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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812552/competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
The increasing availability of genotype-phenotype maps for different combinations of mutations has empowered evolutionary biologists with the tools to interrogate the predictability of adaptive evolution, especially in the context of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Large microbial populations are known to generate competing beneficial mutations, but determining how these mutations contribute to the adaptive trajectories that are most likely to be followed remains a challenge. Despite a recognition that there may also be competition between successive alleles on the same trajectory, prior studies have not fully considered how this impacts adaptation rates along, or likelihood of following, individual trajectories...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797235/polymorphisms-of-plasmodium-falciparum-k13-propeller-gene-among-migrant-workers-returning-to-henan-province-china-from-africa
#2
Chengyun Yang, Hongwei Zhang, Ruimin Zhou, Dan Qian, Ying Liu, Yuling Zhao, Suhua Li, Bianli Xu
BACKGROUND: Henan Province has been in the malaria elimination stage, with all reports of the disease being imported since 2012 and over 90% coming from Africa. Surveillance and population studies are essential for the early detection and subsequent prevention of the spread of drug resistance. The K13-propeller gene was recently identified as a proposed molecular marker of artemisinin (ART) resistance. In this study, we detected mutations of the K13-propeller gene in samples taken from imported malaria cases in Henan Province from 2012 to 2015...
August 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793894/prevalence-of-polymorphisms-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-sickle-haemoglobin-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-genes-and-their-relationship-with-incidence-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-iganga-uganda
#3
Catherine Nassozi Lwanira, Fred Kironde, Mark Kaddumukasa, Göte Swedberg
BACKGROUND: Host genetics play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility. However, information on host genetic factors and their relationships with malaria in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected host genetic markers and their relationship to malaria incidence in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda. In a 1-year longitudinal cohort study, 423 children aged below 9 years were recruited and their malaria episodes were investigated...
August 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793859/investigating-knockdown-resistance-kdr-mechanism-against-pyrethroids-ddt-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-funestus-across-africa
#4
Helen Irving, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance is key to improve the surveillance and monitoring of malaria vector populations under control. In the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, little is currently known about the role of the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. Here, we investigated the presence and contribution of knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids/DDT resistance observed in Anopheles funestus across Africa. RESULTS: Pyrosequencing genotyping and sequencing of the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene did not detect the common L1014F mutation in field collected An...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768894/phenotypic-plasticity-in-reproductive-effort-malaria-parasites-respond-to-resource-availability
#5
Philip L G Birget, Charlotte Repton, Aidan J O'Donnell, Petra Schneider, Sarah E Reece
The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental in the life history of all sexually reproducing organisms. This includes malaria parasites, which rely on asexually replicating stages for within-host survival and on sexually reproducing stages (gametocytes) for between-host transmission. The proportion of asexual stages that form gametocytes (reproductive effort) varies during infections-i.e. is phenotypically plastic-in response to changes in a number of within-host factors, including anaemia...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768839/serum-soluble-transferrin-receptor-concentrations-are-elevated-in-congolese-children-with-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-variants-but-not-sickle-cell-variants-or-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#6
Mikaela K Barker, Amanda M Henderson, Karimah Naguib, Suzanne M Vercauteren, Angela M Devlin, Arianne Y Albert, Esto Bahizire, Pierrot L Tugirimana, Pierre Z Akilimali, Erick Boy, Tim J Green, Crystal D Karakochuk
Background: Anemia is common in Congolese children, and inherited blood disorders may be a contributing cause. The presence of sickle cell variants, X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and α-thalassemia, has been previously reported. G6PD A- deficiency is characterized by the co-inheritance of G6PD 376 and 202 variants and is common in sub-Saharan Africa.Objective: We aimed to measure the associations between inherited blood disorders and hemoglobin, ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in Congolese children...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749761/molecular-characterization-of-a-cluster-of-imported-malaria-cases-in-puerto-rico
#7
Stella M Chenet, Luciana Silva-Flannery, Naomi W Lucchi, Ljolje Dragan, Emilio Dirlikov, Kimberly Mace, Brenda Rivera-García, Paul M Arguin, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
The Caribbean island of Hispaniola is targeted for malaria elimination. Currently, this is the only island with ongoing transmission of malaria in the Caribbean. In 2015, six patients from Puerto Rico and one from Massachusetts, who traveled to Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, were confirmed to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Additional molecular analysis was performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to characterize the drug-resistant alleles and Plasmodium population genetic markers...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747223/return-of-chloroquine-sensitivity-to-africa-surveillance-of-african-plasmodium-falciparum-chloroquine-resistance-through-malaria-imported-to-china
#8
Feng Lu, Meihua Zhang, Richard L Culleton, Sui Xu, Jianxia Tang, Huayun Zhou, Guoding Zhu, Yaping Gu, Chao Zhang, Yaobao Liu, Weiming Wang, Yuanyuan Cao, Julin Li, Xinlong He, Jun Cao, Qi Gao
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) was the cornerstone of anti-malarial treatment in Africa for almost 50 years, but has been widely withdrawn due to the emergence and spread of resistance. Recent reports have suggested that CQ-susceptibility may return following the cessation of CQ usage. Here, we monitor CQ sensitivity and determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in the CQ resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) of Plasmodium falciparum isolates recently imported from Africa to China...
