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Vaccine derived poliovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194449/comparison-of-ipv-to-topv-week-39-boost-of-primary-opv-vaccination-in-indian-infants-an-open-labelled-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Suman Kanungo, Deok Ryun Kim, Bisakha Haldar, Cynthia Snider, Uma Nalavade, Soon Ae Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Anuradha Sinha, Aiyel Haque Mallick, Byomkesh Manna, Dipika Sur, Ranjan Kumar Nandy, Jagadish M Deshpande, Cecil Czerkinsky, Thomas F Wierzba, William A Petri Jr, Mohammad Ali, Ayan Dey
BACKGROUND: The final endgame strategy of global polio eradication initiative includes switching from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccines (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). This study compares IPV with tOPV week 39 boost in Indian infants. METHODS: Starting 28 March 2012, we enrolled 372 Indian infant-mother pairs from Kolkata, India in an open-label, block-randomized, controlled trial comparing a 39 week tOPV to an IPV boost among infants immunized with three doses of tOPV...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140752/concomitant-administration-of-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-and-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-derived-from-sabin-strains-dtap-sipv-with-pentavalent-rotavirus-vaccine-in-japanese-infants
#2
Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Ruriko Yokokawa, Han Shi Rong, Hiroyuki Kishino, Jon E Stek, Margaret Nelson, Jody Lawrence
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Most children are infected with rotavirus, and the health and economic burdens of rotavirus gastroenteritis on healthcare systems and families are considerable. In 2012 pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from Sabin strains (DTaP-sIPV) were licensed in Japan. We examined the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-sIPV when administrated concomitantly with RV5 in Japanese infants...
January 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081056/guidance-for-assessment-of-poliovirus-vaccination-status-and-vaccination-of-children-who-have-received-poliovirus-vaccine-outside-the-united-states
#3
Mona Marin, Manisha Patel, Steve Oberste, Mark A Pallansch
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to 74 cases in two countries in 2015 (1). This decrease was achieved primarily through the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which contains all three poliovirus types (2,3)...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057103/-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccines-an-inevitable-choice-for-eliminating-poliomyelitis
#4
J D Vidor, Shu Jean-Denis
The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050469/interference-of-vaccine-derived-polio-viruses-with-diagnosis-of-enteroviral-diseases-in-neonatal-period
#5
Mohammad Saeed Sasan, Alireza Ataei Nakhaei, Abdolvahab Alborzi, Mazyar Ziyaeyan
INTRODUCTION: Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of neonatal sepsis especially at the junction of summer and fall. AIM: This study was planned to find the frequency of Enteroviral (EV) sepsis among neonates with clinical sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective descriptive study. Rectal and pharyngeal swab samples were taken from all neonates with clinical sepsis and a control group of neonates with simple jaundice. EV was confirmed by both cell culture and RT-PCR...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046048/transformation-and-tumorigenicity-testing-of-simian-cell-lines-and-evaluation-of-poliovirus-replication
#6
Silvia Dotti, Tina Lombardo, Riccardo Villa, Andrea Cacciamali, Cinzia Zanotti, Nadia Andrea Andreani, Stefano Cinotti, Maura Ferrari
The key role of cell cultures in different scientific fields is worldwide recognized, both as in vitro research models alternative to laboratory animals and substrates for biological production. However, many safety concerns rise from the use of animal/human cell lines that may be tumorigenic, leading to potential adverse contaminations in cell-derived biologicals. In order to evaluate the suitability of 13 different cell lines for Poliovirus vaccine production, safety and quality, in vitro/in vivo tumorigenicity and Poliovirus propagation properties were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039136/laboratory-surveillance-of-polio-and-other-enteroviruses-in-high-risk-populations-and-environmental-samples
#7
Vasiliki Pogka, Stavroula Labropoulou, Mary Emmanouil, Androniki Voulgari-Kokota, Alexandra Vernardaki, Theano Georgakopoulou, Andreas F Mentis
: In the context of poliomyelitis eradication, a reinforced supplementary laboratory surveillance of enteroviruses was implemented in Greece. From 2008 to 2014, the Hellenic Polioviruses/Enteroviruses Reference Laboratory performed detailed supplementary surveillance of circulating enteroviruses among healthy individuals in high-risk population groups, among immigrants from poliovirus endemic countries as well as in environmental samples. In total, 722 stool samples and 179 sewage water samples were included in the study...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034372/public-health-response-to-the-silent-reintroduction-of-wild-poliovirus-to-israel-2013-2014
