Read by QxMD icon Read

Viral evolution

Sarah E Heath, Sinead Collins
Viruses play important roles in population dynamics and as drivers of evolution in single-celled marine phytoplankton. Viral infection of Ostreococcus tauri often causes cell lysis, but two spontaneously arising resistance mechanisms occur: resistant cells that cannot become infected and resistant producer cells that are infected but not lysed, and which may slowly release viruses. As of yet, little is known about how consistent the effects of viruses on their hosts are across different environments. To measure the effect of host resistance on host growth, and to determine whether this effect is environmentally dependent, we compared the growth and survival of susceptible, resistant and resistant producer O...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Charles F Haines, John A Fleishman, Baligh R Yehia, Bryan Lau, Stephen A Berry, Allison L Agwu, Richard D Moore, Kelly A Gebo
BACKGROUND: In the current antiretroviral (ART) era, the evolution of HIV guidelines and emergence of new ART agents might be expected to impact the times to ART initiation and HIV virologic suppression. We sought to determine if times to AI and virologic suppression decreased and if disparities exist by age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of data from 12 sites of the HIV Research Network, a consortium of US clinics caring for HIV-infected patients...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lucille Arragain, Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Olivia O'Connor, Nathalie Sigur, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Emilie Huguon, Clothilde Dechanet, Cécile Cazorla, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Elodie Descloux
: We investigated 10 mother-newborn pairs and found a 90% rate of dengue virus (DENV) transmission during the perinatal period. Here, we describe DENV kinetics in the sera of newborns before the onset of disease. Of the breast-milk samples analyzed, 75% tested positive for DENV. BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. With this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of vertical (DENV) transmission during the peripartum period and to describe its viral kinetics in serum and breast milk...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Uma Sriram, Beth L Hill, Jonathan M Cenna, Larisa Gofman, Nicole C Fernandes, Bijayesh Haldar, Raghava Potula
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used psychostimulant that severely impacts the host's innate and adaptive immune systems and has profound immunological implications. T cells play a critical role in orchestrating immune responses. We have shown recently how chronic exposure to METH affects T cell activation using a murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Using the TriCOM (trinary state combinations) feature of GemStone™ to study the polyfunctionality of T cells, we have analyzed how METH affected the cytokine production pattern over the course of chronic LCMV infection...
2016: PloS One
Rafael Sauter, Ruizhu Huang, Bruno Ledergerber, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Matthias Cavassini, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Hoffmann, Mathieu Rougemont, Huldrych F Günthard, Leonhard Held
Plasma HIV viral load is related to declining CD4 lymphocytes. The extent to which CD8 cells, in addition to RNA viral load, predict the depletion of CD4 cells is not well characterized so far. We examine if CD8 cell count is a prognostic factor for CD4 cell counts during an HIV infection.A longitudinal analysis is conducted using data from the Swiss HIV cohort study collected between January 2000 and October 2014. Linear mixed regression models were applied to observations from HIV-1-infected treatment naive patients (NAIVE) and cART-treated patients to predict the short-term evolution of CD4 cell counts...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Denis R Chopera, Roman Ntale, Nonkululeko Ndabambi, Nigel Garrett, Clive M Gray, David Matten, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim Abdool Karim, Carolyn Williamson
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) results in the accumulation of HLA-associated mutations in the viral genome. To understand the contribution of early escape to disease progression, this study investigated the evolution and pathogenic implications of CTL escape in a cohort followed from infection for five years. METHODS: Viral loads and CD4+ counts were monitored in 78 subtype C infected individuals from onset of infection until CD4+ decline to <350 cells/μl or five years post-infection...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Li Zhong, Li Gao, Yongzhen Liu, Kai Li, Miao Wang, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
Avian reovirus (ARV) infections characterised by severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis, and depressed growth have become increasingly frequent in recent years. In this study, we isolated and identified 11 ARV field strains from chickens with viral arthritis and reduced growth in northern China. Comparative analysis of the σC nucleotide and amino acid sequences demonstrated that all isolates, except LN05 and JS01, were closely related to ARV S1133 and clustered in the first genetic lineage. LN05 and JS01 strains were clustered in the third lineage with the ARV 138 strain...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Utsav Pandey, Andrew S Bell, Daniel W Renner, David A Kennedy, Jacob T Shreve, Chris L Cairns, Matthew J Jones, Patricia A Dunn, Andrew F Read, Moriah L Szpara
The intensification of the poultry industry over the last 60 years facilitated the evolution of increased virulence and vaccine breaks in Marek's disease virus (MDV-1). Full-genome sequences are essential for understanding why and how this evolution occurred, but what is known about genome-wide variation in MDV comes from laboratory culture. To rectify this, we developed methods for obtaining high-quality genome sequences directly from field samples without the need for sequence-based enrichment strategies prior to sequencing...