July 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746333/transmission-dynamics-of-co-endemic-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum-in-ethiopia-and-prevalence-of-antimalarial-resistant-genotypes
#9
Eugenia Lo, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Jennifer Nguyen, Estifanos Kebede, Endalew Zemene, Sisay Getachew, Kora Tushune, Daibin Zhong, Guofa Zhou, Beyene Petros, Guiyun Yan
Ethiopia is one of the few African countries where Plasmodium vivax is co-endemic with P. falciparum. Malaria transmission is seasonal and transmission intensity varies mainly by landscape and climate. Although the recent emergence of drug resistant parasites presents a major issue to malaria control in Ethiopia, little is known about the transmission pathways of parasite species and prevalence of resistant markers. This study used microsatellites to determine population diversity and gene flow patterns of P...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717390/tracing-the-origin-of-the-early-wet-season-anopheles-coluzzii-in-the-sahel
#10
Tovi Lehmann, David Weetman, Diana L Huestis, Alpha S Yaro, Yaya Kassogue, Moussa Diallo, Martin J Donnelly, Adama Dao
In arid environments, the source of the malaria mosquito populations that re-establish soon after first rains remains a puzzle and alternative explanations have been proposed. Using genetic data, we evaluated whether the early rainy season (RS) population of Anopheles coluzzii is descended from the preceding late RS generation at the same locality, consistent with dry season (DS) dormancy (aestivation), or from migrants from distant locations. Distinct predictions derived from these two hypotheses were assessed, based on variation in 738 SNPs in eleven A...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716086/dynamics-in-multiplicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-among-children-with-asymptomatic-malaria-in-central-ghana
#11
Akua Kyerewaa Botwe, Kwaku Poku Asante, George Adjei, Samuel Assafuah, David Dosoo, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: The determinants of malaria parasite virulence is not entirely known, but the outcome of malaria infection (asymptomatic or symptomatic) has been associated with carriage of distinct parasite genotypes. Alleles considered important for erythrocyte invasion and selected as candidate targets for malaria vaccine development are increasingly being shown to have distinct characteristics in infection outcomes. Any unique/distinct patterns or alleles linked to infection outcome should be reproducible for a given malaria-cohort regardless of location, time or intervention...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715415/characterizing-the-malaria-rural-to-urban-transmission-interface-the-importance-of-reactive-case-detection
#12
Karen Molina Gómez, M Alejandra Caicedo, Alexandra Gaitán, Manuela Herrera-Varela, María Isabel Arce, Andrés F Vallejo, Julio Padilla, Pablo Chaparro, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Myriam Arevalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive study that combines active (ACD), passive (PCD), and reactive (RCD) case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714864/an-erythroid-specific-atp2b4-enhancer-mediates-red-blood-cell-hydration-and-malaria-susceptibility
#13
Samuel Lessard, Emily Stern Gatof, Mélissa Beaudoin, Patrick G Schupp, Falak Sher, Adnan Ali, Sukhpal Prehar, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Esther Baena, Jonathan Ledoux, Delvac Oceandy, Daniel E Bauer, Guillaume Lettre
The lack of mechanistic explanations for many genotype-phenotype associations identified by GWAS precludes thorough assessment of their impact on human health. Here, we conducted an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping analysis in erythroblasts and found erythroid-specific eQTLs for ATP2B4, the main calcium ATPase of red blood cells (rbc). The same SNPs were previously associated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and susceptibility to severe malaria infection. We showed that Atp2b4-/- mice demonstrate increased MCHC, confirming ATP2B4 as the causal gene at this GWAS locus...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695821/an-outbreak-of-locally-acquired-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-among-migrant-workers-in-oman
#14
Bruno Simon, Fatimata Sow, Said K Al Mukhaini, Seif Al-Abri, Osama A M Ali, Guillaume Bonnot, Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Eskild Petersen, Stéphane Picot
Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite. Outside sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of P. vivax malaria is rising. A major cause for concern is the re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax in malaria-free areas. Oman, situated in the south-eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, has long been an area of vivax malaria transmission but no locally acquired cases were reported in 2004. However, local transmission has been registered in small outbreaks since 2007. In this study, a local outbreak of 54 cases over 50 days in 2014 was analyzed retrospectively and stained blood slides have been obtained for parasite identification and genotyping...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693552/chloroquine-efficacy-for-plasmodium-vivax-in-myanmar-in-populations-with-high-genetic-diversity-and-moderate-parasite-gene-flow
#15
Myo Win Htun, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Khin Myo Aye, Chan Myae Hlaing, Myat Phone Kyaw, Irene Handayuni, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Dorina Bustos, Pascal Ringwald, Ric N Price, Sarah Auburn, Kamala Thriemer
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the first-line treatment for P. vivax, has been reported in the country and has potential to undermine local control efforts. METHODS: Patients over 6 years of age with uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection were enrolled into clinical efficacy studies in Myawaddy in 2014 and Kawthoung in 2012. Study participants received a standard dose of CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) followed by weekly review until day 28...