#8
REVIEW
J Moran-Gilad, E Kaliner, M Gdalevich, I Grotto
During 2013/14, Israel witnessed the silent reintroduction and sustained transmission of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) detected through routine environmental surveillance performed on sewage samples. The public health response to silent poliovirus transmission in a population with high inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) coverage poses an emerging challenge towards the 'End Game' of global poliovirus eradication. This paper reviews the risk assessment, risk management and risk communication aspects of this poliovirus incident...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958320/exchanges-of-genomic-domains-between-poliovirus-and-other-cocirculating-species-c-enteroviruses-reveal-a-high-degree-of-plasticity
#9
Maël Bessaud, Marie-Line Joffret, Bruno Blondel, Francis Delpeyroux
The attenuated Sabin strains contained in the oral poliomyelitis vaccine are genetically unstable, and their circulation in poorly immunized populations can lead to the emergence of pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). The recombinant nature of most cVDPV genomes and the preferential presence of genomic sequences from certain cocirculating non-polio enteroviruses of species C (EV-Cs) raise questions about the permissiveness of genetic exchanges between EV-Cs and the phenotypic impact of such exchanges...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932608/antiviral-activity-of-pocapavir-in-a-randomized-blinded-placebo-controlled-human-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-challenge-model
#10
Marc S Collett, Jeffrey R Hincks, Kimberley Benschop, Erwin Duizer, Harrie van der Avoort, Eric Rhoden, Hongmei Liu, M Steven Oberste, Mark A McKinlay, Marianne Hartford
BACKGROUND: Immunodeficient individuals who excrete vaccine-derived polioviruses threaten polio eradication. Antivirals address this threat. METHODS: In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study, adults were challenged with oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 (mOPV1) and subsequently treated with capsid inhibitor pocapavir or placebo. Time to virus negativity in stool was determined. RESULTS: 144 participants were enrolled; 98% became infected upon OPV challenge...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927929/high-throughput-next-generation-sequencing-of-polioviruses
#11
Anna M Montmayeur, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Alexander Schmidt, Kun Zhao, Laura Magaña, Jane Iber, Christina J Castro, Qi Chen, Elizabeth Henderson, Edward Ramos, Jing Shaw, Roman L Tatusov, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Marie Claire Endegue-Zanga, Johnson A Adeniji, M Steven Oberste, Cara C Burns
The poliovirus (PV) is currently targeted for worldwide eradication and containment. Sanger-based sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) capsid region is currently the standard method for PV surveillance. However, the whole-genome sequence is sometimes needed for higher resolution global surveillance. In this study, we optimized whole-genome sequencing protocols for poliovirus isolates and FTA cards using next-generation sequencing (NGS), aiming for high sequence coverage, efficiency, and throughput. We found that DNase treatment of poliovirus RNA followed by random reverse transcription (RT), amplification, and the use of the Nextera XT DNA library preparation kit produced significantly better results than other preparations...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866483/wild-and-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-circulation-and-implications-for-polio-eradication
#12
P L Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861118/estimated-effect-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-campaigns-nigeria-and-pakistan-january-2014-april-2016
#13
George Shirreff, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rui Gama Vaz, Roland W Sutter, Nicholas C Grassly
In 2014, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) campaigns were implemented in Nigeria and Pakistan after clinical trials showed that IPV boosts intestinal immunity in children previously given oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We estimated the effect of these campaigns by using surveillance data collected during January 2014-April 2016. In Nigeria, campaigns with IPV and trivalent OPV (tOPV) substantially reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis caused by circulating serotype-2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771642/global-polio-eradication-the-journey-so-far
#14
Naveen Thacker, Vijay N Yewale, Ashish Pathak
