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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769606/malonylation-of-histone-h2a-at-lysine-119-inhibits-bub1-dependent-h2a-phosphorylation-and-chromosomal-localization-of-shugoshin-proteins
#1
Tadashi Ishiguro, Kana Tanabe, Yuki Kobayashi, Shinsuke Mizumoto, Motomu Kanai, Shigehiro A Kawashima
Post-translational modifications of histones, such as acetylation and phosphorylation, are highly conserved in eukaryotes and their combination enables precise regulation of many cellular functions. Recent studies using mass spectrometry have revealed various non-acetyl acylations in histones, including malonylation and succinylation, which change the positive charge of lysine into a negative one. However, the molecular function of histone malonylation or succinylation is poorly understood. Here, we discovered the functions of malonylation in histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119) in chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754905/the-post-anaphase-sumo-pathway-ensures-the-maintenance-of-centromeric-cohesion-through-meiosis-i-ii-transition-in-mammalian-oocytes
#2
Yi Ding, Masako Kaido, Elena Llano, Alberto M Pendas, Tomoya S Kitajima
The production of haploid gametes requires the maintenance of centromeric cohesion between sister chromatids through the transition between two successive meiotic divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. One mechanism for the cohesion maintenance is shugoshin-dependent protection of centromeric cohesin at anaphase I onset [1-3]. However, how centromeric cohesion is maintained during late anaphase I and telophase I, when centromeric shugoshin is undetectable [1-3], remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the centromeric small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway is critical for the maintenance of centromeric cohesion during post-anaphase-I periods in mouse oocytes...
May 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644457/an-interplay-between-shugoshin-and-spo13-for-centromeric-cohesin-protection-and-sister-kinetochore-mono-orientation-during-meiosis-i-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Gunjan Mehta, Guhan Kaliyaperumal Anbalagan, Akhilendra Pratap Bharati, Purna Gadre, Santanu Kumar Ghosh
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process by which haploid gametes are produced from a diploid mother cell. Reductional chromosome segregation during meiosis I (MI) is achieved by two unique and conserved events: centromeric cohesin protection (CCP) and sister kinetochore mono-orientation (SKM). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a meiosis-specific protein Spo13 plays a role in both these centromere-specific events. Despite genome-wide association of Spo13, we failed to detect its function in global processes such as cohesin loading, cohesion establishment and homologs pairing...
April 11, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464982/rcc1-regulates-inner-centromeric-composition-in-a-ran-independent-fashion
#4
Michael Shaofei Zhang, Maiko Furuta, Alexei Arnaoutov, Mary Dasso
RCC1 associates to chromatin dynamically within mitosis and catalyzes Ran-GTP production. Exogenous RCC1 disrupts kinetochore structure in Xenopus egg extracts (XEEs), but the molecular basis of this disruption remains unknown. We have investigated this question, utilizing replicated chromosomes that possess paired sister kinetochores. We find that exogenous RCC1 evicts a specific subset of inner KT proteins including Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) and the chromosome passenger complex (CPC). We generated RCC1 mutants that separate its enzymatic activity and chromatin binding...
April 5, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298360/chromosome-passenger-complex-is-required-for-the-survival-of-cells-with-ring-chromosomes-in-fission-yeast
#5
Ahmed G K Habib, Kanako Sugiura, Masaru Ueno
Ring chromosomes are circular chromosomal abnormalities that have been reported in association with some genetic disorders and cancers. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, lack of function of protection of telomere 1 (Pot1) or telomerase catalytic subunit (Trt1) results in survivors with circular chromosomes. Hitherto, it is poorly understood how cells with circular chromosomes survive and how circular chromosomes are maintained. Fission yeast Cut17/Bir1, Ark1, Pic1, and Nbl1 is a conserved chromosome passenger complex (CPC) functioning mainly throughout mitosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242290/a-failsafe-for-sensing-chromatid-tension-in-mitosis-with-the-histone-h3-tail-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Christopher J Buehl, Xiexiong Deng, Jianjun Luo, Visarut Buranasudja, Tony Hazbun, Min-Hao Kuo
Mitotic fidelity is ensured by achieving biorientation on all paired chromosomes. The key signal for proper chromosome alignment is the tension between sister chromatids created by opposing poleward force from the spindles. In the budding yeast, the tension-sensing function requires that the Shugoshin protein, Shugoshin 1, be recruited to the centromeres and the neighboring pericentric regions. Concerted actions integrating proteins at centromeres and pericentromeres create highly specific Shugoshin 1 domains on mitotic chromosomes...
