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Viral evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442794/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-shape-circulating-hcv-strains
#1
Silvana Gaudieri, Michaela Lucas
An unbiased genome-to-genome analysis in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection confirms the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system as drivers of viral evolution. Viral adaptation has a critical role in the interaction between host and pathogen and has important clinical implications for infection outcome.
April 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#2
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433051/insect-specific-viruses-a-historical-overview-and-recent-developments
#3
Christopher M Roundy, Sasha R Azar, Shannan L Rossi, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Strikingly, these insect-specific viruses have been found to be members of viral families traditionally associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431281/dengue-virus-replicates-and-accumulates-in-aedes-aegypti-salivary-glands
#4
Vincent Raquin, Louis Lambrechts
Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430874/developmental-sall2-transcription-factor-a-new-player-in-cancer
#5
Viviana E Hermosilla, Matias I Hepp, David Escobar, Carlos Farlas, Elizabeth N Riffo, Ariel F Castro, Roxana Pincheira
SALL2, also known as Spalt-like transcription factor 2, is a member of the SALL family of transcription factors involved in development and conserved through evolution. Since its identification in 1996, findings indicate that SALL2 plays a role in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and eye development. Consistently, SALL2 deficiency associates with neural tube defects and coloboma, a congenital eye disease. Relevant to cancer, clinical studies indicate that SALL2 is deregulated in various cancers, and is a specific biomarker for Synovial Sarcoma...
April 18, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429720/noumeavirus-replication-relies-on-a-transient-remote-control-of-the-host-nucleus
#6
Elisabeth Fabre, Sandra Jeudy, Sébastien Santini, Matthieu Legendre, Mathieu Trauchessec, Yohann Couté, Jean-Michel Claverie, Chantal Abergel
Acanthamoeba are infected by a remarkable diversity of large dsDNA viruses, the infectious cycles of which have been characterized using genomics, transcriptomics and electron microscopy. Given their gene content and the persistence of the host nucleus throughout their infectious cycle, the Marseilleviridae were initially assumed to fully replicate in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, we find that their virions do not incorporate the virus-encoded transcription machinery, making their replication nucleus-dependent...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#7
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425927/hepatitis-e-virus-genotypes-and-evolution-emergence-of-camel-hepatitis-e-variants
#8
REVIEW
Siddharth Sridhar, Jade L L Teng, Tsz-Ho Chiu, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the family Hepeviridae. This family includes two genera: Orthohepevirus, which infects terrestrial vertebrates, and Piscihepevirus, which infects fish. Within Orthohepevirus, there are four species, A-D, with widely differing host range...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sub-lethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#9
Vanika Gupta, Charlotte Stewart, Samuel S C Rund, Katy Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes we find that even apparently benign, sub-lethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C Virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioral morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422412/histological-evolution-of-bk-virus-associated-nephropathy-importance-of-integrating-clinical-and-pathological-findings
#10
Cinthia B Drachenberg, John C Papadimitriou, Muhammad R Chaudhry, Richard Ugarte, Manju Mavanur, Beje Thomas, Charles Cangro, Nadiesda Costa, Emilio Ramos, Matthew R Weir, Abdolreza Haririan
Long term clinicopathological studies of BK-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) are not available. We studied 206 biopsies (71 patients), followed 3.09±1.46y after immunosuppression reduction. The biopsy features (% SV40+staining and inflammation +/- acute rejection) were correlated with viral load dynamics and serum creatinine to define the clinicopathological status (PyVCPS). Incidence of acute rejection was 28% in the 2(nd) biopsy and 50% subsequently (25% mixed TCMR+AMR; rejection overall affected 38% of patients (>50% AMR)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414184/mouse-cytomegalovirus-encoded-immunoevasins-and-evolution-of-ly49-receptors-sidekicks-or-enemies
#11
REVIEW
Jelena Zeleznjak, Branka Popovic, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic, Vanda Juranic Lisnic
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have dedicated a large portion of their genome towards immune evasion targeting many aspects of the host immune system, particularly NK cells. However, the host managed to cope with the infection by developing multiple mechanisms to recognize viral threat and counterattack it, thus illustrating never-ending evolutionary interplay between CMV and its host. In this review, we will focus on several mechanisms of NK cell evasion by mouse CMV (MCMV), the role of host inhibitory and activating Ly49 receptors involved in the virus control and acquisition of adaptive features by NK cells as a consequence of MCMV infection...
April 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412903/phage-life-cycles-behind-bacterial-biodiversity
#12
Tomasz Olszak, Agnieszka Latka, Bartosz Roszniowski, Miguel Angel Valvano, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Bacteriophages (phages or bacterial viruses) are the most abundant biological entities in our planet; their influence reaches far beyond the microorganisms they parasitize. Phages are present in every environment and shape up every bacterial population in both active and passive ways. They participate in the circulation of organic matter and drive the evolution of microorganisms by horizontal gene transfer at unprecedented scales. The mass flow of genetic information in the microbial world influences the biosphere and poses challenges for science and medicine...
April 13, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411164/high-levels-of-local-inter-and-intra-host-genetic-variation-of-west-nile-virus-and-evidence-of-fine-scale-evolutionary-pressures
#13
Dylan J Ehrbar, Kiet A Ngo, Scott R Campbell, Laura D Kramer, Alexander T Ciota
West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) has been endemic in New York State (NYS) since its 1999 introduction, yet prevalence in Culex mosquitoes varies substantially over small spatial and temporal scales. It is unclear if viral genetics plays a role in this variability, as genetic and phenotypic characterization on local scales has generally been lacking. In addition, intrahost diversity of circulating strains have not been fully characterized despite the documented role of minority variants in viral fitness and virulence...
