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Caitlin Notley, Emma Ward, Lynne Dawkins, Richard Holland
BACKGROUND: We have little understanding of how vapers use e-cigarettes beyond cessation. E-cigarettes may have a role to play in reducing the health-related harms of tobacco smoking, through not only assisting smoking cessation attempts but also supporting long-term abstinence from smoking. However, there are fears that vaping may lead to the 'renormalisation' of smoking type behaviours. This study aimed to explore patterns of use and reported experiences of vapers quitting smoking using an e-cigarette in relation to long-term smoking status (abstinence or relapse)...
June 20, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Yao Qu, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko
The effect of flavors on carbonyl compound (CC) emission factors (EF) from electronic cigarettes (ECs) vaping was investigated at the default vaping (voltage) setting in all experiments using a total of 21 lab-made e-liquid samples (five different types of retail flavorant bases: beverage/dessert/fruit/mint/tobacco). Each flavorant base was added to a separate unflavored base composed of a 1:1 mixture of propylene glycol/vegetable glycerol (PG/VG) at four levels (5/10/30/50% (v/v)). The e-liquid CC levels increased linearly with flavorant base content, 1...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Meredith C Meacham, Michael J Paul, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: Legalization of medical and recreational cannabis has coincided with an increase in novel forms of cannabis use and a burgeoning cannabis product industry. This research seeks to understand the occurrence of discussions about these emerging and traditional forms of use in an online social media discussion forum. METHODS: We analyzed posts to a cannabis-specific forum on the Reddit social media platform posted from January 2010-December 2016. For each of various keywords describing smoking, vaping, edibles, dabbing, and butane hash oil (BHO) concentrate use, we analyzed (1) relative prevalence of posts mentioning these cannabis forms of use; (2) user-reported subjective ratings of "highness" on a scale of 1-10; (3) the ten most common words mentioned in posts; and (4) the frequency of adverse health effect terms...
July 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Lynne Dawkins, Sharon Cox, Maciej Goniewicz, Hayden McRobbie, Catherine Kimber, Mira Doig, Leon Kośmider
AIMS: To compare the effects of i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, ii) fixed versus adjustable power and iii) the interaction between the two on: a) vaping behaviour, b) subjective effects, c) nicotine intake, and d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. DESIGN: Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: i) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power; ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; iii) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; iv) high nicotine/adjustable power...
June 7, 2018: Addiction
Gideon St Helen, Marian Shahid, Sherman Chu, Neal L Benowitz
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this pilot study was to describe the impact of e-cigarette liquid flavors on experienced e-cigarette users' vaping behavior. METHODS: 11 males and 3 females participated in a 3-day inpatient crossover study using e-cigarettes with strawberry, tobacco, and their usual brand e-liquid. Nicotine levels were nominally 18 mg/mL in the strawberry and tobacco e-liquids and ranged between 3-18 mg/mL in the usual brands. On each day, participants had access to the study e-cigarette (KangerTech mini ProTank 3, 1...
May 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mohammad A Kaisar, Farzane Sivandzade, Aditya Bhalerao, Luca Cucullo
It is well established that tobacco smoking is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative and dose dependent manner primarily related to the tobacco smoke (TS) content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and oxidative stress (OS) -driven inflammation. Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes (e-Cigs) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury. Likewise, chronic e-Cig vaping could be prodromal to vascular endothelial dysfunctions...
June 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Mei-Ling Blank, Janet Hoek, Mark George, Philip Gendall, Tamlin S Conner, Johannes Thrul, Pamela M Ling, Tobias Langlotz
Introduction: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are used to aid smoking cessation attempts; however, many smokers continue to smoke while using an ENDS (dual use). Although uncertainty remains regarding whether specific ENDS patterns hinder or support successful smoking cessation, recent advances in "smart" technology allow passive and active recording of behaviors in real time, enabling more detailed insights into how smoking and vaping patterns may coevolve. We describe patterns of ENDS initiation, and subsequent use, including any changes in cigarette consumption, among daily smokers using a "smart" ENDS (S-ENDS) to quit smoking...
June 6, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Y Tony Yang
In July 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it wants to reduce the nicotine in cigarettes to make them less addictive. Also, it is delaying for several years a key regulation affecting cigars and e-cigarettes, including flavored vaping products that tend to appeal to younger consumers. Specifically, it postponed the requirement that such products be approved by the agency. Both actions are part of a comprehensive plan to eventually wean smokers off conventional cigarettes and steer them toward less harmful alternative forms of nicotine...
August 2018: Preventive Medicine
Tara Nguyen, Gerard E Li, Hui Chen, Charles G Cranfield, Kristine C McGrath, Catherine Anne Gorrie
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is on the rise worldwide and is particularly attractive to young people and as a smoking substitute by pregnant woman. There is a perception in pregnant woman and women of child-bearing age that the use of e-cigarettes (vaping) is safer than smoking tobacco cigarettes during pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this perception. Here, we examined the offspring from mouse dams that had been exposed during and after pregnancy to ambient air (sham) (n=8), e-cigarette aerosols with nicotine (n=8) or e-cigarette aerosols without nicotine (n=8)...