February 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196723/bayesian-analysis-of-microscale-thermophoresis-data-to-quantify-affinity-of-protein-protein-interactions-with-human-survivin
#7
Maria-Jose Garcia-Bonete, Maja Jensen, Christian V Recktenwald, Sandra Rocha, Volker Stadler, Maria Bokarewa, Gergely Katona
A biomolecular ensemble exhibits different responses to a temperature gradient depending on its diffusion properties. MicroScale Thermophoresis technique exploits this effect and is becoming a popular technique for analyzing interactions of biomolecules in solution. When comparing affinities of related compounds, the reliability of the determined thermodynamic parameters often comes into question. The thermophoresis binding curves can be assessed by Bayesian inference, which provides a probability distribution for the dissociation constant of the interacting partners...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196561/hierarchical-regulation-of-centromeric-cohesion-protection-by-meikin-and-shugoshin-during-meiosis-i
#8
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
The kinetochore is the key apparatus regulating chromosome segregation. Particularly in meiosis, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation), and sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected at centromeres in the following anaphase. Shugoshin, which localizes to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158400/-drosophila-protein-phosphatases-2a-b-wdb-and-wrd-regulate-meiotic-centromere-localization-and-function-of-the-mei-s332-shugoshin
#9
Belinda S Pinto, Terry L Orr-Weaver
Proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis is essential to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. This requires that sister chromatids maintain cohesion at the centromere as cohesion is released on the chromatid arms when the homologs segregate at anaphase I. The Shugoshin proteins preserve centromere cohesion by protecting the cohesin complex from cleavage, and this has been shown in yeasts to be mediated by recruitment of the protein phosphatase 2A B' (PP2A B'). In metazoans, delineation of the role of PP2A B' in meiosis has been hindered by its myriad of other essential roles...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032586/cohesion-and-centromere-activity-are-required-for-phosphorylation-of-histone-h3-in-maize
#10
Yang Liu, Handong Su, Yalin Liu, Jing Zhang, Qianhua Dong, James A Birchler, Fangpu Han
Haspin-mediated phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 3 (H3T3ph) promotes proper deposition of Aurora B at the inner centromere to ensure faithful chromosome segregation in metazoans. However, the function of H3T3ph remains relatively unexplored in plants. Here, we show that in maize (Zea mays L.) mitotic cells, H3T3ph is concentrated at pericentromeric and centromeric regions. Additional weak H3T3ph signals occur between cohered sister chromatids at prometaphase. Immunostaining on dicentric chromosomes reveals that an inactive centromere cannot maintain H3T3ph at metaphase, indicating that a functional centromere is required for H3T3 phosphorylation...
December 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980861/budding-yeast-cenp-a-cse4-interacts-with-the-n-terminus-of-sgo1-and-regulates-its-association-with-centromeric-chromatin
#11
Prashant K Mishra, Kriti S Thapa, Panyue Chen, Suyu Wang, Tony R Hazbun, Munira A Basrai
Shugoshin is an evolutionarily conserved protein, which is involved in tension sensing on mitotic chromosomes, kinetochore biorientation, and protection of centromeric (CEN) cohesin for faithful chromosome segregation. Interaction of the C-terminus of Sgo1 with phosphorylated histone H2A regulates its association with CEN and pericentromeric (peri-CEN) chromatin, whereas mutations in histone H3 selectively compromise the association of Sgo1 with peri-CEN but not CEN chromatin. Given that histone H3 is absent from CEN and is replaced by a histone H3 variant CENP-ACse4 , we investigated if CENP-ACse4 interacts with Sgo1 and promotes its association with the CEN chromatin...
2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942089/biochemical-basis-for-distinct-roles-of-the-heterochromatin-proteins-swi6-and-chp2
#12
R Stefan Isaac, Serena Sanulli, Ryan Tibble, Michael Hornsby, Matthew Ravalin, Charles S Craik, John D Gross, Geeta J Narlikar
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family proteins are conserved chromatin binding proteins involved in gene silencing, chromosome packaging, and chromosome segregation. These proteins recognize histone H3 lysine 9 methylated tails via their chromodomain and recruit additional ligand proteins with diverse activities through their dimerization domain, the chromoshadow domain. Species that have HP1 proteins possess multiple paralogs that perform non-overlapping roles in vivo. How different HP1 proteins, which are highly conserved, perform different functions is not well understood...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#13
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
January 20, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781233/phospho-h1-decorates-the-inter-chromatid-axis-and-is-evicted-along-with-shugoshin-by-set-during-mitosis
#14
Swathi Krishnan, Arne H Smits, Michiel Vermeulen, Danny Reinberg
Precise control of sister chromatid separation during mitosis is pivotal to maintaining genomic integrity. Yet, the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. Remarkably, we discovered that linker histone H1 phosphorylated at S/T18 decorated the inter-chromatid axial DNA on mitotic chromosomes. Sister chromatid resolution during mitosis required the eviction of such H1S/T18ph by the chaperone SET, with this process being independent of and most likely downstream of arm-cohesin dissociation. SET also directed the disassembly of Shugoshins in a polo-like kinase 1-augmented manner, aiding centromere resolution...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727495/localization-of-pp2a-b56-to-centromeres-in-drosophila
#15
Emil Peter Thrane Hertz, Jakob Nilsson
Protection of chromosome cohesion through Shugoshin-dependent recruitment of the PP2A-B56 phosphatase to the pericentromeric region has become a cornerstone of the chromosome segregation model in eukaryotes. Shugoshin is essential for meiotic chromosome segregation in all tested eukaryotes but only found to be essential for mitotic chromosome segregation in vertebrates. Nishiyama and colleagues have now found that the protein Dalmatian, an ortholog of the vertebrate cohesion regulator Sororin, performs the function of Shugoshin in Drosophila melanogaster by recruiting PP2A-B56 to the pericentromeric region supporting an unified model of mitotic chromosome segregation in the animal kingdom...
