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Sahar Dalahmeh, Sana Tirgani, Allan John Komakech, Charles B Niwagaba, Lutz Ahrens
Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL-1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL-1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Stephanie A Grilo, Marina Catallozzi, Craig J Heck, Sanyukta Mathur, Neema Nakyanjo, John S Santelli
Understanding how couples perceive a recent unintended pregnancy in the context of HIV infection and high levels of gender inequality may provide insights for prevention of undesired pregnancy. We used data from 24 in-depth interviews with 8 HIV-serodiscordant and 4 seroconcordant couples living in rural Uganda and interviewed separately; between 15 and 49 years and one or both identified the pregnancy as unintended. A dyadic analysis was performed to understand each partner's perspectives on experiences of a specific pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Global Public Health
A Amer, A Kakooza-Mwesige, G Jarl, J K Tumwine, H Forssberg, A-C Eliasson, L Hermansson
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) has been recommended as a gold standard in paediatric rehabilitation. A Ugandan version of PEDI (PEDI-UG) has been developed by culturally adapting and translating the original PEDI. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the PEDI-UG in Ugandan children by testing the instrument's rating scale functioning, internal structure, and test-retest reliability. METHODS: Two hundred forty-nine Ugandan children (125 girls) aged 6 months to 7...
March 13, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Kelly Louise Bennett, Martha Kaddumukasa, Fortunate Shija, Rousseau Djouaka, Gerald Misinzo, Julius Lutwama, Yvonne Marie Linton, Catherine Walton
The study of demographic processes involved in species diversification and evolution ultimately provides explanations for the complex distribution of biodiversity on earth, indicates regions important for the maintenance and generation of biodiversity, and identifies biological units important for conservation or medical consequence. African and forest biota have both received relatively little attention with regard to understanding their diversification, although one possible mechanism is that this has been driven by historical climate change...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: RTIs, falls and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric TBIs in SSA. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric TBI in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at MRRH between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study. Information on etiology of injury was obtained via a questionnaire administered to patient caretakers at the time of admission...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
George Odwe, Chi-Chi Undie, Francis Obare
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda...
March 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Rebecca Littman
Heightened group identification motivates individuals to perpetrate violence, but can perpetrating violence-in and of itself-increase identification with violent groups? I test this idea using archival surveys of ex-combatants. In Liberia, where many combatants joined their violent group willingly, the data show a positive association between perpetrating violence and identification with one's violent group (Study 1). These results hold even when controlling for potentially confounding variables such as being abducted into the group versus joining willingly, length of time in the group, and personally experiencing violence...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Emma Slaymaker, Estelle McLean, Alison Wringe, Clara Calvert, Milly Marston, Georges Reniers, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson Kabudula, Amelia Crampin, Alison Price, Denna Michael, Mark Urassa, Daniel Kwaro, Maquins Sewe, Jeffrey W Eaton, Rebecca Rhead, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Tom Lutalo, Dorean Nabukalu, Kobus Herbst, Victoria Hosegood, Basia Zaba
Timely progression of people living with HIV (PLHIV) from the point of infection through the pathway from diagnosis to treatment is important in ensuring effective care and treatment of HIV and preventing HIV-related deaths and onwards transmission of infection.  Reliable, population-based estimates of new infections are difficult to obtain for the generalised epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.  Mortality data indicate disease burden and, if disaggregated along the continuum from diagnosis to treatment, can also reflect the coverage and quality of different HIV services...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
A Kakooza-Mwesige, J K Tumwine, H Forssberg, A-C Eliasson
BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) was developed and standardized to measure functional performance in American children. So far, no published study has examined the use of the PEDI in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the adaptation, translation, and validation process undertaken to develop a culturally relevant PEDI for Uganda (PEDI-UG). METHOD: The cross-cultural adaptation and translation of the PEDI was performed in a series of steps...
