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Pankaj Kumar, Amit Kaushik, Evan P Lloyd, Shao-Gang Li, Rohini Mattoo, Nicole C Ammerman, Drew T Bell, Alexander L Perryman, Trevor A Zandi, Sean Ekins, Stephan L Ginell, Craig A Townsend, Joel S Freundlich, Gyanu Lamichhane
Bacterial survival requires an intact peptidoglycan layer, a three-dimensional exoskeleton that encapsulates the cytoplasmic membrane. Historically, the final steps of peptidoglycan synthesis are known to be carried out by D,D-transpeptidases, enzymes that are inhibited by the β-lactams, which constitute >50% of all antibacterials in clinical use. Here, we show that the carbapenem subclass of β-lactams are distinctly effective not only because they inhibit D,D-transpeptidases and are poor substrates for β-lactamases, but primarily because they also inhibit non-classical transpeptidases, namely the L,D-transpeptidases, which generate the majority of linkages in the peptidoglycan of mycobacteria...
November 7, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Jordan G Sheppard, Timothy E Long
Thiolated fluoroquinolones were synthesized from ciprofloxacin and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria. Gram-positive species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) exhibited the highest level of increased sensitivity toward ciprofloxacin bound with a N-propylthio substituent. Evidence was found that the antibiotics form disulfides with low molecular weight thiols in bacteria and potentiate generation of cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In final analysis, the enhanced anti-MRSA activity of thiolated fluoroquinolones was attributed to increased cell permeability and reaction with cytosolic thiols that yields an inactive disulfide metabolite and the parent drug ciprofloxacin as an inhibitor of DNA synthesis...
October 4, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Katherine A Rhodes, Herbert P Schweizer
The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients...
September 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
Shu J Lam, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Namfon Pantarat, Adrian Sulistio, Edgar H H Wong, Yu-Yen Chen, Jason C Lenzo, James A Holden, Anton Blencowe, Eric C Reynolds, Greg G Qiao
With the recent emergence of reports on resistant Gram-negative 'superbugs', infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been named as one of the most urgent global health threats due to the lack of effective and biocompatible drugs. Here, we show that a class of antimicrobial agents, termed 'structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers' (SNAPPs) exhibit sub-μM activity against all Gram-negative bacteria tested, including ESKAPE and colistin-resistant and MDR (CMDR) pathogens, while demonstrating low toxicity...
September 12, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Brock A Arivett, Dave C Ream, Steven E Fiester, Destaalem Kidane, Luis A Actis
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing hospital-acquired infections that has been grouped with Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species as ESKAPE pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing risk to human health. Twenty-four multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated.
2016: Genome Announcements
Brock A Arivett, Dave C Ream, Steven E Fiester, Destaalem Kidane, Luis A Actis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe hospital-acquired infections, is grouped as an ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogen because of its extensive drug resistance phenotypes and effects on human health worldwide. Five multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated in this work.
2016: Genome Announcements
Brock A Arivett, Dave C Ream, Steven E Fiester, Destaalem Kidane, Luis A Actis
Members of the Escherichia coli bacterial family have been grouped as ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens because of their extensive drug resistance phenotypes and increasing threat to human health. The genomes of six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains isolated from wounded military personnel were sequenced and annotated.
2016: Genome Announcements
Laura Fernández-García, Lucia Blasco, Maria Lopez, German Bou, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Thomas Wood, María Tomas
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are prevalent in bacteria and archaea. Although not essential for normal cell growth, TA systems are implicated in multiple cellular functions associated with survival under stress conditions. Clinical strains of bacteria are currently causing major human health problems as a result of their multidrug resistance, persistence and strong pathogenicity. Here, we present a review of the TA systems described to date and their biological role in human pathogens belonging to the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp...
July 20, 2016: Toxins
Daniel G Meeker, Samir V Jenkins, Emily K Miller, Karen E Beenken, Allister J Loughran, Amy Powless, Timothy J Muldoon, Ekaterina I Galanzha, Vladimir P Zharov, Mark S Smeltzer, Jingyi Chen
Resistance to conventional antibiotics is a growing public health concern that is quickly outpacing the development of new antibiotics. This has led the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) to designate Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species as "ESKAPE pathogens" on the basis of the rapidly decreasing availability of useful antibiotics. This emphasizes the urgent need for alternative therapeutic strategies to combat infections caused by these and other bacterial pathogens...
April 8, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Mauricio Dujowich, J Brad Case, Gary Ellison, James F X Wellehan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at comparing the ability of low-dose UVC, 0.05% chlorhexidine, and combined UVC with 0.05% chlorhexidine to reduce colony-forming units (CFUs) on select ESKAPE pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecium) in a canine skin and muscle model. BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical site infections (SSIs) result in increased morbidity and cost. UVC damages DNA, rendering bacteria nonviable and does not discriminate between drug-sensitive and multi-drug-resistant organisms...
