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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025078/a-cloud-on-the-horizon-a-survey-into-the-use-of-electronic-vaping-devices-for-recreational-drug-and-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-administration
#1
M S Blundell, P I Dargan, D M Wood
Background: There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Aim: To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK...
September 14, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023906/influence-of-risk-perception-on-attitudes-and-norms-regarding-electronic-cigarettes
#2
Craig W Trumbo
The use of electronic cigarettes has grown substantially over the last few years. Currently, about 4% of adults use electronic cigarettes, about 16% of high school students report use in the past 30 days, as do approximately 11-25% of college students. A hallmark of the reduction in tobacco use has been the shift in social norms concerning smoking in public. Such norms may also drive views on acceptability of public electronic cigarette use. While normative factors have been given attention, little substantive application of the literature on risk perception has been brought to bear...
October 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987304/death-from-ingestion-of-e-liquid
#3
Stephen Morley, John Slaughter, Paul R Smith
BACKGROUND: The use of e-liquids is becoming more prevalent. There is a risk that such liquids may be ingested by mouth rather than being vaped/ inhaled. Due to the high concentration of drugs such as nicotine in these liquids, there may be toxic, and possibly fatal consequences. CASE REPORT: We report the death of a 32-year-old male who ingested nicotine-containing e-liquid while under the influence of alcohol. A serum sample taken 24 h after collapse contained nicotine at a concentration of 1600 ng/mL of nicotine...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985322/chemical-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarettes-multicomponent-analysis-of-liquid-refills-and-their-corresponding-aerosols
#4
Nicolas Beauval, Sébastien Antherieu, Mélissa Soyez, Nicolas Gengler, Nathalie Grova, Michael Howsam, Emilie M Hardy, Marc Fischer, Brice M R Appenzeller, Jean-François Goossens, Delphine Allorge, Guillaume Garçon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice, Anne Garat
Electronic cigarette use has raised concern worldwide regarding potential health risks and its position in tobacco cessation strategies. As part of any toxicity assessment, the chemical characterization of e-liquids and their related vapors are among fundamental data to be determined. Considering the lack of available reference methods, we developed and validated several analytical procedures in order to conduct a multicomponent analysis of six e-liquid refills and their resultant vapor emissions (generated by a smoking machine), and compared them with tobacco smoke...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983782/electronic-cigarettes-their-constituents-and-potential-links-to-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983071/effects-of-health-oriented-descriptors-on-combustible-cigarette-and-electronic-cigarette-packaging-an-experiment-among-adult-smokers-in-the-united-states
#6
Ashley Sanders-Jackson, Andy S L Tan, Kyeungyeun Yie
OBJECTIVE: Certain tobacco companies use health-oriented descriptors (eg, 100% organic) on product packaging and advertising of combustible cigarettes or electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) that create a 'health halo' around smoking and vaping. Previous observational research suggests that such language may be associated with more favourable attitudes and reduced risk perceptions toward these brands compared with others. This study aimed to determine the effects of health-oriented descriptors on smokers' attitude toward the brand, perception of packaging information, comparative harm versus other brands and intention to purchase either combustible cigarettes or e-cigarettes...