April 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407381/arrival-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-to-northern-europe-emergence-and-outbreaks-in-wild-and-domestic-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-in-sweden
#14
A S Neimanis, H Ahola, S Zohari, U Larsson Pettersson, C Bröjer, L Capucci, D Gavier-Widén
Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease...
April 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405632/evidence-of-intercontinental-spread-and-uncommon-variants-of-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-viruses-in-ducks-overwintering-in-guatemala
#15
Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Martha I Nelson, Mathew Angel, Maria L Müller, Lucia Ortiz, Jayeeta Dutta, Harm van Bakel, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Daniel R Perez
Over a hundred species of aquatic birds overwinter in Central America's wetlands, providing opportunities for the transmission of influenza A viruses (IAVs). To date, limited IAV surveillance in Central America hinders our understanding of the evolution and ecology of IAVs in migratory hosts within the Western Hemisphere. To address this gap, we sequenced the genomes of 68 virus isolates obtained from ducks overwintering along Guatemala's Pacific Coast during 2010 to 2013. High genetic diversity was observed, including 9 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes, 7 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes, and multiple avian IAV lineages that have been detected at low levels (<1%) in North America...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403902/phylodynamics-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-o-panasia-in-vietnam-2010-2014
#16
Barbara Brito, Steven J Pauszek, Michael Eschbaumer, Carolina Stenfeldt, Helena C de Carvalho Ferreira, Le T Vu, Nguyen T Phuong, Bui H Hoang, Nguyen D Tho, Pham V Dong, Phan Q Minh, Ngo T Long, Donald P King, Nick J Knowles, Do H Dung, Luis L Rodriguez, Jonathan Arzt
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is endemic in Vietnam, a country that plays an important role in livestock trade within Southeast Asia. The large populations of FMDV-susceptible species in Vietnam are important components of food production and of the national livelihood. In this study, we investigated the phylogeny of FMDV O/PanAsia in Vietnam, reconstructing the virus' ancestral host species (pig, cattle or buffalo), clinical stage (subclinical carrier or clinically affected) and geographical location...
April 13, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402681/characterization-of-oligonucleotide-aptamers-targeting-the-5-utr-from-dengue-virus
#17
Elismar Jn Cnossen, Amanda G Silva, Karina Marangoni, Rívia Ar Arruda, Evellyn G Souza, Fabiana Aa Santos, Patrícia T Fujimura, Jonny Yokosawa, Luiz R Goulart, Adriana F Neves
AIM: The dengue virus is responsible for a high worldwide incidence of infections, aggravated by late diagnosis, and often confused with other tropical diseases. Results/methodology: Oligonucleotide aptamers binding to the 5'-UTR from dengue virus selected after eight rounds by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technology were analyzed by dot-blot assay and in silico prediction of secondary structures, demonstrating the presence of stem-loops that may have the potential for interaction with the viral genome, which can lead to loss of their original conformation...
April 12, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401776/molecular-characteristics-of-the-envelope-of-vertically-transmitted-hiv-1-strains-from-infants-with-hiv-infection
#18
Manickam Ashokkumar, Manohar Nesakumar, Cheedarla Narayanaiah, Vidya Vijayan Kk, Babu Hemalatha, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV offers a good opportunity to study the dynamics of early viral evolution in the host environment to which the virus has partially adapted. Such studies would throw light on the unique features of the infecting viruses, which will subsequently help to design preventive or therapeutic measures against the newly infecting and evolving strains of HIV. Therefore, we undertook a study to determine the genetic divergence of proviral envelope sequences from the HIV infected infants (< 2 years)...
April 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398866/genome-wide-survey-of-genes-under-positive-selection-in-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains
#19
Thaís Cabrera Galvão Rojas, Francisco Pereira Lobo, Jorge Augusto Hongo, Renato Vicentini, Renu Verma, Renato Pariz Maluta, Wanderley Dias da Silveira
The ability to obtain bacterial genomes from the same host has allowed for comparative studies that help in the understanding of the molecular evolution of specific pathotypes. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a group of extraintestinal strains responsible for causing colibacillosis in birds. APEC is also suggested to possess a role as a zoonotic agent. Despite its importance, APEC pathogenesis still has several cryptic pathogenic processes that need to be better understood. In this work, a genome-wide survey of eight APEC strains for genes with evidence of recombination revealed that ∼14% of the homologous groups evaluated present signs of recombination...
February 17, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394936/homologous-recombination-is-a-force-in-the-evolution-of-canine-distemper-virus
#20
Chaowen Yuan, Wenxin Liu, Yingbo Wang, Jinlong Hou, Liguo Zhang, Guoqing Wang
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the causative agent of canine distemper (CD) that is a highly contagious, lethal, multisystemic viral disease of receptive carnivores. The prevalence of CDV is a major concern in susceptible animals. Presently, it is unclear whether intragenic recombination can contribute to gene mutations and segment reassortment in the virus. In this study, 25 full-length CDV genome sequences were subjected to phylogenetic and recombinational analyses. The results of phylogenetic analysis, intragenic recombination, and nucleotide selection pressure indicated that mutation and recombination occurred in the six individual genes segment (H, F, P, N, L, M) of the CDV genome...
2017: PloS One
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