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Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ana Kovacic, Martina Seruga Music, Svjetlana Dekic, Marija Tonkic, Anita Novak, Zana Rubic, Jasna Hrenovic, Ivana Goic-Barisic
Acinetobacter baumannii origin and its epidemiology is under a great concern worldwide since this microorganism has become a leading nosocomial pathogen of the 21th century among the "ESKAPE" group of microorganisms. The aim of the study was to monitor and explore the epidemiology of this important hospital pathogen in the second largest clinical university hospital in Croatia. The presence of A. baumannii in hospital wastewater, as a route for possible transmission outside of the hospital setting, as well as its survival in environmental conditions including seawater, was investigated...
December 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Roberta J Melander, Daniel V Zurawski, Christian Melander
While broad spectrum antibiotics play an invaluable role in the treatment of bacterial infections, there are some drawbacks to their use, namely selection for and spread of resistance across multiple bacterial species, and the detrimental effect they can have upon the host microbiome. If the causitive agent of the infection is known, the use of narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents has the potential to mitigate some of these issues. This review outlines the advantages and challenges of narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents, discusses the progress that has been made toward developing diagnostics to enable their use, and describes some of the narrow-spectrum antibacterial agents currently being investigated against some of the most clinically important bacteria including Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and several ESKAPE pathogens...
2018: MedChemComm
Frédéric Brunel, Christelle Lautard, Carole di Giorgio, Frédéric Garzino, Jean-Manuel Raimundo, Jean-Michel Bolla, Michel Camplo
We report the synthesis of new mono, di and tri phosphonium ionic liquids and the evaluation of their antibacterial activities on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from the ESKAPE-group. Among the molecules synthesized some of them reveal a strong bactericidal activity (MIC = 0.5 mg/L) for Gram-positive bacteria (including resistant strains) comparable to that of standard antibiotics. A comparative Gram positive and Gram negative antibacterial activities shows that the nature of counter-ion has no significant effects...
January 31, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Vishvanath Tiwari, Monalisa Tiwari, Deepika Biswas
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the ESKAPE pathogen, which causes pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and is linked to high degree of morbidity and mortality. One-way antibiotic and disinfectant resistance is acquired by the activation of RecA-mediated DNA repair (SOS-response) that maintain ROS-dependent DNA damage caused by these anti-bacterial molecules. To increase the efficacy of different anti-microbial, there is a need to design an inhibitor against RecA of A. baumannii. We have performed homology modeling to generate the structure of RecA, followed by model refinement and validation...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Christopher P Stefan, Adrienne T Hall, Timothy D Minogue
Targeted sequencing promises to bring next-generation sequencing (NGS) into routine clinical use for infectious disease diagnostics. In this context, upfront processing techniques, including pathogen signature enrichment, must amplify multiple targets of interest for NGS to be relevant when applied to patient samples with limited volumes. Here, we demonstrate an optimized molecular inversion probe (MIP) assay targeting multiple variable regions within the 16S ribosomal gene for the identification of biothreat and ESKAPE pathogens in a process that significantly reduces complexity, labor, and processing time...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Silvano Esposito, Giuseppe De Simone
In recent years the proportion of multi-drug resistance (MDR) among the bacterial pathogens causing infections, particularly those acquired in healthcare settings, has risen worryingly worldwide. It poses a serious public health threat as the multiple patterns of resistance limit the effective treatment options for such infections. Although many bacterial species have developed reduced susceptibility to a wide array of antimicrobial molecules, a particular group of pathogens acronymically referred to as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Selina Y L Holbrook, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a member of the ESKAPE pathogens and one of the leading causes of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Aminoglycosides (AGs) are recognized for their efficacy against P. aeruginosa. The most common resistance mechanism against AGs is the acquisition of AG-modifying enzymes (AMEs) by the bacteria, including AG N-acetyltransferases (AACs), AG O-phosphotransferases (APHs), and AG O-nucleotidyltransferases (ANTs). In this study, we obtained 122 multidrug-resistant P...
December 20, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Rae A Heitkamp, Ping Li, Katrin Mende, Samandra T Demons, David R Tribble, Stuart D Tyner
BACKGROUND: Combat-related extremity wound infections can complicate the recovery of injured military personnel. The Enterococcus genus contains both commensal and pathogenic bacteria found in many combat wounds. We describe the patient population susceptible to Enterococcus infection, the characteristics of Enterococcus spp. isolated from combat-related wounds, and the microbiological profile of Enterococcus-positive wounds. METHODS: Patient and culture data were obtained from the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study...
