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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793059/longitudinal-surveillance-of-drug-resistance-in-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-the-china-myanmar-border-reveals-persistent-circulation-of-multidrug-resistant-parasites
#1
Yao Bai, Jiaqi Zhang, Jinting Geng, Shiling Xu, Shuang Deng, Weilin Zeng, Zenglei Wang, Huguette Gaelle Ngassa Mbenda, Jie Zhang, Na Li, Yanrui Wu, Cuiying Li, Huae Liu, Yonghua Ruan, Yaming Cao, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui
Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia is a major threat to malaria elimination and requires close surveillance. In this study, we collected 107 longitudinal clinical samples of P. falciparum in 2007-2012 from the malaria hypoendemic region of the China-Myanmar border and measured their in vitro susceptibilities to 10 antimalarial drugs. Overall, parasites had significantly different IC50 values to all the drugs tested as compared to the reference 3D7 strain...
May 21, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788054/clinical-implications-of-asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-malawi
#2
Andrea G Buchwald, Alick Sixpence, Mabvuto Chimenya, Milius Damson, John D Sorkin, Mark L Wilson, Karl Seydel, Sarah Hochman, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Miriam K Laufer
Background: Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in Malawi, however, the implications of these infections for the burden of malaria illness are unknown. Whether asymptomatic infections eventually progress to malaria illness, persist without causing symptoms, or clear spontaneously remains undetermined. We identified asymptomatic infections and evaluated the associations between persistent asymptomatic infections and malaria illness. Methods: Children and adults (N = 120) who presented at a health facility with uncomplicated malaria were followed monthly for two years...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785925/comparison-of-two-genotyping-methods-for-distinguishing-recrudescence-from-reinfection-in-antimalarial-drug-efficacy-effectiveness-trials
#3
Joseph R M Fulakeza, Rachel L Banda, Trancizeo R Lipenga, Dianne J Terlouw, Standwell C Nkhoma, Eva Maria Hodel
Genotyping of allelic variants of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 ( msp-1 and msp-2 ), and the glutamate-rich protein is the gold standard for distinguishing reinfections from recrudescences in antimalarial drug trials. We compared performance of the recently developed 24-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Barcoding Assay against msp-1 and msp-2 genotyping in a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Malawi. Rates of recrudescence and reinfection estimated by the two methods did not differ significantly (Fisher's exact test; P = 0...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778768/prevalence-of-g6pd-deficiency-and-associated-haematological-parameters-in-children-from-botswana
#4
Thato Motshoge, Grace Ababio, Larysa Aleksenko, Sajini Souda, Charles Waithaka Muthoga, Naledi Mutukwa, Leabaneng Tawe, Pleasure Ramatlho, Lesego Gabaitiri, Simon Chihanga, Tjantilili Mosweunyane, Shimeles Hamda, Kentse Moakofhi, Davies Ntebela, Elias Peloewetse, Loeto Mazhani, Jeffrey M Pernica, John Read, Isaac K Quaye, Giacomo Maria Paganotti
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly seen in malaria endemic areas as it is known to confer a selective advantage against malaria. Recently, we reported a high proportion of asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana, that calls for intervention with primaquine to achieve radical cure of vivax malaria. Considering that individuals with this enzyme deficiency are at risk of haemolysis following primaquine treatment, assessment of the population for the relative frequency of G6PD deficiency is imperative...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764451/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-thai-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum-after-an-artemisinin-resistance-containment-project
#5
Thunyapit Thita, Pimrat Jadsri, Jarupatr Thamkhantho, Toon Ruang-Areerate, Nantana Suwandittakul, Naruemon Sitthichot, Kittiya Mahotorn, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Mathirut Mungthin
BACKGROUND: In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764422/hmmibd-software-to-infer-pairwise-identity-by-descent-between-haploid-genotypes
#6
Stephen F Schaffner, Aimee R Taylor, Wesley Wong, Dyann F Wirth, Daniel E Neafsey
BACKGROUND: A number of recent malaria studies have used identity by descent (IBD) to study epidemiological processes relevant to malaria control. In this paper, a software package, hmmIBD, is introduced for estimating pairwise IBD between haploid genomes, such as those of the malaria parasite, sampled from one or two populations. Source code is freely available. METHODS: The performance of hmmIBD was verified using simulated data and benchmarked against an existing method for detecting IBD within populations...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738740/transmission-of-molecularly-undetectable-circulating-parasite-clones-leads-to-high-infection-complexity-in-mosquitoes-post-feeding
