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Vaccine derived poliovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773776/cuba-s-scientific-contributions-to-global-polio-eradication
#1
Sonia Resik, Ondrej Mach, Alina Tejeda, Miguel A Galindo, Roland W Sutter
Cuba eliminated polio in 1962 and was among the first countries to do so. Since then, only 20 cases of vaccine-derived paralytic poliomyelitis have been reported. Because Cuba used oral poliovirus vaccine exclusively in two mass campaigns usually in February and April each year, Sabin viruses were detected only within approximately 6-8 weeks after each annual campaign. This made Cuba a very attractive site to study the epidemiology of poliomyelitis in a tropical country without risk of secondary transmission of Sabin viruses for a large part of each year, an advantage over countries that used oral poliovirus vaccine continuously throughout the year in routine immunization programs...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763458/immunity-levels-to-poliovirus-in-lao-children-and-adults-before-the-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-outbreak-a-retrospective-study
#2
Maude Pauly, Antony P Black, Phonepaseuth Khampanisong, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Judith M Hübschen, Naphavanh Nanthavong, Kong Sayasinh, Prapan Jutavijittum, Bounthome Samountry, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Sabine Diedrich, Claude P Muller
In 2015, several provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) experienced a vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreak. This survey was conducted (i) to evaluate the vaccination coverage in different settings and cohorts using the seroprevalence of anti-poliovirus (PV) antibodies as a surrogate measure, and (ii) to explore the usefulness of an ELISA in a country with limited resources and a specific epidemiological setting. IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA in Lao children (n = 1216) and adults (n = 1228), including blood donors and health care workers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702638/assessing-the-stability-of-polio-eradication-after-the-withdrawal-of-oral-polio-vaccine
#3
Michael Famulare, Christian Selinger, Kevin A McCarthy, Philip A Eckhoff, Guillaume Chabot-Couture
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) contains live-attenuated polioviruses that induce immunity by causing low virulence infections in vaccine recipients and their close contacts. Widespread immunization with OPV has reduced the annual global burden of paralytic poliomyelitis by a factor of 10,000 or more and has driven wild poliovirus (WPV) to the brink of eradication. However, in instances that have so far been rare, OPV can paralyze vaccine recipients and generate vaccine-derived polio outbreaks. To complete polio eradication, OPV use should eventually cease, but doing so will leave a growing population fully susceptible to infection...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699577/the-detection-of-3-ambiguous-type-2-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-vdpv2s-in-uganda
#4
Mary Bridget Nanteza, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Annet Kisakye, Prossy Namuwulya, Henry Bukenya, Edson Katushabe, Josephine Bwogi, Charles Rutebarika Byabamazima, Raffaella Williams, Nicksy Gumede
BACKGROUND: The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV or Sabin) is genetically unstable and may mutate to form vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). METHODS: In 2014, two VDPVs type 2 were identified during routine surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Consequently, a retrospective VDPV survey was conducted to ensure that there was no circulating VDPV in the country. All Sabin poliovirus isolates identified in Uganda 6 months before and 6 months after were re-screened; Sabin 1 and 3 polioviruses were re-screened for Sabin 2 and Sabin 2 polioviruses were re-screened for VDPVs type 2...
April 27, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649187/surveillance-to-track-progress-toward-polio-eradication-worldwide-2016-2017
#5
Tracie J Gardner, Ousmane M Diop, Jaume Jorba, Smita Chavan, Jamal Ahmed, Abhijeet Anand
Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2)...
April 13, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560473/assessment-of-poliovirus-antibody-seroprevalence-in-high-risk-areas-for-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-transmission-in-madagascar
#6
Richter Razafindratsimandresy, Ondrej Mach, Jean-Michel Heraud, Barivola Bernardson, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Roland W Sutter
Background: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) outbreaks typically occur in areas of low poliovirus immunity. Madagascar successfully eradicated wild poliovirus in 1997; however, multiple VDPV outbreaks have occurred since then, and numerous vaccination campaigns have been carried out to control the VDPV outbreaks. We conducted a survey of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies among Malagasy children to assess performance of vaccination campaigns and estimate the risk of future VDPV outbreaks...
