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Malaria genotype

Suparak Para, Punchalee Mungkalasut, Makamas Chanda, Issarang Nuchprayoon, Srivicha Krudsood, Chalisa Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn
Background: The protective effect of α-thalassemia, a common hematological disorder in Southeast Asia, against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been well established. However, there is much less understanding of the effect of α-thalassemia against P. vivax . Here, we aimed to investigate the proportion of α-thalassemia including the impact of α-thalassemia and HbE on the parasitemia of P. vivax in Southeast Asian malaria patients in Thailand. Methods: A total of 210 malaria patients, admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Thailand during 2011-2012, consisting of 159 Myanmeses, 13 Karens, 26 Thais, 3 Mons, 3 Laotians, and 6 Cambodians were recruited...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Tryphena Adams, Nana Aba A Ennuson, Neils B Quashie, Godfred Futagbi, Sena Matrevi, Oheneba C K Hagan, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo A Koram, Nancy O Duah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Rebecca F Grais, Ibrahim M Laminou, Lynda Woi-Messe, Rockyath Makarimi, Seidou H Bouriema, Celine Langendorf, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Umberto D'Alessandro, Philippe J Guérin, Thierry Fandeur, Carol H Sibley
BACKGROUND: In Niger, malaria transmission is markedly seasonal with most of the disease burden occurring in children during the rainy season. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ + SP) is recommended in the country to be administered monthly just before and during the rainy season. Moreover, clinical decisions on use of SP for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) now depend upon the validated molecular markers for SP resistance in Plasmodium falciparum observed in the local parasite population...
February 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
Amre Nasr, Ayman M Saleh, Muna Eltoum, Amir Abushouk, Anhar Hamza, Ahmad Aljada, Mohamed E El-Toum, Yousif A Abu-Zeid, Gamal Allam, Gehad ElGhazali
Fulani and Masaleit are two sympatric ethnic groups in western Sudan who are characterised by marked differences in susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It has been demonstrated that Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Sickle cell trait HbAS carriers are protected from the most severe forms of malaria. This study aimed to investigate a set of specific IgG subclasses against P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1 3D7), haemoglobin variants and (G6PD) in association with malaria susceptibility among Fulani ethnic group compared to sympatric ethnic group living in Western Sudan...
February 24, 2018: Acta Tropica
Catharine Prussing, Marta Moreno, Marlon P Saavedra, Sara A Bickersmith, Dionicia Gamboa, Freddy Alava, Carl D Schlichting, Kevin J Emerson, Joseph M Vinetz, Jan E Conn
BACKGROUND: In Loreto Department, Peru, a successful 2005-2010 malaria control programme (known as PAMAFRO) included massive distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Additional local distribution of LLINs occurred in individual villages, but not between 2012 and 2015. A 2011-2012 study of the primary regional malaria vector Anopheles darlingi detected a trend of increased exophagy compared with pre-PAMAFRO behaviour. For the present study, An. darlingi were collected in three villages in Loreto in 2013-2015 to test two hypotheses: (1) that between LLIN distributions, An...
February 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Morgane Pol, Sosiasi Kilama, Sandy Duperier, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Elodie Calvez, Nicolas Pocquet
In June 2017, an Anopheles mosquito species was detected in New Caledonia. Morphologic identification and genomic sequencing revealed that the specimens tested belong to An. bancroftii genotype A1. This introduction underscores the risk for local malaria transmission and the vulnerability of New Caledonia to vector introduction.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Gregory Spanakos, Georges Snounou, Danai Pervanidou, Michael Alifrangis, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Agoritsa Baka, Maria Tseroni, Annita Vakali, Evdokia Vassalou, Eleni Patsoula, Herve Zeller, Wim Van Bortel, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
An influx of immigrants is contributing to the reemergence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece; 1 persistent focus of transmission is in Laconia, Pelopónnese. We genotyped archived blood samples from a substantial proportion of malaria cases recorded in Greece in 2009-2013 using 8 microsatellite markers and a PvMSP-3α gene fragment and plotted their spatiotemporal distribution. High parasite genetic diversity with low multiplicity of infection was observed. A subset of genetically identical/related parasites was restricted to 3 areas in migrants and Greek residents, with some persisting over 2 consecutive transmission periods...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Bo Huang, Fei Tuo, Yuan Liang, Wanting Wu, Guangchao Wu, Shiguang Huang, Qirun Zhong, Xin-Zhuan Su, Hongying Zhang, Mingqiang Li, Affane Bacar, Kamal Said Abdallah, Ahamada M S A Mliva, Qi Wang, Zhaoli Yang, Shaoqin Zheng, Qin Xu, Jianping Song, Changsheng Deng
BACKGROUND: Malaria is still one of the serious public health problems in Grande Comore Island, although the number of annual cases has been greatly reduced in recent years. A better understanding of malaria parasite population diversity and transmission dynamics is critical for assessing the effectiveness of malaria control measures. The objective of this study is to investigate temporal changes in genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations and multiplicity of infection (MOI) in Grande Comore 10 years after introduction of ACT...