September 2016: MSphere
Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are zoonotic pathogens that originated in wild animals. HCoVs have large genomes that encode a fixed array of structural and nonstructural components, as well as a variety of accessory proteins that differ in number and sequence even among closely related CoVs. Thus, in addition to recombination and mutation, HCoV genomes evolve through gene gains and losses. In this review we summarize recent findings on the molecular evolution of HCoV genomes, with special attention to recombination and adaptive events that generated new viral species and contributed to host shifts and to HCoV emergence...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
A G Monte da Silva, B deA Roza Aguiar, L D Chiavegato
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is indicated at the end stage of chronic liver failure, and severity of disease will determine the precocity of this happening. At this stage, the presence of chronic dyspnea is one of several manifestations of progression of the disease, which leads the patient to inactivity. A rehabilitation program can positively influence the evolution of liver transplant recipients. The objective of this study was to establish an association between the perception of dyspnea and the severity of liver disease in patients at a single center of a Brazilian liver pre-transplantation clinic...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Bertram Bengsch, Kyong-Mi Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health challenge. HBV can cause significant morbidity and mortality by establishing acute and chronic hepatitis. Approximately 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected, and more than 2 billion people have been exposed to HBV. Since the discovery of HBV, the advances in our understanding of HBV virology and immunology have translated into effective vaccines and therapies for HBV infection. Although current therapies successfully suppress viral replication but rarely succeed in viral eradication, recent discoveries in HBV virology and immunology provide exciting rationales for novel treatment strategies aiming at HBV cure...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Clotilde Allavena, Cyrille Delpierre, Claudine Duvivier, Véronique Obry-Roguet, Carla E Cano, Francine Guillouet de Salvador, David Rey, Pierre Dellamonica, Antoine Cheret, Lise Cuzin, Christine Katlama, André Cabié, Bruno Hoen
The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of first-line combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen on the course of CD8 T-cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.A retrospective observational study conducted on the French DAT'AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected patients.We selected 605 patients initiating a first-line cART between 2002 and 2009, and which achieved a sustained undetectable HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for at least 12 months without cART modification. The evolution of CD8 T-cell counts according to cART regimen was assessed...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alberto Zanetto, Alberto Ferrarese, Ilaria Bortoluzzi, Patrizia Burra, Francesco Paolo Russo
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects more than 260 million people globally, with increasing incidence, especially in developing countries. Despite antiviral therapies, HBV-related end-stage liver disease remains one of the most important indications for liver transplantation worldwide. Although new available treatments have improved the outcome of patients with both compensated and decompensated liver disease in some specific clinical settings as acute-on-chronic liver failure mortality is still high. Moreover, the incidence of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seems to be increasing and represents a major challenge for the transplant team...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Yulin Zhang, Wanyun Gong, Hang Zeng, Ling Wang
Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of multiple hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates has revealed extensive genomic diversity among them. Recently, a variety of genetically distinct HEV variants have also been isolated and identified from large numbers of animal species, including birds, rabbits, rats, ferrets, bats, cutthroat trout, and camels, among others. Furthermore, it has been reported that recombination in HEV genomes takes place in animals and in human patients. Also, chronic HEV infection in immunocompromised individuals has revealed the presence of viral strains carrying insertions from human genes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Aastha Gupta, Sandeep Juneja, Marco Vitoria, Vincent Habiyambere, Boniface Dongmo Nguimfack, Meg Doherty, Daniel Low-Beer
With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025...
2016: PloS One
Eric R Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakiş, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga
: The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis; AIM) and again 6 months later (convalescence, CONV)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Dan-Dan He, Yueer Lu, Rachel Gittelman, Yabin Jin, Fei Ling, Akey Joshua
Viral selection pressure has acted on restriction factors that play an important role in the innate immune system by inhibiting the replication of viruses during primate evolution. Tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family members are some of these restriction factors. It is becoming increasingly clear that gene expression differences, rather than protein-coding regions changes, could play a vital role in the anti-retroviral immune mechanism. Increasingly, recent studies have created genome-scale catalogues of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs), which demark potentially functional regulatory DNA...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Camelia Sultana, Gabriela Oprişan, Monica Delia Teleman, Sorin Dinu, Cristiana Oprea, Mihai Voiculescu, Simona Ruta
AIM: To determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) core substitutions play a role in the response to interferon-based treatment in Caucasian patients. METHODS: One hundred eight HCV chronically infected patients initiating treatment with pegylated IFN plus ribavirin for 48 wk were tested for baseline substitutions at codons 70 and 91 of the viral core protein (BigDye Terminator vers.3.1, Applied Biosystems,) and for genetic polymorphisms in host IL28B gene rs12979860 (Custom TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay; Applied Biosystems)...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Azeem Mehmood Butt, Izza Nasrullah, Raheel Qamar, Yigang Tong
The codon usage patterns of viruses reflect the evolutionary changes that allow them to optimize their survival and adapt their fitness to the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. Here we report the genotype-specific codon usage patterns of Zika virus (ZIKV) strains from the current and previous outbreaks. Several genotype-specific and common codon usage traits were noted in the ZIKV coding sequences, indicating their independent evolutionary origins from a common ancestor. The overall influence of natural selection was more profound than that of mutation pressure, acting on a specific set of viral genes in the Asian-genotype ZIKV strains from the recent outbreak...
October 12, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Gérard Aboudharam
The Paleomicrobiology establishes the diagnosis of ancient infectious diseases by studying ancient pathogens. This recent science also analyzes the evolution of these pathogens, virulence, and their adaptation to their habitat and their vectors. The DNA persists a long time after the death of an organism despite the chemical and enzymatic degradation. The possibility of sequencing bacterial, viral, parasitic and archaeal DNA molecules persists over time.Various sources are used for these studies: frozen tissue and particularly human tissue are a exceptional source for the analysis because at very low temperatures, all biological activity is suspended...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"