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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919892/significant-divergence-in-sensitivity-to-antimalarial-drugs-between-neighboring-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-along-the-eastern-border-of-myanmar
#1
Weilin Zeng, Yao Bai, Meilian Wang, Zenglei Wang, Shuang Deng, Yonghua Ruan, Shi Feng, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui
Malaria parasites in different endemic areas display different levels of resistance to antimalarial drugs as the result of varied drug use histories. To provide updated knowledge of drug sensitivities during the malaria elimination phase in Southeast Asia, an epicenter of multidrug resistance, we determined in vitro susceptibilities of culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two eastern border regions (Wa and Kachin) of Myanmar to ten drugs. Despite their close proximity, the Kachin parasites displayed higher IC50 values than the Wa parasites to chloroquine, piperaquine, naphthoquine, mefloquine, quinine, pyrimethamine, pyronaridine, lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919256/the-return-of-chloroquine-susceptible-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-zambia
#2
Sydney Mwanza, Sudhaunshu Joshi, Michael Nambozi, Justin Chileshe, Phidelis Malunga, Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya, Sebastian Hachizovu, Christine Manyando, Modest Mulenga, Miriam Laufer
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to malaria control and elimination. The parasite has developed resistance to every anti-malarial drug introduced for wide-scale treatment. However, the spread of resistance may be reversible. Malawi was the first country to discontinue chloroquine use due to widespread resistance. Within a decade of the removal of drug pressure, the molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant malaria had disappeared and the drug was shown to have excellent clinical efficacy...
December 5, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905919/susceptibility-of-anopheles-gambiae-to-insecticides-used-for-malaria-vector-control-in-rwanda
#3
Emmanuel Hakizimana, Corine Karema, Dunia Munyakanage, Gad Iranzi, John Githure, Jon Eric Tongren, Willem Takken, Agnes Binagwaho, Constantianus J M Koenraadt
BACKGROUND: The widespread emergence of resistance to pyrethroids is a major threat to the gains made in malaria control. To monitor the presence and possible emergence of resistance against a variety of insecticides used for malaria control in Rwanda, nationwide insecticide resistance surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013. METHODS: Larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected in 12 sentinel sites throughout Rwanda. These were reared to adults and analysed for knock-down and mortality using WHO insecticide test papers with standard diagnostic doses of the recommended insecticides...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887614/insight-into-k13-propeller-gene-polymorphism-and-ex-vivo-dha-response-profiles-from-cameroonian-isolates
#4
Sandie Menard, Joëlle Njila Tchoufack, Christelle Ngou Maffo, Sandrine E Nsango, Xavier Iriart, Luc Abate, Majoline Tchioffo Tsapi, Parfait H Awono-Ambéné, Francis A Abega Mekongo, Isabelle Morlais, Antoine Berry
BACKGROUND: The spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives in Southeast Asia is a major source of concern and the emergence of resistance in Africa would have dramatic consequences, by increasing malaria mortality and morbidity. It is therefore urgent to implement regular monitoring in sentinel sites in sub-Saharan Africa using robust and easy-to-implement tools. The prevalence of k13-propeller mutations and the phenotypic profiles are poorly known in sub-Saharan Africa...
November 26, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876039/evidence-of-a-multiple-insecticide-resistance-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-funestus-in-south-west-nigeria
#5
Rousseau J Djouaka, Seun M Atoyebi, Genevieve M Tchigossou, Jacob M Riveron, Helen Irving, Romaric Akoton, Michael O Kusimo, Adekunle A Bakare, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Knowing the extent and spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is vital to successfully manage insecticide resistance in Africa. This information in the main malaria vector, Anopheles funestus sensu stricto, is completely lacking in the most populous country in Africa, Nigeria. This study reports the insecticide susceptibility status and the molecular basis of resistance of An. funestus as well as its involvement in malaria transmission in Akaka-Remo, a farm settlement village in southwest Nigeria...