#7
Lynn Grignard, Bronner P Gonçalves, Angela M Early, Rachel F Daniels, Alfred B Tiono, Wamdaogo M Guelbéogo, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Elke M van Veen, Kjerstin Lanke, Amidou Diarra, Issa Nebie, Sodiomon B Sirima, Geoff A Targett, Sarah K Volkman, Daniel E Neafsey, Dyann F Wirth, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections often comprise multiple distinct parasite clones. Few datasets have directly assessed infection complexity in humans and mosquitoes they infect. Examining parasites using molecular tools may provide insights into the selective transmissibility of isolates. Using capillary electrophoresis genotyping and next generation amplicon sequencing, we analysed complexity of parasite infections in human blood and in the midguts of mosquitoes that became infected in membrane feeding experiments using the same blood material in two West African settings...
May 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733338/persistent-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-women-with-an-intent-to-become-pregnant-is-a-risk-factor-for-pregnancy-associated-malaria
#8
Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Bernard Tornyigah, Akpéyédjé Yannelle Dossou, Guillaume Escriou, Morten A Nielsen, Ali Salanti, Saadou Issifou, Achille Massougbodji, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Philippe Deloron
Background: Pregnant women are more susceptible to P. falciparum than before pregnancy, and infection has consequences for both mother and offspring. WHO recommends that pregnant woman in areas of transmission receive intermittent preventive treatment starting in the second trimester. Consequently, women are not protected during the first trimester, although P. falciparum infections are both frequent and harmful. Methods: A cohort of nulligravidae women was followed during subsequent pregnancy...
May 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722884/de-novo-mutations-resolve-disease-transmission-pathways-in-clonal-malaria
#9
Seth N Redmond, Bronwyn M MacInnis, Selina Bopp, Amy K Bei, Daouda Ndiaye, Daniel L Hartl, Dyann F Wirth, Sarah K Volkman, Daniel E Neafsey
Detecting de novo mutations in viral and bacterial pathogens enables researchers to reconstruct detailed networks of disease transmission and is a key technique in genomic epidemiology. However these techniques have not yet been applied to the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in which a larger genome, slower generation times, and a complex life cycle make them difficult to implement. Here we demonstrate the viability of de novo mutation studies in P. falciparum for the first time. Using a combination of sequencing, library preparation, and genotyping methods that have been optimized for accuracy in low-complexity genomic regions we have detected de novo mutations that distinguish nominally identical parasites from clonal lineages...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718283/drug-resistance-and-population-structure-of-plasmodium-falciparum-across-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-using-high-throughput-molecular-inversion-probes
#10
Ozkan Aydemir, Mark Janko, Nick J Hathaway, Robert Verity, Melchior Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette K Tshefu, Sofonias K Tessema, Patrick W Marsh, Alice Tran, Thomas Reimonn, Azra C Ghani, Anita Ghansah, Jonathan J Juliano, Bryan R Greenhouse, Michael Emch, Steven R Meshnick, Jeffrey A Bailey
A better understanding of the drivers of the spread of malaria parasites and drug resistance across space and time is needed. These drivers can be elucidated using genetic tools. Here, a novel molecular inversion probe (MIP) panel targeting all major drug resistance mutations and a set of microsatellites was used to genotype Plasmodium falciparum infections of 552 children from the 2013-14 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Microsatellite-based analysis of population structure suggests that parasites within the DRC form a homogeneous population...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703425/effect-of-generalised-access-to-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-and-targeted-mass-drug-administration-on-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-eastern-myanmar-an-observational-study-of-a-regional-elimination-programme
#11
Jordi Landier, Daniel M Parker, Aung Myint Thu, Khin Maung Lwin, Gilles Delmas, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Potentially untreatable Plasmodium falciparum malaria threatens the Greater Mekong subregion. A previous series of pilot projects in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam suggested that mass drug administration was safe, and when added to provision of early diagnosis and treatment, could reduce the reservoir of P falciparum and interrupts transmission. We examined the effects of a scaled-up programme of this strategy in four townships of eastern Myanmar on the incidence of P falciparum malaria...
