualitative descriptive design, seven in-patients with varying cancer diagnoses at the Uganda Cancer Institute were interviewed about their experiences of undergoing chemotherapy treatment; the interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916327/does-keeping-adolescent-girls-in-school-protect-against-sexual-violence-quasi-experimental-evidence-from-east-and-southern-africa
#13
Julia Andrea Behrman, Amber Peterman, Tia Palermo
PURPOSE: We examine the relationship between educational attainment in adolescence on young women's lifetime experience of sexual violence in Malawi and Uganda. METHODS: Exposure to Universal Primary Education policies in the mid-1990s serves as a natural experiment to estimate the causal effect of schooling on women's subsequent experience of sexual violence using an instrumented regression discontinuity design and Demographic and Health Survey data. RESULTS: We find a one-year increase in grade attainment leads to a nine-percentage point reduction (p < ...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913758/timing-of-most-recent-health-care-visit-by-older-people-living-with-and-without-hiv-findings-from-the-sage-well-being-of-older-people-study-in-uganda
#14
Joseph O Mugisha, Enid J Schatz, Joel Negin, Paul Mwaniki, Paul Kowal, Janet Seeley
The objective of this article is to document factors associated with the recency of health-care service utilization by people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV in Uganda. A survey was conducted with 510 Ugandans aged 50 and older, living with and without HIV. The survey included information on sociodemographic characteristics, health state, self-reported chronic conditions, and timing of most recent visit to a health-care facility (time since last visit [TSLV]). We use ordinal logistic regression to identify independent factors associated TSLV...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910886/sequential-information-in-a-great-ape-utterance
#15
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Christoph D Dahl
Birdsong is a prime example of acoustically sophisticated vocal behaviour, but its complexity has evolved mainly through sexual selection to attract mates and repel sexual rivals. In contrast, non-human primate calls often mediate complex social interactions, but are generally regarded as acoustically simple. Here, we examine arguably the most complex call in great ape vocal communication, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) 'pant hoot'. This signal consists of four acoustically distinct phases: introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910181/trends-and-risk-factors-of-stillbirths-and-neonatal-deaths-in-eastern-uganda-1982-2011-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#16
Sanni Kujala, Peter Waiswa, Daniel Kadobera, Joseph Akuze, George Pariyo, Claudia Hanson
OBJECTIVES: To identify mortality trends and risk factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths 1982-2011. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study based on reported pregnancy history in Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Uganda. A pregnancy history survey was conducted among women aged 15-49 years living in the HDSS during May-July 2011 (n = 10 540). Time trends were analysed with cubic splines and linear regression...
November 5, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909262/overcoming-the-limits-of-evidence-on-effective-multisectoral-nutrition-policy
#17
Madhu Kumar Marasini, Ssansa Mugenyi
The multisectoral approach has evolved as a popular instrument to attain nutrition goals and targets. But as policy makers, we need timely, relevant, and accurate information in order to effectively support these plans. This commentary comes from the members of the nutrition secretariats at the National Planning Commission in Nepal and the Office of the Prime Minister in Uganda on availability and use of evidence and the nutrition policy cycle. As has been highlighted in this supplement, some of the challenges we have faced include tracking nutrition spending and limited human resource capacity...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909259/assessing-progress-in-implementing-uganda-s-nutrition-action-plan-district-level-insights
#18
Edgar Agaba, Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Shibani Ghosh, Jeffrey K Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The 2011 Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP) established 2016 maternal and child nutrition targets. However, there is a lack of routine district-level data collection to assess UNAP implementation. OBJECTIVE: To use Nutrition Innovation Lab (NIL) data to inform policy makers on the progress of UNAP-related indicators. METHODS: The NIL collected serial household-level survey data (n = 3600) in 6 districts, including 2 UNAP implementation districts, in 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909258/prioritizing-and-funding-the-uganda-nutrition-action-plan
#19
Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Alexis D'Agostino, Nancy Adero, Hannah Foehringer Merchant, Abel Muzoora, Ezekiel Mupere, Edgar Agaba, Lidan Du
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Uganda began developing its first multisectoral nutrition plan, the Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP), to reduce malnutrition. While the UNAP signals high-level commitment to addressing nutrition, knowledge gaps remain about how to successfully implement such a plan. OBJECTIVE: We tracked the UNAP's influence on the process of priority setting and funding for nutrition from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal mixed methods design to track qualitative and budgetary changes related to UNAP processes nationally as well as in 2 study districts...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909256/optimizing-the-multisectoral-nutrition-policy-cycle-a-systems-perspective
#20
Sascha Lamstein, Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Patrick Webb, Eileen Kennedy
Based on the data collected in Uganda, Nepal, and Ethiopia, the papers included in this supplement fill a critical gap in evidence regarding multisectoral National Nutrition Action Plans. The studies offer new data and new thinking on how and why governance, effective financial decentralization, and improved accountability all matter for nutrition actions in low-income countries. This introductory paper offers an overview of the current state of evidence and thinking on the multisectoral nutrition policy cycle, including how governance and financing support that process...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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