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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717390/tracing-the-origin-of-the-early-wet-season-anopheles-coluzzii-in-the-sahel
#1
Tovi Lehmann, David Weetman, Diana L Huestis, Alpha S Yaro, Yaya Kassogue, Moussa Diallo, Martin J Donnelly, Adama Dao
In arid environments, the source of the malaria mosquito populations that re-establish soon after first rains remains a puzzle and alternative explanations have been proposed. Using genetic data, we evaluated whether the early rainy season (RS) population of Anopheles coluzzii is descended from the preceding late RS generation at the same locality, consistent with dry season (DS) dormancy (aestivation), or from migrants from distant locations. Distinct predictions derived from these two hypotheses were assessed, based on variation in 738 SNPs in eleven A...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716086/dynamics-in-multiplicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-among-children-with-asymptomatic-malaria-in-central-ghana
#2
Akua Kyerewaa Botwe, Kwaku Poku Asante, George Adjei, Samuel Assafuah, David Dosoo, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: The determinants of malaria parasite virulence is not entirely known, but the outcome of malaria infection (asymptomatic or symptomatic) has been associated with carriage of distinct parasite genotypes. Alleles considered important for erythrocyte invasion and selected as candidate targets for malaria vaccine development are increasingly being shown to have distinct characteristics in infection outcomes. Any unique/distinct patterns or alleles linked to infection outcome should be reproducible for a given malaria-cohort regardless of location, time or intervention...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715415/characterizing-the-malaria-rural-to-urban-transmission-interface-the-importance-of-reactive-case-detection
#3
Karen Molina Gómez, M Alejandra Caicedo, Alexandra Gaitán, Manuela Herrera-Varela, María Isabel Arce, Andrés F Vallejo, Julio Padilla, Pablo Chaparro, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante, Myriam Arevalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera Valencia
BACKGROUND: Reported urban malaria cases are increasing in Latin America, however, evidence of such trend remains insufficient. Here, we propose an integrated approach that allows characterizing malaria transmission at the rural-to-urban interface by combining epidemiological, entomological, and parasite genotyping methods. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive study that combines active (ACD), passive (PCD), and reactive (RCD) case detection was performed in urban and peri-urban neighborhoods of Quibdó, Colombia...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714864/an-erythroid-specific-atp2b4-enhancer-mediates-red-blood-cell-hydration-and-malaria-susceptibility
#4
Samuel Lessard, Emily Stern Gatof, Mélissa Beaudoin, Patrick G Schupp, Falak Sher, Adnan Ali, Sukhpal Prehar, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Esther Baena, Jonathan Ledoux, Delvac Oceandy, Daniel E Bauer, Guillaume Lettre
The lack of mechanistic explanations for many genotype-phenotype associations identified by GWAS precludes thorough assessment of their impact on human health. Here, we conducted an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping analysis in erythroblasts and found erythroid-specific eQTLs for ATP2B4, the main calcium ATPase of red blood cells (rbc). The same SNPs were previously associated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and susceptibility to severe malaria infection. We showed that Atp2b4-/- mice demonstrate increased MCHC, confirming ATP2B4 as the causal gene at this GWAS locus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695821/an-outbreak-of-locally-acquired-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-among-migrant-workers-in-oman
#5
Bruno Simon, Fatimata Sow, Said K Al Mukhaini, Seif Al-Abri, Osama A M Ali, Guillaume Bonnot, Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Eskild Petersen, Stéphane Picot
Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite. Outside sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of P. vivax malaria is rising. A major cause for concern is the re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax in malaria-free areas. Oman, situated in the south-eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, has long been an area of vivax malaria transmission but no locally acquired cases were reported in 2004. However, local transmission has been registered in small outbreaks since 2007. In this study, a local outbreak of 54 cases over 50 days in 2014 was analyzed retrospectively and stained blood slides have been obtained for parasite identification and genotyping...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693552/chloroquine-efficacy-for-plasmodium-vivax-in-myanmar-in-populations-with-high-genetic-diversity-and-moderate-parasite-gene-flow
#6
Myo Win Htun, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Khin Myo Aye, Chan Myae Hlaing, Myat Phone Kyaw, Irene Handayuni, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Dorina Bustos, Pascal Ringwald, Ric N Price, Sarah Auburn, Kamala Thriemer
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the first-line treatment for P. vivax, has been reported in the country and has potential to undermine local control efforts. METHODS: Patients over 6 years of age with uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection were enrolled into clinical efficacy studies in Myawaddy in 2014 and Kawthoung in 2012. Study participants received a standard dose of CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) followed by weekly review until day 28...
July 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692943/progressive-increase-in-point-mutations-associates-chloroquine-resistance-even-after-withdrawal-of-chloroquine-use-in-india
#7
Sabyasachi Das, Satyajit Tripathy, Sourav Chattopadhayay, Balaram Das, Santanu Kar Mahapatra, Amiya Kumar Hati, Somenath Roy
Chloroquine (CQ) is highly effective against P. vivax, due to the rapid spread of CQ resistance in P. falciparum parasites; it is no longer the drug of choice against P. falciparum. This study elucidates the scenario of chloroquine efficacy at times that coincided with a new drug policy and especially assessed the chloroquine resistant molecular markers after withdrawal of chloroquine in Kolkata and Purulia, two malaria endemic zones of West Bengal, India. In vitro CQ susceptibility was tested in 781 patients with P...