April 24, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685152/molecular-approaches-to-determine-the-multiplicity-of-plasmodium-infections
#12
REVIEW
Daibin Zhong, Cristian Koepfli, Liwang Cui, Guiyun Yan
Multiplicity of infection (MOI), also termed complexity of infection (COI), is defined as the number of genetically distinct parasite strains co-infecting a single host, which is an important indicator of malaria epidemiology. PCR-based genotyping often underestimates MOI. Next generation sequencing technologies provide much more accurate and genome-wide characterization of polyclonal infections. However, complete haplotype characterization of multiclonal infections remains a challenge due to PCR artifacts and sequencing errors, and requires efficient computational tools...
April 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677637/the-prevalence-of-molecular-markers-of-drug-resistance-in-plasmodium-vivax-from-the-border-regions-of-thailand-in-2008-and-2014
#13
Kritpaphat Tantiamornkul, Tepanata Pumpaibool, Jittima Piriyapongsa, Richard Culleton, Usa Lek-Uthai
The prevalence of Plasmodium vivax is increasing in the border regions of Thailand; one potential problem confounding the control of malaria in these regions is the emergence and spread of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity in genes potentially linked to drug resistance in P. vivax parasites isolated from four different border regions of Thailand; Thai-Myanmar (Tak, Mae Hong Son and Prachuap Khiri Khan Provinces), and Thai-Cambodian borders (Chanthaburi Province). Isolates were collected from 345 P...
April 12, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665803/plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-dynamics-re-infections-recrudescences-and-relapses
#14
Michael T White, Stephan Karl, Cristian Koepfli, Rhea J Longley, Natalie E Hofmann, Rahel Wampfler, Ingrid Felger, Tom Smith, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Leanne Robinson, Azra Ghani, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic populations, complex patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection dynamics may be observed. Genotyping samples from longitudinal cohort studies for merozoite surface protein (msp) variants increases the information available in the data, allowing multiple infecting parasite clones in a single individual to be identified. msp genotyped samples from two longitudinal cohorts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Thailand were analysed using a statistical model where the times of acquisition and clearance of each clone in every individual were estimated using a process of data augmentation...
April 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656958/polymorphisms-in-tlrs-influence-circulating-cytokines-production-in-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-tlr-polymorphisms-influence-cytokine-productions-in-malaria-vivax
#15
Allyson Guimarães Costa, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Fernando Fonseca Almeida Val, Hiochelson Najibe Santos Ibiapina, Amanda Carvalho Oliveira, Andréa Monteiro Tarragô, Nadja Pinto Garcia, Maria Izabel Ovellar Heckmann, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Adriana Malheiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda
The efficiency of the immune system has been shaped throughout the evolutionary process allowing adaptations. In a Plasmodium vivax infection, the host attempts to develop an innate immune response to keep in check the parasite that is associated with inflammatory and regulatory processes. Production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines simultaneously appears to be a balancing mechanism for the host to prevent the onset of severe disease. Changes in the dynamics of circulating cytokines production can influence the pathogenesis, severity of the disease and episodes of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria)...
