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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351788/elevated-inflammatory-cytokines-in-aqueous-cytokine-profile-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-with-cataracts-in-uganda
#1
Juliet Otiti-Sengeri, Robert Colebunders, Steven J Reynolds, Musa Muwonge, Getrude Nakigozi, Valerian Kiggundu, Fred Nalugoda, Damalie Nakanjako
BACKGROUND: Cataracts occur earlier among HIV-infected adults and this is attributed to various intraocular inflammatory processes that result in early degeneration. In this study we purposed to investigate whether HIV infected individuals with cataracts develop heightened intraocular inflammatory processes compared to their HIV negative counterparts by determining the concentration of 8 cytokines in the aqueous humour of HIV-positive adults with cataracts and their HIV-negative counterparts...
January 19, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350142/lethal-respiratory-disease-associated-with-human-rhinovirus%C3%A2-c-in-wild-chimpanzees-uganda-2013
#2
Erik J Scully, Sarmi Basnet, Richard W Wrangham, Martin N Muller, Emily Otali, David Hyeroba, Kristine A Grindle, Tressa E Pappas, Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin Machanda, Kelly E Watters, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern, Tony L Goldberg
We describe a lethal respiratory outbreak among wild chimpanzees in Uganda in 2013 for which molecular and epidemiologic analyses implicate human rhinovirus C as the cause. Postmortem samples from an infant chimpanzee yielded near-complete genome sequences throughout the respiratory tract; other pathogens were absent. Epidemiologic modeling estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) for the epidemic as 1.83, consistent with the common cold in humans. Genotyping of 41 chimpanzees and examination of 24 published chimpanzee genomes from subspecies across Africa showed universal homozygosity for the cadherin-related family member 3 CDHR3-Y529 allele, which increases risk for rhinovirus C infection and asthma in human children...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349487/lay-first-responder-training-in-eastern-uganda-leveraging-transportation-infrastructure-to-build-an-effective-prehospital-emergency-care-training-program
#3
Peter G Delaney, Richard Bamuleke, Yang Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Though road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of mortality in East Africa, few countries have emergency medical services. The aim was to create a sustainable and efficient prehospital lay first responder program, creating a system with lay first responders spread through the 53 motorcycle taxi stages of Iganga Municipality. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four motorcycle taxi riders were taught a first aid curriculum in partnership with a local Red Cross first aid trainer and provided with a first aid kit following WHO guidelines for basic first aid...
January 18, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348353/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-the-first-complete-genome-sequence-of-cowpea-aphid-borne-mosaic-virus-from-uganda
#4
E K Mbeyagala, P Tukamuhabwa, J Bisikwa, T Holton, S B Mukasa
We present here the first complete genome sequence of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) isolated from cowpea in Uganda and compare it with five CABMV complete genome sequences from Brazil (2), India (2), and Zimbabwe (1). It most resembled the genomes of two Brazilian isolates (MG-Avr and BR1) and one Indian isolate (RR3).
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346424/higher-sequence-diversity-in-the-vaginal-tract-than-in-blood-at-early-hiv-1-infection
#5
Katja Klein, Gabrielle Nickel, Immaculate Nankya, Fred Kyeyune, Korey Demers, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Cynthia Kwok, Pai-Lien Chen, Sandra Rwambuya, Art Poon, Marshall Munjoma, Tsungai Chipato, Josaphat Byamugisha, Peter Mugyenyi, Robert A Salata, Charles S Morrison, Eric J Arts
In the majority of cases, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is transmitted through sexual intercourse. A single founder virus in the blood of the newly infected donor emerges from a genetic bottleneck, while in rarer instances multiple viruses are responsible for systemic infection. We sought to characterize the sequence diversity at early infection, between two distinct anatomical sites; the female reproductive tract vs. systemic compartment. We recruited 72 women from Uganda and Zimbabwe within seven months of HIV-1 infection...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346408/long-lasting-insecticidal-bed-nets-ownership-access-and-use-in-a-high-malaria-transmission-setting-before-and-after-a-mass-distribution-campaign-in-uganda
#6
Humphrey Wanzira, Thomas Eganyu, Ronald Mulebeke, Fred Bukenya, Dorothy Echodu, Yeka Adoke
INTRODUCTION: Uganda is conducting a second mass LLIN distribution campaign and Katakwi district recently received LLINs as part of this activity. This study was conducted to measure the success of the campaign in this setting, an area of high transmission, with the objectives to estimate LLIN ownership, access and use pre and post campaign implementation. METHODS: Two identical cross sectional surveys, based on the Malaria Indicator Survey methodology, were conducted in three sub-counties in this district (Kapujan, Magoro and Toroma), six months apart, one before and another after the mass distribution campaign...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346184/synergistic-impact-of-training-followed-by-on-site-support-on-hiv-clinical-practice-a-mixed-design-study-in-uganda-with-pre-post-and-cluster-randomized-trial-components
#7
Sarah Burnett, Norbert Mubiru, Peace Imani, Martin K Mbonye, Leigh Fisher, Robert Colebunders, Yukari C Manabe, Marcia R Weaver
BACKGROUND: Task-shifting can expand antiretroviral therapy access, but little is known about effective approaches to improve clinical practice among mid-level practitioners' (MLP) such as clinical officers, nurses, and midwives. The Integrated Infectious Diseases Capacity-Building Evaluation compared training alone to training combined with on-site support (OSS). METHODS: Two MLP each from 36 health facilities attended the five-week Integrated Management of Infectious Disease training...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344947/genome-wide-population-structure-and-admixture-analysis-reveals-weak-differentiation-among-ugandan-goat-breeds
#8
R B Onzima, M R Upadhyay, R Mukiibi, E Kanis, M A M Groenen, R P M A Crooijmans
Uganda has a large population of goats, predominantly from indigenous breeds reared in diverse production systems, whose existence is threatened by crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats. Knowledge about the genetic characteristics and relationships among these Ugandan goat breeds and the potential admixture with Boer goats is still limited. Using a medium-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we assessed the genetic diversity, population structure and admixture in six goat breeds in Uganda: Boer, Karamojong, Kigezi, Mubende, Small East African and Sebei...