June 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676097/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-southeast-and-western-myanmar
#8
Than Naing Soe, Yanrui Wu, Myo Win Tun, Xin Xu, Yue Hu, Yonghua Ruan, Aung Ye Naung Win, Myat Htut Nyunt, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Kay Thwe Han, Khin Myo Aye, James Morris, Pincan Su, Zhaoqing Yang, Myat Phone Kyaw, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of malaria parasites reflects the complexity and size of the parasite populations. This study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations collected from two southeastern areas (Shwekyin and Myawaddy bordering Thailand) and one western area (Kyauktaw bordering Bangladesh) of Myanmar. METHODS: A total of 267 blood samples collected from patients with acute P. falciparum infections during 2009 and 2010 were used for genotyping at the merozoite surface protein 1 (Msp1), Msp2 and glutamate-rich protein (Glurp) loci...
July 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673292/effect-of-pharmacogenetics-on-plasma-lumefantrine-pharmacokinetics-and-malaria-treatment-outcome-in-pregnant-women
#9
Ritah F Mutagonda, Appolinary A R Kamuhabwa, Omary M S Minzi, Siriel N Massawe, Muhammad Asghar, Manijeh V Homann, Anna Färnert, Eleni Aklillu
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy has considerable effects on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The role of pharmacogenetic variation on anti-malarial drug disposition and efficacy during pregnancy is not well investigated. The study aimed to examine the effect of pharmacogenetics on lumefantrine (LF) pharmacokinetics and treatment outcome in pregnant women. METHODS: Pregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and treated with artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) at Mkuranga and Kisarawe district hospitals in Coast Region of Tanzania...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671630/prevalence-of-inherited-hemoglobin-disorders-and-relationships-with-anemia-and-micronutrient-status-among-children-in-yaound%C3%A3-and-douala-cameroon
#10
Reina Engle-Stone, Thomas N Williams, Martin Nankap, Alex Ndjebayi, Marie-Madeleine Gimou, Yannick Oyono, Ann Tarini, Kenneth H Brown, Ralph Green
Information on the etiology of anemia is necessary to design effective anemia control programs. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of inherited hemoglobin disorders (IHD) in a representative sample of children in urban Cameroon, and examine the relationships between IHD and anemia. In a cluster survey of children 12-59 months of age (n = 291) in Yaoundé and Douala, we assessed hemoglobin (Hb), malaria infection, and plasma indicators of inflammation and micronutrient status. Hb S was detected by HPLC, and α⁺thalassemia (3...
July 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660290/a-retrospective-survey-into-the-presence-of-plasmodium-spp-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-archived-tissue-samples-from-new-zealand-raptors-new-zealand-falcons-falco-novaeseelandiae-australasian-harriers-circus-approximans-and-moreporks-ninox-novaeseelandiae
#11
V Mirza, E B Burrows, S Gils, S Hunter, B D Gartrell, L Howe
Human colonisation of New Zealand has resulted in the introduction of emerging diseases, such as avian malaria and toxoplasmosis, which arrived with their exotic avian and mammalian hosts. Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii have a wide host range, and several species of endemic New Zealand birds have developed a fatal disease following infection with either pathogen. However, no reports of either toxoplasmosis or avian malaria in New Zealand raptors, namely, the New Zealand falcons (Falco novaeseelandiae), Australasian harriers (Circus approximans) and moreporks (Ninox novaeseelandiae) exist in the literature...
June 28, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653041/plasmodium-falciparum-genotypes-in-matched-peripheral-placental-and-umbilical-cord-blood-in-an-area-characterised-by-unstable-malaria-transmission-in-eastern-sudan
#12
Omar E Fadlelseed, Maha E Osman, Nahla M Shamseldin, Amar B Elhussein, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: There are few published studies on Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in peripheral, placental and umbilical cord blood in areas characterised by unstable malaria transmission. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate P. falciparum genotypes in matched peripheral, placental and umbilical cord blood in eastern Sudan. Thick blood smears and P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and 2 (MSP2) genes as polymorphic markers in polymerase chain reactions were investigated in 3 kinds of samples of 153 pregnant women at delivery...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639487/mrp2-abcc2-c1515y-polymorphism-modulates-exposure-to-lumefantrine-during-artemether-lumefantrine-antimalarial-therapy
#13
Karin Vos, Carlotta Lo Sciuto, Rita Piedade, Michael Ashton, Anders Björkman, Billy Ngasala, Andreas Mårtensson, José Pedro Gil
AIM: To investigate the potential involvement of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporters MRP2 and MDR1 in the disposition of lumefantrine (LUM) among patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. MATERIALS & METHODS: The tag SNPs MDR1/ABCB1 C3435T and MRP2/ABCC2 C1515Y were determined in two artemether-LUM clinical trials, including a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study focused on the treatment phase (72 h), and an efficacy trial where day 7 (D7) LUM levels were measured...