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPE I), since its launch in 1988 has achieved more than 99% reduction in polio cases globally, using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Currently only two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) have not been able to stop transmission of wild poliovirus (wPV). In this article, we discuss some of the challenges faced by these two countries. The lessons learnt from the tremendous public health success stories of India and Nigeria are also highlighted. Reintroduction of wPV in the polio-free areas remains a valid risk globally and some recent examples are discussed...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771638/india-s-research-contributions-towards-polio-eradication-1965-2015
#15
T Jacob John
Pioneering research has been conducted in India during the past five decades, comprehensively covering epidemiology of poliovirus infection and of polio, efficacy and effectiveness of oral and inactivated polio vaccines (OPV, IPV) as well as pathogenesis of wild and vaccine polioviruses. It was estimated, based on epidemiology data, that India had a very heavy burden of polio, with average 500-1000 cases per day. Prevention was an urgent need, but OPV showed unacceptably low vaccine efficacy (VE) for poliovirus types 1 and 3...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771637/polio-endgame-information-gaps-related-to-vaccines-and-immunity
#16
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the understanding of a risk-free implementation of the polio endgame. Immediate concerns relate to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization schedule. A comprehensive understanding of mucosal immunity in populations and best response options against circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks in post tOPV-bOPV switch is essential to mitigate the risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus importations and emergence of cVDPVs in polio-free countries...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771636/polio-eradication-and-endgame-plan-victory-within-grasp
#17
Manish Patel, Lisa Menning, Pankaj Bhatnagar
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988, the number of polio-endemic countries has decreased from 125 to 2 (Afghanistan and Pakistan). To secure the gains and to address the remaining challenges, the GPEI developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018 (the Plan), endorsed by all Member States at the WHA in May 2013. One of the major elements that distinguishes this Plan from previous GPEI strategies is the approach to ending all polioviruses, both wild and vaccine-derived...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771634/cross-sectional-serologic-assessment-of-immunity-to-poliovirus-in-differential-risk-areas-of-india-india-seroprevalence-survey-2014
#18
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence against all three poliovirus serotypes in traditional high risk areas in Bihar, lowest routine immunization coverage areas in Madhya Pradesh and migrant population living in Mumbai urban slums. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey. SETTING: Subjects selected by house to house visit (community based) and transported to government health facilities for further study procedures. PARTICIPANTS: 1137 randomly selected healthy infants 6-11 months of age residing in the selected high-risk areas...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760579/comprehensive-screening-for-immunodeficiency-associated-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-an-essential-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-cessation-risk-management-strategy
#19
R J Duintjer Tebbens, K M Thompson
If the world can successfully control all outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus that may occur soon after global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, then immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) from rare and mostly asymptomatic long-term excretors (defined as ⩾6 months of excretion) will become the main source of potential poliovirus outbreaks for as long as iVDPV excretion continues. Using existing models of global iVDPV prevalence and global long-term poliovirus risk management, we explore the implications of uncertainties related to iVDPV risks, including the ability to identify asymptomatic iVDPV excretors to treat with polio antiviral drugs (PAVDs) and the transmissibility of iVDPVs...
January 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733043/cell-based-high-throughput-screening-assay-identifies-2-2-difluoro-2-deoxycytidine-gemcitabine-as-potential-anti-poliovirus-agent
#20
Zhuoran Zhang, Enzhuo Yang, Chunmiao Hu, Han Cheng, Crystal Y Chen, Dan Huang, Richard Wang, Yue Zhao, Lijun Rong, Marco Vignuzzi, Hongbo Shen, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
While we are approaching the global eradication of circulating wild-type polioviruses(PV), vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Complete cessation of all poliovirus infections may require stopping use of OPV and formulating improved vaccines and new antiviral drugs. Currently, no licensed drugs are available to treat chronically infected poliovirus excretors. Here, we created a modified PV expressing Gaussia Luciferase (PV-GLuc) and developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) antiviral assay...
October 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
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