June 4, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Keshia M Reid, Jamie R Forrest, Lauren Porter
The increasing availability of diverse tobacco products has led to complex tobacco product use patterns among youths (1). Use by youths of products containing nicotine in any form is unsafe (2); among young persons with asthma, use of combustible tobacco products, particularly cigarettes, is associated with worsening symptoms, poor asthma control, and an increased need for medical management (3,4). Studies suggest that youths with asthma adopt health risk behaviors, including tobacco product use, at rates similar to or higher than those of youths without asthma (3-7); however, these studies are often limited to a partial list of tobacco product types among high school students...
June 1, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
John Buckell, Joachim Marti, Jody L Sindelar
OBJECTIVES: To provide the policy-relevant estimates of impacts of alternative flavour bans on preferences and demand for cigarettes and e-cigarettes in adult smokers and recent quitters. METHODS: A best-best discrete choice experiment (DCE) is used to elicit smokers' and recent quitters' preferences for flavours, price, health impact and nicotine level in cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Choice of tobacco products and an opt-out option were examined. An efficient design yielded 36 choice sets...
May 28, 2018: Tobacco Control
Yvonne Cm Staal, Suzanne van de Nobelen, Anne Havermans, Reinskje Talhout
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of new tobacco and tobacco-related products have emerged on the market in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To understand their potential implications for public health and to guide tobacco control efforts, we have used an infoveillance approach to identify new tobacco and tobacco-related products. METHODS: Our search for tobacco(-related) products consists of several tailored search profiles using combinations of keywords such as "e-cigarette" and "new" to extract information from almost 9000 preselected sources such as websites of online shops, tobacco manufacturers, and news sites...
May 28, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
S A Mokeem, T Abduljabbar, A A Al-Kheraif, M N Alasqah, D Michelogiannakis, L P Samaranayake, F Javed
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare oral Candida carriage among cigarette- and waterpipe-smokers, electronic-cigarette (E-Cig) users and never-smokers. METHODS: Demographic data and information regarding smoking and vaping were collected using a questionnaire. Number of missing teeth and unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR) were recorded. Oral Candida samples were collected and identified using concentrated oral rinse culture technique and PCR, respectively...
May 25, 2018: Oral Diseases
Andy S L Tan, Vaughan W Rees, Justin Rodgers, Emeka Agudile, Natasha A Sokol, Kyeungyeun Yie, Ashley Sanders-Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Anti-vaping public service announcements (PSAs) are intended to discourage vaping or use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). However, vaping portrayals in PSAs may have unintended effects if they increase smoking or vaping urges. This study examined benefits and unintended effects of anti-vaping PSAs with vapor portrayals on smoking and vaping-related outcomes. METHODS: Young adult smokers (N = 171) and dual users (N = 122) aged 21-30 years were randomly assigned to view: 1) anti-vaping PSAs with vapor; 2) anti-vaping PSAs without vapor; 3) physical activity PSAs; or 4) anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues...
May 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Casey G Sommerfeld, Daniel J Weiner, Andrew Nowalk, Allyson Larkin
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or "vaping," is gaining widespread popularity as an alternative to conventional cigarettes among adolescents. Little is known of the health risks of e-cigarette use, especially in children and adolescents. We present a Case Report of a previously healthy 18-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and pleuritic chest pain after e-cigarette use. She developed respiratory failure with hypoxia and was intubated, and ultimately met diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
May 17, 2018: Pediatrics
Neil McKeganey, Marina Barnard
This paper reports a qualitative case study of a small friendship group ( n = 8) in Glasgow, Scotland. Interviewed twice at six months apart, these 16 to 17 year olds reported a substantial change in their use of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes and tobacco. At time 1, vaping generated much excitement and interest, with six out of eight individuals having their own vape device. At time 2, only two young people still vaped, with the others no longer professing any interest in continued vaping. The two regular smokers, who had been smoking before they first vaped, now only vaped privately and to reduce their tobacco intake...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Erin A Vogel, Danielle E Ramo, Mark L Rubinstein
BACKGROUND: Understanding predictors of e-cigarette use among adolescents in the context of wide availability and extreme popularity of these products is important for prevention and treatment. This study identifies correlates of e-cigarette use frequency and dependence among adolescent users. METHODS: Adolescent e-cigarette users (N = 173) were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants reported demographic and psychosocial characteristics, e-cigarette use behaviors, and cigarette use...
May 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
C Bamberger, V Deiss, S Gros
To maximize the chances of replacing smoking with vaping, it is necessary to know the different types of existing devices, their characteristics and their most important settings as well as their influence on sensations. To support a user it is also important to understand the nature of the inhaled and exhaled vapor, as well as the possible mistakes that can lead to a less enjoyable experience. Highlighting e-liquids formulations and emissions can help understanding how a minimum of 95 % risk reduction compared to tobacco smoking is achieved and the influence of compounds on the user's experience...
May 10, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Meghan E Morean, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley
BACKGROUND: Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms...
April 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Christine D Czoli, Maciej L Goniewicz, Mary Palumbo, Christine M White, David Hammond
BACKGROUND: Although several countries, including Canada, have prohibited the sale of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, there is little evidence examining the impact of such regulatory measures on nicotine content and labelling. METHODS: E-cigarettes were systematically purchased at 80 retail outlets across 4 cities in Ontario, Canada in January-February 2015. Products' nicotine content and labelling accuracy were assessed using gas chromatography. RESULTS: A total of 166 e-cigarette products were purchased, including disposable products (33%), refillable products (14%), and e-liquids (53%)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
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