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514186/apc-c-cdc20-mediates-deprotection-of-centromeric-cohesin-at-meiosis-ii-in-yeast
#16
Katarzyna Jonak, Ievgeniia Zagoriy, Tugce Oz, Peter Graf, Julie Rojas, Valentina Mengoli, Wolfgang Zachariae
Cells undergoing meiosis produce haploid gametes through one round of DNA replication followed by 2 rounds of chromosome segregation. This requires that cohesin complexes, which establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase, are removed in a stepwise manner. At meiosis I, the separase protease triggers the segregation of homologous chromosomes by cleaving cohesin's Rec8 subunit on chromosome arms. Cohesin persists at centromeres because the PP2A phosphatase, recruited by the shugoshin protein, dephosphorylates Rec8 and thereby protects it from cleavage...
June 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502659/apc-c-cdh1-enables-removal-of-shugoshin-2-from-the-arms-of-bivalent-chromosomes-by-moderating-cyclin-dependent-kinase-activity
#17
Ahmed Rattani, Randy Ballesteros Mejia, Katherine Roberts, Maurici B Roig, Jonathan Godwin, Michael Hopkins, Manuel Eguren, Luis Sanchez-Pulido, Elwy Okaz, Sugako Ogushi, Magda Wolna, Jean Metson, Alberto M Pendás, Marcos Malumbres, Béla Novák, Mary Herbert, Kim Nasmyth
In mammalian females, germ cells remain arrested as primordial follicles. Resumption of meiosis is heralded by germinal vesicle breakdown, condensation of chromosomes, and their eventual alignment on metaphase plates. At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/CCdc20 ) activates separase and thereby destroys cohesion along chromosome arms. Because cohesion around centromeres is protected by shugoshin-2, sister chromatids remain attached through centromeric/pericentromeric cohesin...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497540/meikin-associated-polo-like-kinase-specifies-bub1-distribution-in-meiosis-i
#18
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Yuya Yamagishi, Tadashi Ishiguro, Yuki Okada, Yuji Tanno, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
In meiosis I, sister chromatids are captured by microtubules emanating from the same pole (mono-orientation), and centromeric cohesion is protected throughout anaphase. Shugoshin, which is localized to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage. Another key meiotic kinetochore factor, meikin, may regulate cohesion protection, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that fission yeast Moa1 (meikin), which associates stably with CENP-C during meiosis I, recruits Plo1 (polo-like kinase) to the kinetochores and phosphorylates Spc7 (KNL1) to accumulate Bub1...
June 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483815/-drosophila-dalmatian-combines-sororin-and-shugoshin-roles-in-establishment-and-protection-of-cohesion
#19
Takashi Yamada, Eri Tahara, Mai Kanke, Keiko Kuwata, Tomoko Nishiyama
Sister chromatid cohesion is crucial to ensure chromosome bi-orientation and equal chromosome segregation. Cohesin removal via mitotic kinases and Wapl has to be prevented in pericentromeric regions in order to protect cohesion until metaphase, but the mechanisms of mitotic cohesion protection remain elusive in Drosophila Here, we show that dalmatian (Dmt), an ortholog of the vertebrate cohesin-associated protein sororin, is required for protection of mitotic cohesion in flies. Dmt is essential for cohesion establishment during interphase and is enriched on pericentromeric heterochromatin...
June 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483814/dalmatian-spotting-the-difference-in-cohesin-protectors
#20
COMMENT
Adele L Marston
The cohesin complex prevents separation of chromosomes following their duplication until the appropriate time during cell division. In vertebrates, establishment and maintenance of cohesin-dependent linkages depend on two distinct proteins, sororin and shugoshin. New findings published in The EMBO Journal show that in Drosophila , the function of both of these cohesin regulators is carried out by a single hybrid protein, Dalmatian.
June 1, 2017: EMBO Journal
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