July 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619120/g6pd-deficiency-alleles-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#14
Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Jonathan Curry, Laura Hinton, Natercia R M Silva, Lynn Grignard, Ligia A Gonçalves, Ana Rita Gomes, Sabrina Epiphanio, Chris Drakeley, Jim Huggett, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino, Claudio R F Marinho
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615016/ex-vivo-susceptibility-and-genotyping-of-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-pikine-senegal
#15
Aminata Mbaye, Amy Gaye, Baba Dieye, Yaye D Ndiaye, Amy K Bei, Muna Affara, Awa B Deme, Mamadou S Yade, Khadim Diongue, Ibrahima M Ndiaye, Tolla Ndiaye, Mouhamed Sy, Ngayo Sy, Ousmane Koita, Donald J Krogstad, Sarah Volkman, Davis Nwakanma, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to anti-malarial drugs is a necessity for effective case management of malaria. This species is characterized by a strong resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Senegal, the first cases of chloroquine resistance were reported in the Dakar region in 1988 with nearly 7% population prevalence, reaching 47% by 1990. It is in this context that sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine temporarily replaced chloroquine as first line treatment in 2003, pending the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2006...
June 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612053/micro-epidemiological-structuring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-populations-in-regions-with-varying-transmission-intensities-in-africa
#16
Irene Omedo, Polycarp Mogeni, Teun Bousema, Kirk Rockett, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Isabella Oyier, Jennifer C Stevenson, Amrish Y Baidjoe, Etienne P de Villiers, Greg Fegan, Amanda Ross, Christina Hubbart, Anne Jeffreys, Thomas N Williams, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Philip Bejon
Background: The first models of malaria transmission assumed a completely mixed and homogeneous population of parasites.  Recent models include spatial heterogeneity and variably mixed populations. However, there are few empiric estimates of parasite mixing with which to parametize such models. Methods: Here we genotype 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5199 P. falciparum isolates from two Kenyan sites and one Gambian site to determine the spatio-temporal extent of parasite mixing, and use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear regression to examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and relatedness in space and time for parasite pairs...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607799/major-polymorphisms-of-genes-involved-in-homocysteine-metabolism-in-malaria-patients-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#17
Noé Yameogo, Bapio Valérie Elvira Jean Télesphore Bazie, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Pouiré Yameogo, Tegwinde Rebeca Compaore, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Florencia Wenkuuni Djigma, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Jacques Simpore
This study analyzed the four main polymorphisms of the genes in homocysteine metabolism in malaria patients. Forty-two randomly selected subjects, diagnosed positive for Plasmodium falciparum, were included. The four genotypes were detected by real-time PCR using the MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G detection kit (Sacace Biotechnologies REF: T01002-96-S). The results revealed frequencies of 90% 677CC, 10% 677CT, and 00% 677TT for MTHFR C677T; 78.6% 1298AA, 19% 1298AC, and 2...
2017: Malaria Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589854/a-disease-similarity-matrix-based-on-the-uniqueness-of-shared-genes
#18
Matthew B Carson, Cong Liu, Yao Lu, Caiyan Jia, Hui Lu
BACKGROUND: Complex diseases involve many genes, and these genes are often associated with several different illnesses. Disease similarity measurement can be based on shared genotype or phenotype. Quantifying relationships between genes can reveal previously unknown connections and form a reference base for therapy development and drug repurposing. METHODS: Here we introduce a method to measure disease similarity that incorporates the uniqueness of shared genes...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587995/duffy-blood-group-system-new-genotyping-method-and-distribution-in-a-brazilian-extra-amazonian-population
#19
Marina Lobato Martins, Adão Rogerio da Silva, Hadassa Campos Santos, Michelle Teodoro Alves, Luciana Cayres Schmidt, Stela Brener Vertchenko, Luci Maria SantAna Dusse, Maria Clara Fernandes da Silva Malta
Duffy blood group system is of interest in several fields of science including transfusion medicine, immunology and malariology. Although some methods have been developed for Duffy polymorphism genotyping, not all of them have been sufficiently described and validated, and all present limitations. At the same time, the frequency of Duffy alleles and antigens in some densely populated regions of the world are still missing. In this study we present new tests for genotyping the major alleles of the Duffy blood system and describe Duffy alleles and antigens in blood donors and transfusion-dependent patients in Minas Gerais, Brazil...
June 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549390/clinical-and-molecular-monitoring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-resistance-to-antimalarial-drug-artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-in-two-highly-malarious-district-of-madhya-pradesh-central-india-from-2012-2014
#20
Sweta Mishra, Praveen K Bharti, Man M Shukla, Nazia A Ali, Sher S Kashyotia, Avdhesh Kumar, Akshay C Dhariwal, Neeru Singh
The spread of P. falciparum resistant strain has led to a significant resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality. The current cornerstone in malaria treatment in India is Artemisinin based Combination (Artesunate + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine) Therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria since 2010. In the present study we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of ACT and molecular monitoring of antimalarial resistance. Therapeutic efficacy was determined by in vivo method using 28 days follow-up...
June 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
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