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Malaria genotype

Olufunmilayo E Adejumo, Taiwo R Kotila, Adeyinka G Falusi, Boladale O Silva, Jacinta N Nwogu, Pius S Fasinu, Chinedum P Babalola
Polymorphic expression of metabolic enzymes have been identified as one of the key factors responsible for the interindividual/ethnic/racial variability in drug metabolism and effect. In Nigeria, there is a disproportionately high incidence of sickle-cell disease (SCD), a condition characterized by painful crisis frequently triggered by malaria. Proguanil, a substrate of the polymorphic CYP2C19, is a chemoprophylactic antimalarial drug widely used among SCD patients in Nigeria. This study aimed to conduct a comparative CYP2C19 phenotyping among SCD patients and healthy controls and to compare the results with those previously reported...
October 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
M M Ouldabdallahi, O Sarr, L K Basco, S M Lebatt, B Lo, O Gaye
BACKGROUND: Until 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health recommended chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for first- and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Kobeni as first-line treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 55 patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections, who were treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and followed up for 28 days...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Bhavna Gupta, Daniel M Parker, Qi Fan, B P Niranjan Reddy, Guiyun Yan, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui
Malaria transmission along international borders of the Greater Mekong Subregion is a big challenge for regional malaria elimination. At the Thai-Myanmar border, Plasmodium falciparum cases have dropped dramatically; however, increasing P. vivax prevalence and the emerging reports on hidden malaria burden due to asymptomatic infections demand attention. We conducted cross-sectional surveys to detect asymptomatic malaria infections in a small village located at Thai-Myanmar border and genotyped P. vivax infections in order to understand the level of genetic diversity on such a microgeographic scale...
September 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Margarete do Socorro Mendonça Gomes, José Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Gustavo Capatti Cassiano, Lise Musset, Eric Legrand, Mathieu Nacher, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida Couto, Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida Couto
Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Selorme Adukpo, Ben A Gyan, Michael F Ofori, Daniel Dodoo, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, Christian G Meyer
BACKGROUND: Malaria elicits inflammatory responses, which, if not well regulated, may exert detrimental effects. When activated, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 enhances inflammatory responses by increasing secretion of IL-8 and other Th1 cytokines. In contrast, TREM-like transcript 1 (TREML-1) promotes anti-inflammatory responses by binding to TREM-1 ligands and competing with TREM-1, thus antagonizing TREM-1 activation to reduce inflammation. Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) also mediates anti-inflammatory responses by activating endothelial protein C (PC)...
September 27, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Hamma Maiga, Estrella Lasry, Modibo Diarra, Issaka Sagara, Amadou Bamadio, Aliou Traore, Samba Coumare, Soma Bahonan, Boubou Sangare, Yeyia Dicko, Nouhoum Diallo, Aly Tembely, Djibril Traore, Hamidou Niangaly, François Dao, Aboubecrine Haidara, Alassane Dicko, Ogobara K Doumbo, Abdoulaye A Djimde
BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ) is being scaled up in Sahelian countries of West Africa. However, the potential development of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to the respective component drugs is a major concern. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted before (August 2012) and after (June 2014) a pilot implementation of SMC in Koutiala, Mali. Children aged 3-59 months received 7 rounds of curative doses of SP plus AQ over two malaria seasons...
2016: PloS One
B Caputo, V Pichler, E Mancini, M Pombi, J L Vicente, J Dinis, K Steen, V Petrarca, A Rodrigues, J Pinto, A Della Torre, D Weetman
Speciation with gene flow may be aided by reduced recombination helping to build linkage between genes involved in the early stages of reproductive isolation. Reduced recombination on chromosome-X has been implicated in speciation within the Anopheles gambiae complex, species of which represent the major Afrotropical malaria vectors. The most recently diverged, morphologically-indistinguishable, species-pair, An. gambiae and An. coluzzii, ubiquitously display a 'genomic island of divergence' spanning over 4Mb from chromosome-X centromere, which represents a particularly promising candidate region for reproductive isolation genes, in addition to containing the diagnostic markers used to distinguish the species...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Johan Ursing, Lars Rombo, Amabelia Rodrigues, Poul-Erik Kofoed
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was introduced for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. Malaria then resurged and recurrent malaria after treatment with AL and stock-outs of AL were common. This study therefore aimed to assess the efficacy of AL and identify an alternative second line antimalarial. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was chosen as it has been shown to be safe and efficacious and to reduce the incidence of recurrent malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a multicentre randomised open-label non-inferiority clinical trial, AL or DP were given over 3 days to children aged 6 months-15 years with uncomplicated P...