November 22, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861509/parasitological-clearance-rates-and-drug-concentrations-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-azithromycin-chloroquine-in-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-with-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitemia-an-open-label-non-comparative-study-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Kamija Phiri, Joshua Kimani, George A Mtove, Qinying Zhao, Ricardo Rojo, Jeffery Robbins, Stephan Duparc, Ayman Ayoub, Pol Vandenbroucke
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their newborn babies in sub-Saharan Africa. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the burden of disease and improve maternal and neonatal survival and general health. Due to the growing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the current WHO-recommended drug for IPTp, identification of new and effective drugs is an urgent priority...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847257/new-trend-in-the-epidemiology-of-thalassaemia
#7
REVIEW
Chi-Kong Li
Thalassaemia is the most common monogenic disorder worldwide. It is common in areas with prevalent malaria as thalassaemic red cells provide immunity against the parasite. The incidence of thalassaemia carriers is high in regions such as Mediterranean, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and South China. In the past few decades, migrants from the thalassaemia prevalent countries to non-prevalent countries, mainly North America and Central and North Europe, are rapidly increasing in number. The non-prevalent countries may not have established pre-natal screening system for thalassaemia...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829067/molecular-epidemiology-of-p-vivax-in-iran-high-diversity-and-complex-sub-structure-using-neutral-markers-but-no-evidence-of-y976f-mutation-at-pvmdr1
#8
Yaghoob Hamedi, Khojasteh Sharifi-Sarasiabi, Farzaneh Dehghan, Reza Safari, Sheren To, Irene Handayuni, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Ric N Price, Sarah Auburn
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains endemic at low levels in the south-eastern provinces of Iran bordering Afghanistan and Pakistan, with the majority of cases attributable to P. vivax. The national guidelines recommend chloroquine (CQ) as blood-stage treatment for uncomplicated P. vivax, but the large influx of imported cases enhances the risk of introducing CQ resistance (CQR). METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genetic diversity at pvmdr1, a putative modulator of CQR, and across nine putatively neutral short tandem repeat (STR) markers were assessed in P...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825828/dissecting-malaria-biology-and-epidemiology-using-population-genetics-and-genomics
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Auburn, Alyssa E Barry
Molecular approaches have an increasingly recognized utility in surveillance of malaria parasite populations, not only in defining prevalence and incidence with higher sensitivity than traditional methods, but also in monitoring local and regional parasite transmission patterns. In this review, we provide an overview of population genetic and genomic studies of human-infecting Plasmodium species, highlighting recent advances in the field. In accordance with the renewed impetus for malaria eradication, many studies are now using genetic and genomic epidemiology to support local evidence-based intervention strategies...
November 5, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825387/plasmodium-vivax-multidrug-resistance-1-gene-polymorphism-in-french-guiana
#10
Emilie Faway, Lise Musset, Stéphane Pelleau, Béatrice Volney, Jessica Casteras, Valérie Caro, Didier Menard, Sébastien Briolant, Eric Legrand
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health problem in French Guiana. Some cases of resistance to chloroquine, the first-line treatment used against P. vivax malaria, have been described in the Brazilian Amazon region. The aim of this study is to investigate a possible dispersion of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax isolates in French Guiana. The genotype, polymorphism and copy number variation, of the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene-1 (pvmdr1) have been previously associated with modification of the susceptibility to chloroquine...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821442/critical-evaluation-of-molecular-monitoring-in-malaria-drug-efficacy-trials-pitfalls-of-length-polymorphic-markers
#11
Camilla Messerli, Natalie E Hofmann, Hans-Peter Beck, Ingrid Felger
Estimating drug efficacy in antimalarial drug trials requires parasite genotyping to distinguish new infections from treatment failures. When using length-polymorphic molecular markers, preferential amplification of short fragments can compromise detection of co-infections, potentially leading to misclassification of treatment outcome. We quantified minority clone detectability and competition among msp1, msp2, and glurp amplicons using mixtures of P. falciparum strains and investigated the impact of template competition on genotyping outcomes in forty-four paired field samples...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818097/a-surrogate-marker-of-piperaquine-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-phenotype-genotype-association-study
#12
Benoit Witkowski, Valentine Duru, Nimol Khim, Leila S Ross, Benjamin Saintpierre, Johann Beghain, Sophy Chy, Saorin Kim, Sopheakvatey Ke, Nimol Kloeung, Rotha Eam, Chanra Khean, Malen Ken, Kaknika Loch, Anthony Bouillon, Anais Domergue, Laurence Ma, Christiane Bouchier, Rithea Leang, Rekol Huy, Grégory Nuel, Jean-Christophe Barale, Eric Legrand, Pascal Ringwald, David A Fidock, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Frédéric Ariey, Didier Ménard
BACKGROUND: Western Cambodia is the epicentre of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance and is facing high rates of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment failures. Genetic tools to detect the multidrug-resistant parasites are needed. Artemisinin resistance can be tracked using the K13 molecular marker, but no marker exists for piperaquine resistance. We aimed to identify genetic markers of piperaquine resistance and study their association with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment failures...
November 3, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818095/genetic-markers-associated-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-failure-in-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cambodia-a-genotype-phenotype-association-study
#13
Roberto Amato, Pharath Lim, Olivo Miotto, Chanaki Amaratunga, Dalin Dek, Richard D Pearson, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Aaron T Neal, Sokunthea Sreng, Seila Suon, Eleanor Drury, Dushyanth Jyothi, Jim Stalker, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Rick M Fairhurst
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases in the Greater Mekong subregion, emerging resistance to partner drugs in artemisinin combination therapies seriously threatens global efforts to treat and eliminate this disease. Molecular markers that predict failure of artemisinin combination therapy are urgently needed to monitor the spread of partner drug resistance, and to recommend alternative treatments in southeast Asia and beyond. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of 297 P falciparum isolates from Cambodia to investigate the relationship of 11 630 exonic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 43 copy number variations (CNVs) with in-vitro piperaquine 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), and tested whether these genetic variants are markers of treatment failure with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
November 3, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816495/simple-detection-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-plasmodium-falciparum-by-snp-lamp-assay-combined-with-lateral-flow-dipstick
#14
Suganya Yongkiettrakul, Jantana Kampeera, Wanwisa Chareanchim, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Wichai Pornthanakasem, Wansika Kiatpathomchai, Darin Kongkasuriyachai
The significant strides made in reducing global malaria burden over the past decades are being threatened by the emergence of multi-drug resistant malaria. Mechanisms of resistance to several classes of antimalarial drugs have been linked to key mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes. Pyrimethamine targets the dihydrofolate reductase of the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS), and specific point mutations in the dhfr-ts gene have been assigned to resistant phenotypes. Several molecular methods are available to detect the mutant genotypes including DNA sequencing and PCR-based methods...