April 12, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656499/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-36-blood-group-alleles-among-396-thai-samples-reveals-region-specific-variants
#16
Philaiphon Jongruamklang, Christoph Gassner, Stefan Meyer, Aksarakorn Kummasook, Marion Darlison, Chayanun Boonlum, Surin Chanta, Beat M Frey, Martin L Olsson, Jill R Storry
BACKGROUND: Blood group phenotype variation has been attributed to potential resistance to pathogen invasion. Variation was mapped in blood donors from Lampang (northern region) and Saraburi (central region), Thailand, where malaria is endemic. The previously unknown blood group allele profiles were characterized and the data were correlated with phenotypes. The high incidence of the Vel-negative phenotype previously reported in Thais was investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: DNA from 396 blood donors was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
April 15, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643376/host-mediated-selection-impacts-the-diversity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-antigens-within-infections
#17
Angela M Early, Marc Lievens, Bronwyn L MacInnis, Christian F Ockenhouse, Sarah K Volkman, Samuel Adjei, Tsiri Agbenyega, Daniel Ansong, Stacey Gondi, Brian Greenwood, Mary Hamel, Chris Odero, Kephas Otieno, Walter Otieno, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Kwaku Poku Asante, Hermann Sorgho, Lucas Tina, Halidou Tinto, Innocent Valea, Dyann F Wirth, Daniel E Neafsey
Host immunity exerts strong selective pressure on pathogens. Population-level genetic analysis can identify signatures of this selection, but these signatures reflect the net selective effect of all hosts and vectors in a population. In contrast, analysis of pathogen diversity within hosts provides information on individual, host-specific selection pressures. Here, we combine these complementary approaches in an analysis of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum using haplotype sequences from thousands of natural infections in sub-Saharan Africa...
April 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626433/plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-protein-1-genetic-diversity-and-multiplicity-of-infection-in-isolates-from-congolese-children-consulting-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-brazzaville
#18
Nerly Shirère Gampio Gueye, Francine Ntoumi, Christevy Vouvoungui, Simon Charles Kobawila, Michael N Kombo, Alain Mouanga, Julia Deibert, Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda
As in many sub-Saharan African countries, the burden of malaria has been reduced in the Republic of Congo as a result of massive deployment of insecticide treated nets and availability of artemisinin-combinations therapies (ACTs). High to moderate genetic diversity of msp-1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) has been reported from different parts of the world but limited data are available from Central Africa including the Republic of Congo. For this reason, the aim of study was to investigate the P...
April 4, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618373/genetic-variation-associated-with-increased-insecticide-resistance-in-the-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-coluzzii
#19
Bradley J Main, Amanda Everitt, Anthony J Cornel, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Gregory C Lanzaro
BACKGROUND: Malaria mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa have declined significantly in recent years as a result of increased insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) usage. A major challenge to further progress is the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance alleles in the Anopheles mosquito vectors, like An. coluzzii. A non-synonymous mutation in the para voltage-gated sodium channel gene reduces pyrethroid-binding affinity, resulting in knockdown resistance (kdr). Metabolic mechanisms of insecticide resistance involving detoxification genes like cytochrome P450 genes, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases are also important...
April 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615039/efficacy-and-safety-of-artemether-lumefantrine-artesunate-amodiaquine-and-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-three-provinces-in-angola-2017
#20
Elizabeth Davlantes, Pedro Rafael Dimbu, Carolina Miguel Ferreira, Maria Florinda Joao, Dilunvuidi Pode, Jacinto Félix, Edgar Sanhangala, Benjamin Nieto Andrade, Samaly Dos Santos Souza, Eldin Talundzic, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Chantelle Owens, Eliane Mbounga, Lubbe Wiesner, Eric S Halsey, José Franco Martins, Filomeno Fortes, Mateusz M Plucinski
BACKGROUND: The Angolan government recommends three artemisinin-based combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Due to the threat of emerging anti-malarial drug resistance, it is important to periodically monitor the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study evaluated these medications' therapeutic efficacy in Benguela, Lunda Sul, and Zaire Provinces...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
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