March 12, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Kathy Burgoine, Juliet Ikiror, Sylivia Akol, Margaret Kakai, Sara Talyewoya, Alex Sande, Tom Otim, Francis Okello, Adam Hewitt-Smith, Peter Olupot-Olupot
Neonatal mortality remains a major global challenge. Most neonatal deaths occur in low-income countries, but it is estimated that over two-thirds of these deaths could be prevented if achievable interventions are scaled up. To date, initiatives have focused on community and obstetric interventions, and there has been limited simultaneous drive to improve neonatal care in the health facilities where the sick neonates are being referred. Few data exist on the process of implementing of neonatal care packages and their impact...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Daniel Shriner, Charles N Rotimi
Five classical designations of sickle haplotypes are made on the basis of the presence or absence of restriction sites and are named after the ethno-linguistic groups or geographic regions from which the individuals with sickle cell anemia originated. Each haplotype is thought to represent an independent occurrence of the sickle mutation rs334 (c.20A>T [p.Glu7Val] in HBB). We investigated the origins of the sickle mutation by using whole-genome-sequence data. We identified 156 carriers from the 1000 Genomes Project, the African Genome Variation Project, and Qatar...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Fiona Katherine McCurdie, Joanne Moffatt, Kevin Jones
Kitovu Hospital in Masaka, Uganda, is a leading obstetric fistula repair centre in the country with the highest rates of fistula in the world. In this retrospective case review, the regional incidence and causative factors were studied in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) who were admitted at Kitovu Hospital. Fistula history included severity (ICIQ score), causes and outcomes of VVF were measured. Women suffered with symptoms of VVF for an average of 4.97 years with an average ICIQ severity score of 7...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Justin C Graves, Peter Elyanu, Christine J Schellack, Barbara Asire, Margaret L Prust, Marta R Prescott, Esther Mirembe, Ivan Lukabwe, Betty Mirembe, Joshua Musinguzi, Sarah A Moberley
BACKGROUND: In 2013, Uganda adopted a test-and-treat policy for HIV patients 15 years or younger. Low retention rates among paediatric and adolescent antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiates could severely limit the impact of this new policy. This evaluation tested the impact of a differentiated care model called Family Clinic Day (FCD), a family-centered appointment scheduling and health education intervention on patient retention and adherence to monthly appointment scheduling. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, from October 2014 to March 2015...
2018: PloS One
Friday Okonofua
The article by Joao Paulo Souza et al in this issue of BJOG makes interesting reading. It describes a study carried out in 13 maternity hospitals in Nigeria and Uganda that assessed the accuracy of the WHO parthograph for the identification of women at risk of severe adverse birth outcomes. The authors concluded that cervical dilatation over time is not a good predictor of severe birth outcomes, and that the current use of the "one-centimetre per hour" rule should be re-evaluated. This article is protected by copyright...
March 9, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Margaret E Kruk, Anna D Gage, Godfrey M Mbaruku, Hannah H Leslie
OBJECTIVE: Describe content of clinical care for sick children in low-resource settings. DATA SOURCES: Nationally representative health facility surveys in Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda from 2007 to 2015. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical visits by sick children under 5 years were observed and caregivers interviewed. We describe duration and content of the care in the visit and estimate associations between increased content and caregiver knowledge and satisfaction...
March 7, 2018: Health Services Research
Abraham Siika, Leanne McCabe, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Cissy Kityo, Jane Mallewa, Jay Berkley, Kath Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Keith Baleeta, Shepherd Mudzingwa, James Abach, Kusum Nathoo, Margaret J Thomason, Andrew J Prendergast, Ann Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
Background: Severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have high mortality shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated predictors of early mortality and "late presenter" phenotypes. Methods: The Reduction of EArly MortaLITY (REALITY) trial enrolled ART-naive adults and children ≥5 years of age with CD4 counts <100 cells/µL initiating ART in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya. Baseline predictors of mortality through 48 weeks were identified using Cox regression with backwards elimination (exit P > ...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Craig J Heck, Stephanie A Grilo, Xiaoyu Song, Tom Lutalo, Neema Nakyanjo, John S Santelli
OBJECTIVE(S): Covert contraceptive use (CCU) is the use of family planning without a partner's knowledge. This study sought to examine CCU prevalence among women living in Rakai, Uganda, predictors of CCU, and why women resort to CCU. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from women (15-49years) currently using contraceptives (oral contraceptives, Depo Provera, implants, intrauterine devices, and periodic abstinence) during Round 15 (2011-2013) of the Rakai Community Cohort Survey (n=2206)...
March 4, 2018: Contraception
Matthew R McLennan
With data accumulating from a growing pool of chimpanzee field studies, new behaviors as well as novel variants on common behaviors continue to be described. Nest construction is a universal behavior in wild great apes. Among chimpanzee populations, reported variation in nest building behavior mostly reflects environmental constraints. Despite the ubiquity of nest making by chimpanzees, only ground nesting has been recognized as a behavioral variant, potentially determined by both environmental and social factors...
March 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Rebekah C Kading, Robert M Kityo, Eric C Mossel, Erin M Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P Ledermann, Nicholas A Panella, Amy T Gilbert, Mary B Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S Towner, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Stuart T Nichol, Ann M Powers, Julius J Lutwama, Barry R Miller
Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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