February 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Charles Arama, Issa Diarra, Bourèma Kouriba, Francine Sirois, Olesya Fedoryak, Mahamadou A Thera, Drissa Coulibaly, Kirsten E Lyke, Christopher V Plowe, Michel Chrétien, Ogobara K Doumbo, Majambu Mbikay
AIM: Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a hepatic secretory protein which promotes the degradation of low-density lipoprotein receptors leading to reduced hepatic uptake of plasma cholesterol. Non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in its gene have been linked to hypo- or hyper- cholesterolemia, depending on whether they decrease or increase PCSK9 activity, respectively. Since the proliferation and the infectivity of Plasmodium spp. partially depend on cholesterol from the host, we hypothesize that these PCSK9 genetic polymorphisms could influence the course of malaria infection in individuals who carry them...
2018: PloS One
David Weetman, Craig S Wilding, Daniel E Neafsey, Pie Müller, Eric Ochomo, Alison T Isaacs, Keith Steen, Emily J Rippon, John C Morgan, Henry D Mawejje, Daniel J Rigden, Loyce M Okedi, Martin J Donnelly
Metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is widespread in Anopheles mosquitoes and is a major threat to malaria control. DNA markers would aid predictive monitoring of resistance, but few mutations have been discovered outside of insecticide-targeted genes. Isofemale family pools from a wild Ugandan Anopheles gambiae population, from an area where operational pyrethroid failure is suspected, were genotyped using a candidate-gene enriched SNP array. Resistance-associated SNPs were detected in three genes from detoxification superfamilies, in addition to the insecticide target site (the Voltage Gated Sodium Channel gene, Vgsc)...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
C M Nielsen, J Vekemans, M Lievens, K E Kester, J A Regules, C F Ockenhouse
Although RTS,S remains the most advanced malaria vaccine, the factors influencing differences in vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy between individuals or populations are still poorly characterised. The analyses of genetic determinants of immunogenicity have previously been restricted by relatively small sample sizes from individual trials. Here we combine data from six Phase II RTS,S trials and evaluate the relationship between HLA allele groups and RTS,S-mediated protection in controlled human malaria infections (CHMI), using multivariate logistic or linear regression...
February 10, 2018: Vaccine
Luzia Veletzky, Mirjam Groger, Heimo Lagler, Julia Walochnik, Herbert Auer, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Michael Ramharter
BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale spp. has been neglected by and large from research and has received only little scientific attention during the past decades. Ovale malaria is considered to feature relapses by liver hypnozoites although scientific evidence for this paradigm is scarce. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, the case of a 16-year-old male, who presented with fevers to the outpatient department in Vienna, Austria, after travelling to Uganda and Papua New Guinea is described...
February 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Dipti Upadhye, Rajat S Das, Jayanta Ray, Shukdeb Acharjee, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Roshan B Colah, Malay B Mukherjee
Hemoglobinopathies are a group of inherited single gene disorders. There are reports on hemoglobin (Hb) variants identified in the tribal and non-tribal populations of Tripura State in northeastern India. This study aimed to determine the spectrum of hemoglobinopathies and enzymopathies by newborn screening in Tripura State and assess the extent of neonatal jaundice. A total of 2400 cord blood samples were collected and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Further confirmation of any abnormal HPLC was done by DNA analysis...
February 8, 2018: Hemoglobin
Larissa W Brasil, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Ana B Santoro, Anne C G Almeida, Andrea Kühn, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Marcus V G Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz
BACKGROUND: CYP2D6 pathway mediates the activation of primaquine into active metabolite(s) in hepatocytes. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, encoding CYP2D6 isoforms with normal, reduced, null or increased activity. It is hypothesized that Plasmodium vivax malaria patients with defective CYP2D6 function would be at increased risk for primaquine failure to prevent recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYP2D6 polymorphisms and inferred CYP2D6 phenotypes with malaria recurrence in patients from the Western Brazilian Amazon, following chloroquine/primaquine combined therapy...