January 2018: Surgical Infections
Nicolae Ovidiu Peneş, Andrei Alexandru Muntean, Adriana Moisoiu, Mădălina Maria Muntean, Alexandru Chirca, Miron Alexandru Bogdan, Mircea Ioan Popa
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is an umbrella term that covers a wide spectrum of diseases, comprising mild and severe, acute and chronic conditions. A wide spectrum of pathogens can be implicated, from viruses to pyogenic and atypical bacteria. A special place should be reserved for slow growing bacteria (Mycobacteria spp., Nocardia spp.) and parasites (i.e., hydatic cysts caused by Echinococcus granulosus). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to observe, analyze and establish the drug susceptibility patterns for Enterococcus spp...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Funda Citak, Ishan Ghai, Frank Rosenkötter, Lorraine Benier, Mathias Winterhalter, Richard Wagner
Increasing antimicrobial drug resistance is a global threat especially with respect to Gram-negative bacteria. The low permeability of the bacterial outer cell wall has been identified as an important bottleneck that prevents a sufficient antibacterial effect to be achieved at low doses of the antibiotics. In particular, the outer membrane permeability for negatively charged molecules of the clinical important ESKAPE bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is determined by the low conductance porins OprO and OprP Here we show that the alternative phosphonic-acid antibiotic fosfomycin is highly permeable through the OprO and OprP channels...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dorothy L Ackerman, Kelly M Craft, Ryan S Doster, Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, David M Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy, Steven D Townsend
In a previous study, we reported that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) isolated from five donor milk samples possessed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus or GBS. Herein, we present a broader evaluation of the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity by screening HMOs from 14 new donors against three strains of GBS and two of the ESKAPE pathogens of particular interest to child health, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii...
December 8, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
R C Lowrence, A Ramakrishnan, N S Sundaramoorthy, A Shyam, V Mohan, H M V Subbarao, V Ulaganathan, T Raman, A Solomon, S Nagarajan
AIMS: To enhance the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of norfloxacin against the planktonic and biofilm mode of growth in ESKAPE pathogens using chemically modified norfloxacin salts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial testing, synergy testing and time-kill curve analysis were performed to evaluate antibacterial effect of norfloxacin carboxylic acid salts against ESKAPE pathogens. In vivo efficacy to reduce bacterial bioburden was evaluated in zebrafish infection model...
February 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jieun Kwon, Tina Mistry, Jinhong Ren, Michael E Johnson, Shahila Mehboob
S. aureus and A. baumannii are among the ESKAPE pathogens that are increasingly difficult to treat due to the rise in the number of drug resistant strains. Novel therapeutics targeting these pathogens are much needed. The bacterial enoyl reductase (FabI) is as potentially significant drug target for developing pathogen-specific antibiotics due to the presence of alternate FabI isoforms in many other bacterial species. We report the identification and development of a novel N-carboxy pyrrolidine scaffold targeting FabI in S...
January 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Cristina Brunati, Thomas T Thomsen, Eleonora Gaspari, Sonia Maffioli, Margherita Sosio, Daniela Jabes, Anders Løbner-Olesen, Stefano Donadio
Objectives: To characterize NAI-107 and related lantibiotics for their in vitro activity against Gram-negative pathogens, alone or in combination with polymyxin, and against non-dividing cells or biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. NAI-107 was also evaluated for its propensity to select or induce self-resistance in Gram-positive bacteria. Methods: We used MIC determinations and chequerboard experiments to establish the antibacterial activity of the examined compounds against target microorganisms...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jilei Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Li Chen, Afrah Kamal Yassin, Patrick Kelly, Patrick Butaye, Jing Li, Jiansen Gong, Russell Cattley, Kezong Qi, Chengming Wang
Flies have the capacity to transfer pathogens between different environments, acting as one of the most important vectors of human diseases worldwide. In this study, we trapped flies on a university campus and tested them for mobile resistance genes against colistin, a last-resort antibiotic in human medicine for treating clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Quantitative PCRs we developed showed that 34.1% of Musca domestica (86/252) and 51.1% of Protophormia terraenovae (23/45) were positive for the mcr-1, 1...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Anthony J Guarascio, Laura M Brickett, Timothy J Porter, Nancy D Lee, Erin E Gorse, Jordan R Covvey
BACKGROUND: Hospitals and other facilities utilize antibiograms as tools for optimal antibiotic selection. Currently, no measures compare broad trends on the regional level, despite interest for more comprehensive data, particularly for antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE organisms. OBJECTIVE: To collect and compare regional health-care facility antibiogram data for ESKAPE organisms to form a cumulative antibiogram. METHODS: Health-care facilities were identified using the publicly accessible Pennsylvania Department of Health web site...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Vishvanath Tiwari, Varsha Patel, Monalisa Tiwari
Acinetobacter baumannii, an ESKAPE pathogen, causes various nosocomial infections and has capacity to produce biofilm. Biofilm produced by this bacterium is highly tolerant to environmental factors and different antibiotics. Biofilm-associated protein (Bap) plays a significant role in the biofilm formation by A. baumannii and found in the extra cellular matrix of the biofilm. Therefore, it becomes essential to find a potential drug against Bap that has capacity to inhibit biofilm formation by A. baumannii. In-silico screening, molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics studies identified ZINC00039089 (L-Adrenaline) as an inhibitor for Bap of A...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Shengnan Xu, Qinghua Wang, Qingyang Zhang, Leilei Zhang, Limin Zuo, Jian-Dong Jiang, Hai-Yu Hu
The identification of bacterial pathogens is the critical first step in conquering infection diseases. A novel turn-on fluorescent probe for the selective sensing of nitroreductase (NTR) activity and its initial applications in rapid, real-time detection and identification of ESKAPE pathogens have been reported.
October 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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