October 5, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979131/the-use-of-substances-other-than-nicotine-in-electronic-cigarettes-among-college-students
#7
Deric R Kenne, Rebecca L Fischbein, Andy Sl Tan, Mark Banks
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown in popularity, especially among youth and young adults. Although e-cigarettes were originally intended to vaporize a liquid mixture containing nicotine, there appears to be an increasing trend in other substance use in e-cigarettes (OSUE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 1542 undergraduate college student e-cigarette users from a large Midwestern university were collected via online survey to assess prevalence of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, perceived harm, and prevalence and predictors of OSUE...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977542/the-impact-of-restricting-the-use-of-e-cigarettes-in-public-places-a-systematic-review
#8
K F Cann, K D Heneghan, T Knight
Background: We explored whether restrictions on using e-cigarettes in public places deter smokers from switching to e-cigarettes for harm reduction purposes. Secondary objectives looked at the ability to use e-cigarettes in public places as a reason for use and attitudes towards this among smokers. Methods: Systematic review of the scientific and grey literature. Results: No studies were found for the primary question. Twelve studies estimated the proportion of smokers citing the ability to use e-cigarettes in public places as a reason for use; estimates varied considerably but were typically higher for smokers than never smokers and lower for former than current smokers...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970328/potential-deaths-averted-in-usa-by-replacing-cigarettes-with-e-cigarettes
#9
David T Levy, Ron Borland, Eric N Lindblom, Maciej L Goniewicz, Rafael Meza, Theodore R Holford, Zhe Yuan, Yuying Luo, Richard J O'Connor, Raymond Niaura, David B Abrams
INTRODUCTION: US tobacco control policies to reduce cigarette use have been effective, but their impact has been relatively slow. This study considers a strategy of switching cigarette smokers to e-cigarette use ('vaping') in the USA to accelerate tobacco control progress. METHODS: A Status Quo Scenario, developed to project smoking rates and health outcomes in the absence of vaping, is compared with Substitution models, whereby cigarette use is largely replaced by vaping over a 10-year period...
October 2, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968411/the-effect-of-sucralose-on-flavor-sweetness-in-electronic-cigarettes-varies-between-delivery-devices
#10
Kathryn Rosbrook, Hanno C Erythropel, Tamara M DeWinter, Mark Falinski, Stephanie O'Malley, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Paul T Anastas, Julie B Zimmerman, Barry G Green
The appeal of sweet electronic cigarette flavors makes it important to identify the chemical compounds that contribute to their sweetness. While volatile chemicals that produce sweet aromas have been identified in e-liquids, there are no published reports of sugars or artificial sweeteners in commercial e-liquids. However, the sweetener sucralose is marketed as an e-liquid additive to commercial flavors. The primary aims of the study were to determine if sucralose is delivered in sufficient concentration in the inhaled aerosol to enhance flavor sweetness, and whether the amount delivered depends on the e-liquid delivery system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957438/e-cigarette-aerosol-exposure-can-cause-craniofacial-defects-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos-and-mammalian-neural-crest-cells
#11
Allyson E Kennedy, Suraj Kandalam, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Amanda J G Dickinson
Since electronic cigarette (ECIG) introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM) in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937746/-juice-monsters-sub-ohm-vaping-and-toxic-volatile-aldehyde-emissions
#12
Soha Talih, Rola Salman, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Ahmad El-Hellani, Najat Saliba, Thomas Eissenberg, Alan Shihadeh
An emerging category of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) is sub-Ohm devices (SODs) that operate at ten or more times the power of conventional ECIGs. Because carcinogenic volatile aldehyde (VA) emissions increase sharply with power, SODs may expose users to greater VAs. In this study, we compared VA emissions from several SODs and found that across device, VAs and power were uncorrelated unless power was normalized by coil surface area. VA emissions and liquid consumed were correlated highly. Analyzed in light of EU regulations limiting ECIG liquid nicotine concentration, these findings suggest potential regulatory levers and pitfalls for protecting public health...
September 29, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937573/committee-opinion-no-721-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy
#13
(no author information available yet)
Smoking is the one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States, and is associated with maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. The physical and psychologic addiction to cigarettes is powerful; however, the compassionate intervention of the obstetrician-gynecologist can be the critical element in prenatal smoking cessation. An office-based protocol that systematically identifies pregnant women who smoke and offers treatment or referral has been proved to increase quit rates...
October 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937568/committee-opinion-no-721-summary-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy
#14
(no author information available yet)
Smoking is the one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States, and is associated with maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. The physical and psychologic addiction to cigarettes is powerful; however, the compassionate intervention of the obstetrician-gynecologist can be the critical element in prenatal smoking cessation. An office-based protocol that systematically identifies pregnant women who smoke and offers treatment or referral has been proved to increase quit rates...