2016: PloS One
Fredrick Kateera, Sam L Nsobya, Steven Tukwasibwe, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Leon Mutesa, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch, Michèle van Vugt, Nirbhay Kumar
Faced with intense levels of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Rwanda replaced CQ with amodiaquine (AQ)+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001, and subsequently with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2006, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria. Following years of discontinuation of CQ use, re-emergence of CQ-susceptible parasites has been reported in countries including Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania. In contrast, high levels of SP resistant mutant parasites continue to be reported even in countries of presumed reduced SP drug selection pressure...
September 17, 2016: Acta Tropica
Bradley J Main, Yoosook Lee, Heather M Ferguson, Katharina S Kreppel, Anicet Kihonda, Nicodem J Govella, Travis C Collier, Anthony J Cornel, Eleazar Eskin, Eun Yong Kang, Catelyn C Nieman, Allison M Weakley, Gregory C Lanzaro
Malaria transmission is dependent on the propensity of Anopheles mosquitoes to bite humans (anthropophily) instead of other dead end hosts. Recent increases in the usage of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) in Africa have been associated with reductions in highly anthropophilic and endophilic vectors such as Anopheles gambiae s.s., leaving species with a broader host range, such as Anopheles arabiensis, as the most prominent remaining source of transmission in many settings. An. arabiensis appears to be more of a generalist in terms of its host choice and resting behavior, which may be due to phenotypic plasticity and/or segregating allelic variation...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Charles J Woodrow, Nicholas J White
Artemisinins are the most rapidly acting of currently available antimalarial drugs. Artesunate has become the treatment of choice for severe malaria, and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the foundation of modern falciparum malaria treatment globally. Their safety and tolerability profile is excellent. Unfortunately, Plasmodium falciparum infections with mutations in the 'K13' gene, with reduced ring-stage susceptibility to artemisinins, and slow parasite clearance in patients treated with ACTs, are now widespread in Southeast Asia...
September 8, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Marcelo Augusto Mota Brito, Henry Maia Peixoto, Anne Cristine Gomes de Almeida, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, José Pereira Moura-Neto, Nakul Singh, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda
INTRODUCTION: In the Brazilian Amazon, malaria infections are primarily caused by Plasmodium vivax. The only drug that kills the hypnozoite form of P. vivax is primaquine, thereby preventing relapse. However, treating glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals with primaquine can lead to severe hemolysis. G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) affects approximately 400 million people worldwide, most of whom live in malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, clinicians need tools that can easily and reliably identify individuals with G6PDd...
July 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Gabriela Maíra Pereira de Assis, Denise Anete Madureira de Alvarenga, Daniela Camargos Costa, Júlio César de Souza, Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano, Flora Satiko Kano, Taís Nóbrega de Sousa, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have evolved with host switches between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans. Studies on the infection dynamics of Plasmodium species in NHPs will improve our understanding of the evolution of these parasites; however, such studies are hampered by the difficulty of handling animals in the field. The aim of this study was to detect genomic DNA of Plasmodium species from the faeces of New World monkeys. Faecal samples from 23 Alouatta clamitans from the Centre for Biological Research of Indaial (Santa Catarina, Brazil) were collected...