January 17, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344933/unexpected-terrestrial-hand-posture-diversity-in-wild-mountain-gorillas
#9
Nathan E Thompson, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Shannon C McFarlin, Martha M Robbins, Tara S Stoinski, Sergio Almécija
OBJECTIVES: Gorillas, along with chimpanzees and bonobos, are ubiquitously described as 'knuckle-walkers.' Consequently, knuckle-walking (KW) has been featured pre-eminently in hypotheses of the pre-bipedal locomotor behavior of hominins and in the evolution of locomotor behavior in apes. However, anecdotal and behavioral accounts suggest that mountain gorillas may utilize a more complex repertoire of hand postures, which could alter current interpretations of African ape locomotion and its role in the emergence of human bipedalism...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344397/a-cross-sectional-study-of-stress-and-its-sources-among-health-professional-students-at-makerere-university-uganda
#10
Sharon Bright Amanya, Joyce Nakitende, Tom Denis Ngabirano
Aim: To assess prevalence of stress and its sources among undergraduate health professional students at Makerere University. Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using quantitative methods of data collection. Methods: The study was conducted among 258 undergraduate health professional students (Medical, Dental and, Nursing students) at Makerere University. From each programme, students were recruited proportionately, while being selected conveniently from each year of study...
January 2018: Nursing Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343494/uncovering-genomic-regions-associated-with-trypanosoma-infections-in-wild-populations-of-the-tsetse-fly-glossina-fuscipes
#11
Andrea Gloria-Soria, W Augustine Dunn, Xiaoqing Yu, Aurélien Vigneron, Kuang-Yao Lee, Mo Li, Brian L Weiss, Hongyu Zhao, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths every year but genomic resources for most species responsible for their transmission are limited. This is true for neglected diseases such as sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis), a disease caused by Trypanosoma parasites vectored by several species of tseste flies within the genus Glossina We describe an integrative approach that identifies statistical associations between trypanosome infection status of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) flies from Uganda, for which functional studies are complicated because the species cannot be easily maintained in laboratory colonies, and ~73,000 polymorphic sites distributed across the genome...
January 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342180/increased-prevalence-of-pregnancy-and-comparative-risk-of-program-attrition-among-individuals-starting-hiv-treatment-in-east-africa
#12
Charles B Holmes, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Batya Elul, Elizabeth Bukusi, John Ssali, Andrew Kambugu, Beverly S Musick, Craig Cohen, Carolyn Williams, Lameck Diero, Nancy Padian, Kara K Wools-Kaloustian
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340692/combination-strategy-associated-with-reduced-hiv-incidence-in-uganda
#13
M J Friedrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338730/factors-associated-with-hiv-positive-sero-status-among-exposed-infants-attending-care-at-health-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-uganda
#14
Methuselah Muhindo Kahungu, Julius Kiwanuka, Frank Kaharuza, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: East and South Africa contributes 59% of all pediatric HIV infections globally. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among HIV exposed infants was estimated at 5.3% in 2014. Understanding the remaining bottlenecks to elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) is critical to accelerating efforts towards eMTCT. This study determined factors associated with HIV positive sero-status among exposed infants attending mother-baby care clinics in rural Kasese so as to inform enhancement of interventions to further reduce MTCT...