July 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692943/progressive-increase-in-point-mutations-associates-chloroquine-resistance-even-after-withdrawal-of-chloroquine-use-in-india
#16
Sabyasachi Das, Satyajit Tripathy, Sourav Chattopadhayay, Balaram Das, Santanu Kar Mahapatra, Amiya Kumar Hati, Somenath Roy
Chloroquine (CQ) is highly effective against P. vivax, due to the rapid spread of CQ resistance in P. falciparum parasites; it is no longer the drug of choice against P. falciparum. This study elucidates the scenario of chloroquine efficacy at times that coincided with a new drug policy and especially assessed the chloroquine resistant molecular markers after withdrawal of chloroquine in Kolkata and Purulia, two malaria endemic zones of West Bengal, India. In vitro CQ susceptibility was tested in 781 patients with P...
June 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676097/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-southeast-and-western-myanmar
#17
Than Naing Soe, Yanrui Wu, Myo Win Tun, Xin Xu, Yue Hu, Yonghua Ruan, Aung Ye Naung Win, Myat Htut Nyunt, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Kay Thwe Han, Khin Myo Aye, James Morris, Pincan Su, Zhaoqing Yang, Myat Phone Kyaw, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of malaria parasites reflects the complexity and size of the parasite populations. This study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations collected from two southeastern areas (Shwekyin and Myawaddy bordering Thailand) and one western area (Kyauktaw bordering Bangladesh) of Myanmar. METHODS: A total of 267 blood samples collected from patients with acute P. falciparum infections during 2009 and 2010 were used for genotyping at the merozoite surface protein 1 (Msp1), Msp2 and glutamate-rich protein (Glurp) loci...
July 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673292/effect-of-pharmacogenetics-on-plasma-lumefantrine-pharmacokinetics-and-malaria-treatment-outcome-in-pregnant-women
#18
Ritah F Mutagonda, Appolinary A R Kamuhabwa, Omary M S Minzi, Siriel N Massawe, Muhammad Asghar, Manijeh V Homann, Anna Färnert, Eleni Aklillu
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy has considerable effects on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The role of pharmacogenetic variation on anti-malarial drug disposition and efficacy during pregnancy is not well investigated. The study aimed to examine the effect of pharmacogenetics on lumefantrine (LF) pharmacokinetics and treatment outcome in pregnant women. METHODS: Pregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and treated with artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) at Mkuranga and Kisarawe district hospitals in Coast Region of Tanzania...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671630/prevalence-of-inherited-hemoglobin-disorders-and-relationships-with-anemia-and-micronutrient-status-among-children-in-yaound%C3%A3-and-douala-cameroon
#19
Reina Engle-Stone, Thomas N Williams, Martin Nankap, Alex Ndjebayi, Marie-Madeleine Gimou, Yannick Oyono, Ann Tarini, Kenneth H Brown, Ralph Green
Information on the etiology of anemia is necessary to design effective anemia control programs. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHD) in a representative sample of children in urban Cameroon, and examine the relationships between IHD and anemia. In a cluster survey of children 12-59 months of age (n = 291) in Yaoundé and Douala, we assessed hemoglobin (Hb), malaria infection, and plasma indicators of inflammation and micronutrient status. Hb S was detected by HPLC, and α⁺thalassemia (3...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660290/a-retrospective-survey-into-the-presence-of-plasmodium-spp-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-archived-tissue-samples-from-new-zealand-raptors-new-zealand-falcons-falco-novaeseelandiae-australasian-harriers-circus-approximans-and-moreporks-ninox-novaeseelandiae
#20
V Mirza, E B Burrows, S Gils, S Hunter, B D Gartrell, L Howe
Human colonisation of New Zealand has resulted in the introduction of emerging diseases, such as avian malaria and toxoplasmosis, which arrived with their exotic avian and mammalian hosts. Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii have a wide host range, and several species of endemic New Zealand birds have developed a fatal disease following infection with either pathogen. However, no reports of either toxoplasmosis or avian malaria in New Zealand raptors, namely, the New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae) exist in the literature...
August 2017: Parasitology Research
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