October 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910258/recommendations-will-the-tobacco-and-vaping-products-act-go-far-enough
#15
Kurt L Tulsieram, Sylvia Rinaldi, Jacob J Shelley
E-cigarette use among adolescents and young adults in Canada is increasing. Potvin's (2016) editorial outlined the need for more evidence on e-cigarettes as a gateway to combustible cigarettes and their toxicity. Since then, new evidence has emerged supporting the gateway effect and establishing toxicity. Health Canada has reviewed the evidence and recently opted to regulate e-cigarettes, including prohibiting brick-and-mortar retail access for youth under 18 years of age. However, many online e-cigarette retailers exist, which increases adolescents' access to e-cigarettes and currently unregulated nicotine-containing refills...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882742/to-vape-or-not-to-vape-effects-of-exposure-to-conflicting-news-headlines-on-beliefs-about-harms-and-benefits-of-electronic-cigarette-use-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#16
Andy S L Tan, Chul-Joo Lee, Rebekah H Nagler, Cabral A Bigman
News coverage of novel tobacco products including e-cigarettes has framed the use of these products with both positive and negative slants. Conflicting information may shape public knowledge, perceptions of e-cigarettes, and their harms. The objective of this study is to assess effects of exposure to conflicting news coverage on US adults' beliefs about harms and benefits of e-cigarette use. We conducted a one-way between-subjects randomized controlled experiment in 2016 to compare the effects of viewing either 1) positive, 2) negative, 3) both positive and negative (conflicting) news headlines about the safety of using e-cigarettes, or 4) no-message...
September 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882123/electronic-cigarette-use-behaviors-and-motivations-among-smokers-and-non-smokers
#17
Thomas E Sussan, Fatima G Shahzad, Eefa Tabassum, Joanna E Cohen, Robert A Wise, Michael J Blaha, Janet T Holbrook, Shyam Biswal
BACKGROUND: The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs...
September 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861656/an-opportune-and-unique-research-to-evaluate-the-public-health-impact-of-electronic-cigarettes
#18
Ahmad Besaratinia, Stella Tommasi
In response to the growing public health concern regarding the risks or benefits of electronic cigarettes (e-cig) use relative to smoking, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has recently introduced the first standardized- and well- characterized e-cig device to the research community (see, https://www.drugabuse.gov/funding/supplemental-information-nida-e-cig ). E-cig are promoted as safe alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes and/or as aides to smoking cessation. E-cig are highly popular among cigarette smokers who are unable/unwilling to quit but are willing to switch to putatively less-harmful tobacco substitutes...
August 31, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837903/the-association-of-e-cigarette-use-with-exposure-to-nickel-and-chromium-a-preliminary-study-of-non-invasive-biomarkers
#19
Angela Aherrera, Pablo Olmedo, Maria Grau-Perez, Stefan Tanda, Walter Goessler, Stephanie Jarmul, Rui Chen, Joanna E Cohen, Ana M Rule, Ana Navas-Acien
BACKGROUND: Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) are components of e-cigarette heating coils. Whether e-cigarettes increase metal internal dose, however, is unknown. We assessed the association of e-cigarette use patterns and of e-liquid and aerosol metal concentrations with Ni and Cr biomarker levels in e-cigarette users from Maryland. METHODS: We recruited 64 e-cigarette users from December 2015 to March 2016. We collected urine, saliva, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), data on e-cigarette use, and samples from their e-cigarette device (dispenser e-liquid, aerosol, and tank e-liquid)...
November 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817864/tobacco-cessation-strategies-it-takes-a-village
#20
Debbie Anne Chiu Qua
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and chronic diseases in the U.S. Identifying smokers and providing appropriate intervention is therefore an integral part of each clinic visit. A combination of pharmacotherapy as well as behavioral counseling provides the best results. Pharmacotherapy includes nicotine replacement (patch, gum, lozenges), bupropion and varenicline. More recently, electronic nicotinic delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes, vaporizers/vape pens, and hookah pens) have become popular...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
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