February 1, 2018: Malaria Journal
Matt Ravenhall, Susana Campino, Nuno Sepúlveda, Alphaxard Manjurano, Behzad Nadjm, George Mtove, Hannah Wangai, Caroline Maxwell, Raimos Olomi, Hugh Reyburn, Christopher J Drakeley, Eleanor M Riley, Taane G Clark
Significant selection pressure has been exerted on the genomes of human populations exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection, resulting in the acquisition of mechanisms of resistance against severe malarial disease. Many host genetic factors, including sickle cell trait, have been associated with reduced risk of developing severe malaria, but do not account for all of the observed phenotypic variation. Identification of novel inherited risk factors relies upon high-resolution genome-wide association studies (GWAS)...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
Theerayot Kobasa, Eldin Talundzic, Rungniran Sug-Aram, Patcharida Boondat, Ira F Goldman, Naomi W Lucchi, Pratin Dharmarak, David Sintasath, Mark Fukuda, Toni Whistler, John MacArthur, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Preecha Prempree, Nipon Chinanonwait
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the most effective and widely used treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria and is a cornerstone for malaria control and prevention globally. Resistance to artemisinin derivatives has been confirmed in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which manifest as slow parasite clearance in patients and reduced ring-stage susceptibility to artemisinins in survival assays. The Pf kelch 13 gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistant parasites are now wide-spread in the GMS...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Andreea Waltmann, Cristian Koepfli, Natacha Tessier, Stephan Karl, Abebe Fola, Andrew W Darcy, Lyndes Wini, G L Abby Harrison, Céline Barnadas, Charlie Jennison, Harin Karunajeewa, Sarah Boyd, Maxine Whittaker, James Kazura, Melanie Bahlo, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is more resistant to malaria control strategies than Plasmodium falciparum, and maintains high genetic diversity even when transmission is low. To investigate whether declining P. vivax transmission leads to increasing population structure that would facilitate elimination, we genotyped samples from across the Southwest Pacific region, which experiences an eastward decline in malaria transmission, as well as samples from two time points at one site (Tetere, Solomon Islands) during intensified malaria control...
January 26, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christian N Nguetse, Johnson Adeyemi Ojo, Charles Nchotebah, Moses Nkechukwu Ikegbunam, Christian G Meyer, Bolaji N Thomas, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, Olusola Ojurongbe
The genetic diversity of glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) R2 region in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected before and 12 years after the introduction of artemisinin combination treatment of malaria in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria, was compared in this study. Blood samples were collected on filter paper in 2004 and 2015 from febrile children from ages 1-12 years. The R2 region of the GLURP gene was genotyped using nested polymerase chain reaction and by nucleotide sequencing. In all, 12 GLURP alleles were observed in a total of 199 samples collected in the two study years...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jean Popovici, Lindsey R Friedrich, Saorin Kim, Sophalai Bin, Vorleak Run, Dysoley Lek, Matthew V Cannon, Didier Menard, David Serre
Plasmodium vivax parasites have a unique dormant stage that can cause relapses weeks or months after the initial infection. These dormant parasites are among the main challenges of vivax malaria control as they constitute a reservoir that is difficult to eliminate. Since field studies are confounded by reinfections and possible recrudescence of drug-resistant parasites, most analyses of P. vivax relapses have focused on travelers returning from regions of malaria endemicity. However, it is not clear whether these individuals accurately recapitulate the relapse patterns of repeatedly infected individuals residing in areas of endemicity...
January 23, 2018: MBio
Wamdaogo M Guelbéogo, Bronner Pamplona Gonçalves, Lynn Grignard, John Bradley, Samuel S Serme, Joel Hellewell, Kjerstin Lanke, Soumanaba Zongo, Nuno Sepúlveda, Issiaka Soulama, Dimitri W Wangrawa, Laith Yakob, N'Falé Sagnon, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Variation in biting frequency by Anopheles mosquitoes can explain some of the heterogeneity in malaria transmission in endemic areas. In this study in Burkina Faso, we assessed natural exposure to mosquitoes by matching the genotype of blood meals from 1066 mosquitoes with blood from residents of local households. We observed that the distribution of mosquito bites exceeded the Pareto rule (20/80) in two of the three surveys performed (20/85, 76, and 96) and, at its most pronounced, is estimated to have profound epidemiological consequences, inflating the basic reproduction number of malaria by 8-fold...
January 23, 2018: ELife
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