September 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Vanessa C Nicolete, Sarah Frischmann, Susana Barbosa, Christopher L King, Marcelo U Ferreira
BACKGROUND:  Antibodies to the cysteine-rich domain II of Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) can inhibit binding of this parasite ligand to its receptor on red blood cells, the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines. These binding-inhibitory antibodies (BIAbs) also inhibit P. vivax invasion of reticulocytes in vitro. METHODS:  To investigate whether naturally acquired anti-PvDBP antibodies are associated with reduced risk of clinical malaria in a population exposed to low levels of P...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maurice M Sandeu, Luc Abate, Majoline T Tchioffo, Albert N Bayibéki, Parfait H Awono-Ambéné, Sandrine E Nsango, Cédric B Chesnais, Rhoel R Dinglasan, Thierry de Meeûs, Isabelle Morlais
Progress in malaria control has led to a significant reduction of the malaria burden. Interventions that interrupt transmission are now needed to achieve the elimination goal. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) that aim to prevent mosquito infections represent promising tools and several vaccine candidates targeting different stages of the parasite's lifecycle are currently under development. A mosquito-midgut antigen, the anopheline alanyl aminopeptidase (AnAPN1) is one of the lead TBV candidates; antibodies against AnAPN1 prevent ookinete invasion...
August 23, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jung-Mi Kang, Jinyoung Lee, Pyo-Yun Cho, Tae Im Kim, Woon-Mok Sohn, Jae-Won Park, Tong-Soo Kim, Byoung-Kuk Na
The vivax malaria epidemic has persisted in South Korea since its reemergence in 1993. Although there has been a significant decrease in the number of malaria cases in recent years, vivax malaria is still a major public health concern. To gain in-depth insight into the genetic makeup of Korean Plasmodium vivax, we analyzed polymorphic patterns of two major antigens, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) and MSP-3α, in 255 Korean P. vivax isolates collected over an extended period from 1998 to 2013. Combinational genetic analysis of polymorphic patterns of MSP-1 and MSP-3α in the isolates suggests that the P...
August 22, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Aminata Mbaye, Baba Dieye, Yaye D Ndiaye, Amy K Bei, Affara Muna, Awa B Deme, Mamadou S Yade, Khadim Diongue, Amy Gaye, Ibrahima M Ndiaye, Tolla Ndiaye, Mouhamad Sy, Mamadou A Diallo, Aida S Badiane, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Mame C Seck, Ngayo Sy, Ousmane Koita, Donald J Krogstad, Davis Nwakanma, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: The use of artemisinin as a monotherapy resulted in the emergence of artemisinin resistance in 2005 in Southeast Asia. Monitoring of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is critical in order to detect and prevent the spread of resistance in endemic areas. Ex vivo studies and genotyping of molecular markers of resistance can be used as part of this routine monitoring strategy. One gene that has been associated in some ACT partner drug resistance is the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (pfmdr1) gene...
2016: Malaria Journal
Gie Ken-Dror, Ian M Hastings
BACKGROUND: Haplotypes are important in anti-malarial drug resistance because genes encoding drug resistance may accumulate mutations at several codons in the same gene, each mutation increasing the level of drug resistance and, possibly, reducing the metabolic costs of previous mutation. Patients often have two or more haplotypes in their blood sample which may make it impossible to identify exactly which haplotypes they carry, and hence to measure the type and frequency of resistant haplotypes in the malaria population...
2016: Malaria Journal
Suiane Negreiros, Samela Farias, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Sheila Akinyi Okoth, Stella M Chenet, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Paola Marchesini, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Marinete Marins Povoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine and primaquine on uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. Patients ≥ 5 years of age with either fever or history of fever, and laboratory-confirmed P. vivax monoinfection received chloroquine (total dose = 25 mg/kg) and primaquine (total dose = 3.5 mg/kg), and were followed up for 168 days (24 weeks). We used microsatellite genotyping to differentiate recurrent infections caused by heterologous parasites from those caused by homologous ones...
August 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sydney Maghendji-Nzondo, Lady-Charlène Kouna, Gaël Mourembou, Larson Boundenga, Romeo-Karl Imboumy-Limoukou, Pierre-Blaise Matsiegui, Rella Manego-Zoleko, Bertrand Mbatchi, Didier Raoult, Fousseyni Toure-Ndouo, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki
BACKGROUND: Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are first- and second-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon. AL remains highly efficacious, but its widespread use has led to molecular selection of the NFD haplotype on Pfmdr1 and K76 in Pfcrt. In this study, plasmodial infection characteristics and the distribution of the Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt genotypes involved in reduced efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) were investigated in four Gabonese localities...
2016: Malaria Journal
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