November 2, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809844/failure-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-a-traveller-coming-from-ethiopia
#15
Federico Gobbi, Dora Buonfrate, Michela Menegon, Gianluigi Lunardi, Andrea Angheben, Carlo Severini, Stefania Gori, Zeno Bisoffi
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is used worldwide as the first-line treatment against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Despite the success of ACT in reducing the global burden of malaria, the emerging of resistance to artemisinin threatens its use. CASE REPORT: This report describes the first case of failure of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria diagnosed in Europe. It occurred in an Italian tourist returned from Ethiopia...
November 3, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798646/independent-origin-and-global-distribution-of-distinct-plasmodium-vivax-duffy-binding-protein-gene-duplications
#16
Jessica B Hostetler, Eugenia Lo, Usheer Kanjee, Chanaki Amaratunga, Seila Suon, Sokunthea Sreng, Sivanna Mao, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Anjali Mascarenhas, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Marcelo U Ferreira, Pradipsinh K Rathod, Guiyun Yan, Rick M Fairhurst, Manoj T Duraisingh, Julian C Rayner
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax causes the majority of malaria episodes outside Africa, but remains a relatively understudied pathogen. The pathology of P. vivax infection depends critically on the parasite's ability to recognize and invade human erythrocytes. This invasion process involves an interaction between P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) in merozoites and the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) on the erythrocyte surface. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical isolates recently established that some P...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795385/plasmodium-falciparum-genetic-diversity-of-continental-equatorial-guinea-before-and-after-introduction-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy
#17
Mónica Guerra, Rita Neres, Patrícia Salgueiro, Cristina Mendes, Nicolas Ndong-Mabale, Pedro Berzosa, Bruno de Sousa, Ana Paula Arez
The efforts to control malaria may affect malaria parasite genetic variability and drug resistance, the latter associated with genetic events that promote mechanisms to escape drug action. The worldwide spread of drug resistance has been a major obstacle in controlling Plasmodium falciparum malaria, thus the study of the origin and spread of associated mutations may provide some insights in the prevention of its emergence.This study reports the analysis of P. falciparum genetic diversity focusing antimalarial resistance associated molecular markers in two socioeconomically different villages in mainland Equatorial Guinea...
October 24, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713823/phenotyping-and-genotyping-of-cyp2c19-using-comparative-metabolism-of-proguanil-in-sickle-cell-disease-patients-and-healthy-controls-in-nigeria
#18
Olufunmilayo E Adejumo, Taiwo R Kotila, Adeyinka G Falusi, Boladale O Silva, Jacinta N Nwogu, Pius S Fasinu, Chinedum P Babalola
Polymorphic expression of metabolic enzymes have been identified as one of the key factors responsible for the interindividual/ethnic/racial variability in drug metabolism and effect. In Nigeria, there is a disproportionately high incidence of sickle-cell disease (SCD), a condition characterized by painful crisis frequently triggered by malaria. Proguanil, a substrate of the polymorphic CYP2C19, is a chemoprophylactic antimalarial drug widely used among SCD patients in Nigeria. This study aimed to conduct a comparative CYP2C19 phenotyping among SCD patients and healthy controls and to compare the results with those previously reported...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694087/efficacy-of-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-falciparum-malaria-in-southern-mauritania
#19
M M Ouldabdallahi, O Sarr, L K Basco, S M Lebatt, B Lo, O Gaye
BACKGROUND: Until 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health recommended chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for first- and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Kobeni as first-line treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 55 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections, who were treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and followed up for 28 days...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693401/microgeographically-diverse-plasmodium-vivax-populations-at-the-thai-myanmar-border
#20
Bhavna Gupta, Daniel M Parker, Qi Fan, B P Niranjan Reddy, Guiyun Yan, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui
Malaria transmission along international borders of the Greater Mekong Subregion is a big challenge for regional malaria elimination. At the Thai-Myanmar border, Plasmodium falciparum cases have dropped dramatically; however, increasing P. vivax prevalence and the emerging reports on hidden malaria burden due to asymptomatic infections demand attention. We conducted cross-sectional surveys to detect asymptomatic malaria infections in a small village located at Thai-Myanmar border and genotyped P. vivax infections in order to understand the level of genetic diversity on such a microgeographic scale...
November 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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