August 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Rickey P Hicks
Eleven antimicrobial peptides (AMP) based on the incorporation of cyclic tetra substituted C(α) amino acids, as well as other unnatural amino acids were designed, synthesized and screened for in vitro activity against 18 strains of bacteria as well as 12 cancer cell lines. The AMPs discussed herein are derived from the following peptide sequence: Ac-GF(X)G(X)B(X)G(X)F(X)G(X)GB(X)BBBB-amide, X=any one of the following residues, A5c, A6c, Tic or Oic and B=any one of the following residues, Arg, Lys, Orn, Dpr or Dab...
September 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Cédric Charrier, Anne-Marie Salisbury, Victoria J Savage, Emmanuel Moyo, Henry Forward, Nicola Ooi, Jonathan Cheung, Richard Metzger, David McGarry, Rolf Walker, Ian R Cooper, Andrew J Ratcliffe, Neil R Stokes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro biological properties of a novel class of isothiazolone inhibitors of the bacterial type II topoisomerases. METHODS: Inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activity was assessed using DNA supercoiling and decatenation assays. MIC and MBC were determined according to CLSI guidelines. Antibacterial combinations were assessed using a two-dimensional chequerboard MIC method. Spontaneous frequency of resistance was measured at various multiples of the MIC...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Damien Maura, Alicia E Ballok, Laurence G Rahme
As antibiotic resistance remains a major public health threat, anti-virulence therapy research is gaining interest. Hundreds of potential anti-virulence compounds have been examined, but very few have made it to clinical trials and none have been approved. This review surveys the current anti-virulence research field with a focus on the highly resistant and deadly ESKAPE pathogens, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We discuss timely considerations and caveats in anti-virulence drug development, including target identification, administration, preclinical development, and metrics for success in clinical trials...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Jeffrey A Melvin, Lauren P Lashua, Megan R Kiedrowski, Guanyi Yang, Berthony Deslouches, Ronald C Montelaro, Jennifer M Bomberger
Antimicrobial-resistant infections are an urgent public health threat, and development of novel antimicrobial therapies has been painstakingly slow. Polymicrobial infections are increasingly recognized as a significant source of severe disease and also contribute to reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials. Chronic infections also are characterized by their ability to resist clearance, which is commonly linked to the development of biofilms that are notorious for antimicrobial resistance. The use of engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) is attractive due to the slow development of resistance to these fast-acting antimicrobials and their ability to kill multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, key elements for the success of novel antimicrobial agents...
May 2016: MSphere
Sirijan Santajit, Nitaya Indrawattana
The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. Most of them are multidrug resistant isolates, which is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. Multidrug resistance is amongst the top three threats to global public health and is usually caused by excessive drug usage or prescription, inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and substandard pharmaceuticals...
2016: BioMed Research International
Hadir A El-Mahallawy, Safaa Shawky Hassan, Mohamed El-Wakil, Manar M Moneer
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In recent years, a few of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, known as ESKAPE pathogens, have been found responsible for serious infections. We investigated the risk factors, and impact of ESKAPE pathogens on course of blood stream infections (BSIs) in cancer patients in comparison to coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data of patients with ESKAPE positive blood cultures at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University were analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
Simone Latz, Adam Wahida, Assuda Arif, Helga Häfner, Mareike Hoß, Klaus Ritter, Hans-Peter Horz
Bacteriophages (phages) represent a potential alternative for combating multi-drug resistant bacteria. Because of their narrow host range and the ever emergence of novel pathogen variants the continued search for phages is a prerequisite for optimal treatment of bacterial infections. Here we performed an ad hoc survey in the surroundings of a University hospital for the presence of phages with therapeutic potential. To this end, 16 aquatic samples of different origins and locations were tested simultaneously for the presence of phages with lytic activity against five current, but distinct strains each from the ESKAPE-group (i...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Kevin J Fisher, Jeremy A Turkett, Ashley E Corson, Kevin L Bicker
Rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistant organisms necessitates equally rapid methods for the development of new antimicrobial compounds. Of recent interest have been mimics of antimicrobial peptides known as antimicrobial peptoids, which exhibit similar potency to the former but with improved proteolytic stability. Presented herein is a high-throughput method to screen libraries of antimicrobial peptoids immobilized on beads embedded into solid media. Termed the peptoid library agar diffusion (PLAD) assay, this assay allows for individual chemical manipulation of two identical peptoid strands...
June 13, 2016: ACS Combinatorial Science
Joran Elie Michiels, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Health care-associated infections present a major threat to modern medical care. Six worrisome nosocomial pathogens-Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.-are collectively referred to as the "ESKAPE bugs." They are notorious for extensive multidrug resistance, yet persistence, or the phenotypic tolerance displayed by a variant subpopulation, remains underappreciated in these pathogens. Importantly, persistence can prevent eradication of antibiotic-sensitive bacterial populations and is thought to act as a catalyst for the development of genetic resistance...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sheo B Singh
Kibdelomycin is a complex novel antibiotic, discovered by applying a highly sophisticated chemical-genetic Staphylococcus aureus Fitness Test (SaFT) approach, that inhibits the clinically established bacterial targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV. It exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against aerobic bacteria including MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii. It is slowly bactericidal and has a low frequency of resistance. In an anaerobic environment, it exhibits narrow-spectrum activity and inhibits the growth of gut bacteria Clostridium difficile (MIC 0...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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