March 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546749/vaccine-derived-polioviruses-outbreaks-and-events-in-3-provinces-of-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2017
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543791/vaccine-derived-poliovirus-outbreaks-and-events-three-provinces-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2017
#8
Mary M Alleman, Rohit Chitale, Cara C Burns, Jane Iber, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Qi Chen, Djo-Roy Van Koko, Raimi Ewetola, Yogolelo Riziki, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Cheikh Dah, Rija Andriamihantanirina
The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478755/new-insights-into-physiopathology-of-immunodeficiency-associated-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-infection-systematic-review-of-over-5-decades-of-data
#9
REVIEW
Mohammadreza Shaghaghi, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Hassan Abolhassani, Reza Yazdani, Gholamreza Azizi, Nima Rezaei, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Mark A McKinlay, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Widespread administration of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has decreased global incidence of poliomyelitis by ≈99.9%. However, the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) is threatening polio-eradication program. Primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients are at higher risks of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and prolonged excretion of immunodeficiency-associated VDPV (iVDPV). We searched Embase, Medline, Science direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and CDC and WHO databases by 30 September 2016, for all reports of iVDPV cases...
March 20, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477307/evaluation-of-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-type-2-outbreak-response-options-a-randomized-controlled-trial-karachi-pakistan
#10
Ali Faisal Saleem, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Ondrej Mach, Asia Khan, Farheen Quadri, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Syed S Zaidi, Muhammad M Alam, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses type 2 (cVDPV2) remain a risk to poliovirus eradication in an era without live poliovirus vaccine containing type 2 in routine immunization. We evaluated existing outbreak response strategies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for control of cVDPV2 outbreaks. METHODS: Seronegative children for poliovirus type 2 (PV2) at 22 weeks of life were assigned to one of four study groups and received respectively (1) one dose of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV); (2) monovalent OPV 2 (mOPV2); (3) tOPV together with a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); or (4) mOPV2 with monovalent high-potency IPV type 2...
March 20, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444940/dynamics-of-evolution-of-poliovirus-neutralizing-antigenic-sites-and-other-capsid-functional-domains-during-a-large-and-prolonged-outbreak
#11
Jing Shaw, Jaume Jorba, Kun Zhao, Jane Iber, Qi Chen, Festus Adu, Adekunle Adeniji, David Bukbuk, Marycelin Baba, Elizabeth Henderson, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Sharla Macdonald, William C Weldon, Nicksy Gumede, M Steven Oberste, Olen M Kew, Cara C Burns
We followed the dynamics of capsid amino acid replacement among 403 Nigerian outbreak isolates of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) from 2005 through 2011. Four different functional domains were analyzed: 1) neutralizing antigenic (NAg) sites, 2) residues binding the poliovirus receptor (PVR), 3) VP1 residues 1-32, and 4) the capsid structural core. Amino acid replacements mapped to 37 of 43 positions across all 4 NAg sites; the most variable and polymorphic residues were in NAg sites 2 and 3b...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358054/assessment-of-poliovirus-antibody-seroprevalence-in-polio-high-risk-areas-of-west-africa
#12
Oumar Guindo, Ondrej Mach, Seydou Doumbia, Daniel K Ekra, Abdoul H Beavogui, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Roland W Sutter
We conducted a serological survey of anti-polio antibodies in polio high-risk areas of Mali, Guinea and Cote d'Ivoire to assess risk of future poliovirus outbreaks. Random community sampling of children 6-11 and 36-48 months-old was conducted; neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus were detected using microneutralization assay. We analysed 1059/1064 (99.5%) of enrolled children. Seroprevalence to poliovirus type 1 (PV1) across all age groups and locations ranged between 92 and 100%, for PV2 it was 77-100%, and 89-95% for PV3...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314143/modeling-poliovirus-transmission-in-pakistan-and-afghanistan-to-inform-vaccination-strategies-in-undervaccinated-subpopulations
#13
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A Pallansch, Stephen L Cochi, Derek T Ehrhardt, Noha H Farag, Stephen C Hadler, Lee M Hampton, Maureen Martinez, Steve G F Wassilak, Kimberly M Thompson
Due to security, access, and programmatic challenges in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, both countries continue to sustain indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission and threaten the success of global polio eradication and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation. We fitted an existing differential-equation-based poliovirus transmission and OPV evolution model to Pakistan and Afghanistan using four subpopulations to characterize the well-vaccinated and undervaccinated subpopulations in each country. We explored retrospective and prospective scenarios for using inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization or supplemental immunization activities (SIAs)...