January 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338000/progression-of-the-first-stage-of-spontaneous-labour-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-two-sub-saharan-african-countries
#15
Olufemi T Oladapo, Joao Paulo Souza, Bukola Fawole, Kidza Mugerwa, Gleici Perdoná, Domingos Alves, Hayala Souza, Rodrigo Reis, Livia Oliveira-Ciabati, Alexandre Maiorano, Adesina Akintan, Francis E Alu, Lawal Oyeneyin, Amos Adebayo, Josaphat Byamugisha, Miriam Nakalembe, Hadiza A Idris, Ola Okike, Fernando Althabe, Vanora Hundley, France Donnay, Robert Pattinson, Harshadkumar C Sanghvi, Jen E Jardine, Özge Tunçalp, Joshua P Vogel, Mary Ellen Stanton, Meghan Bohren, Jun Zhang, Tina Lavender, Jerker Liljestrand, Petra Ten Hoope-Bender, Matthews Mathai, Rajiv Bahl, A Metin Gülmezoglu
BACKGROUND: Escalation in the global rates of labour interventions, particularly cesarean section and oxytocin augmentation, has renewed interest in a better understanding of natural labour progression. Methodological advancements in statistical and computational techniques addressing the limitations of pioneer studies have led to novel findings and triggered a re-evaluation of current labour practices. As part of the World Health Organization's Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD) project, which aimed to develop a new labour monitoring-to-action tool, we examined the patterns of labour progression as depicted by cervical dilatation over time in a cohort of women in Nigeria and Uganda who gave birth vaginally following a spontaneous labour onset...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329396/patient-level-benefits-associated-with-decentralization-of-antiretroviral-therapy-services-to-primary-health-facilities-in-malawi-and-uganda
#16
George Abongomera, Levison Chiwaula, Paul Revill, Travor Mabugu, Edward Tumwesige, Misheck Nkhata, Fabian Cataldo, J van Oosterhout, Robert Colebunders, Adrienne K Chan, Cissy Kityo, Charles Gilks, James Hakim, Janet Seeley, Diana M Gibb, Deborah Ford
Background: The Lablite project captured information on access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at larger health facilities ('hubs') and lower-level health facilities ('spokes') in Phalombe district, Malawi and in Kalungu district, Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among patients who had transferred to a spoke after treatment initiation (Malawi, n=54; Uganda, n=33), patients who initiated treatment at a spoke (Malawi, n=50; Uganda, n=44) and patients receiving treatment at a hub (Malawi, n=44; Uganda, n=46)...
January 10, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327468/why-do-people-become-health-workers-analysis-from-life-histories-in-4-post-conflict-and-post-crisis-countries
#17
Sophie Witter, Haja Wurie, Justine Namakula, Wilson Mashange, Yotamu Chirwa, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo
While there is a growing body of literature on how to attract and retain health workers once they are trained, there is much less published on what motivates people to train as health professions in the first place in low- and middle-income countries and what difference this makes to later retention. In this article, we examine patterns in expressed motivation to join the profession across different cadres, based on 103 life history interviews conducted in northern Uganda, Sierra Leone, Cambodia, and Zimbabwe...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325409/all-health-partnerships-great-and-small-comparing-mandated-with-emergent-health-partnerships-comment-on-evaluating-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-a-gavi-hpv-vaccine-application-process-in-uganda
#18
Elaine Green, Dan Ritman, Graeme Chisholm
The plurality of healthcare providers and funders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has given rise to an era in which health partnerships are becoming the norm in international development. Whether mandated or emergent, three common drivers are essential for ensuring successful health partnerships: trust; a diverse and inclusive network; and a clear governance structure. Mandated and emergent health partnerships operate as very different models and at different scales. However, there is potential for sharing and learning between these types of partnerships...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318647/realizing-effectiveness-across-continents-with-hydroxyurea-enrollment-and-baseline-characteristics-of-the-multicenter-reach-study-in-sub-saharan-africa
#19
Patrick T McGann, Thomas N Williams, Peter Olupot-Olupot, George A Tomlinson, Adam Lane, José Luís Reis da Fonseca, Robert Kitenge, George Mochamah, Ham Wabwire, Susan Stuber, Thad A Howard, Kathryn McElhinney, Banu Aygun, Teresa Latham, Brígida Santos, Léon Tshilolo, Russell E Ware
Despite its well-described safety and efficacy in the treatment of sickle cell anemia (SCA) in high-income settings, hydroxyurea remains largely unavailable in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 75% of annual SCA births occur and many comorbidities exist. Realizing Effectiveness Across Continents with Hydroxyurea (REACH, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01966731) is a prospective, Phase I/II open-label trial of hydroxyurea designed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and benefits of hydroxyurea treatment for children with SCA in four sub-Saharan African countries...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317333/pocket-size-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-rural-uganda-a-unique-opportunity-to-see-where-no-imaging-facilities-are-available
#20
Danny Epstein, Neta Petersiel, Erez Klein, Erez Marcusohn, Eyal Aviran, Reut Harel, Zaher S Azzam, Ami Neuberger, Lior Fuchs
BACKGROUND: In the developing world, only a small minority of patients have access to radiological services. Over the past decade, technological developments of ultrasound equipment have led to the emergence of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS), which is widely used by healthcare professionals of nearly all specialties. We hypothesized that physicians with only basic POCUS training, but with telemedicine support, can use POCUS successfully in rural hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa...
January 6, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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