January 3, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311608/a-novel-rat-cvb1-vp1-monoclonal-antibody-3a6-detects-a-broad-range-of-enteroviruses
#14
Niila V V Saarinen, Jutta E Laiho, Sarah J Richardson, Marie Zeissler, Virginia M Stone, Varpu Marjomäki, Tino Kantoluoto, Marc S Horwitz, Amirbabak Sioofy-Khojine, Anni Honkimaa, Minna M Hankaniemi, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Heikki Hyöty, Vesa P Hytönen, Olli H Laitinen
Enteroviruses (EVs) are common RNA viruses that cause diseases ranging from rash to paralytic poliomyelitis. For example, EV-A and EV-C viruses cause hand-foot and mouth disease and EV-B viruses cause encephalitis and myocarditis, which can result in severe morbidity and mortality. While new vaccines and treatments for EVs are under development, methods for studying and diagnosing EV infections are still limited and therefore new diagnostic tools are required. Our aim was to produce and characterize new antibodies that work in multiple applications and detect EVs in tissues and in vitro...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276577/are-circulating-type-2-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-vdpvs-genetically-distinguishable-from-immunodeficiency-associated-vdpvs
#15
Kun Zhao, Jaume Jorba, Jing Shaw, Jane Iber, Qi Chen, Kelley Bullard, Olen M Kew, Cara C Burns
Public health response to vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) that is transmitted from person to person (circulating VDPV [cVDPV]) differs significantly from response to virus that replicates in individuals with primary immunodeficiency (immunodeficiency-associated VDPV [iVDPV]). cVDPV outbreaks require a community immunization response, whereas iVDPV chronic infections require careful patient monitoring and appropriate individual treatment. To support poliovirus outbreak response, particularly for type 2 VDPV, we investigated the genetic distinctions between cVDPV2 and iVDPV2 sequences...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260690/emergence-of-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-during-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-guinea-2014-2015
#16
Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia, Manasi Majumdar, Ousmane Kebe, Aichatou D Fall, Moussa Kone, Mouctar Kande, Moustapha Dabo, Mohamed Salif Sylla, Djenou Sompare, Wayne Howard, Ousmane Faye, Javier Martin, Kader Ndiaye
During the 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 13 type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were isolated from 6 polio patients and 7 healthy contacts. To clarify the genetic properties of cVDPVs and their emergence, we combined epidemiologic and virologic data for polio cases in Guinea. Deviation of public health resources to the Ebola outbreak disrupted polio vaccination programs and surveillance activities, which fueled the spread of neurovirulent VDPVs in an area of low vaccination coverage and immunity...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197328/vaccine-derived-poliovirus-surveillance-in-china-during-2001-2013-the-potential-challenge-for-maintaining-polio-free-status
#17
Hai-Bo Wang, Hui-Ming Luo, Li Li, Chun-Xiang Fan, Li-Xin Hao, Chao Ma, Qi-Ru Su, Hong Yang, Kathleen H Reilly, Hua-Qing Wang, Ning Wen
BACKGROUND: The goal of polio eradication is to complete elimination and containment of all wild, vaccine-related and Sabin polioviruses. Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) surveillance in China from 2001-2013 is summarized in this report, which has important implications for the global polio eradication initiative. METHODS: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and their contacts with VDPVs isolated from fecal specimens were identified in our AFP surveillance system or by field investigation...
December 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190264/fractional-dose-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-campaign-sindh-province-pakistan-2016
#18
Aslam Pervaiz, Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Mirza Amir Baig, Ashley Burman, Jamal A Ahmed, Sharifa Akter, Fayaz A Jatoi, Abdirahman Mahamud, Rana Jawad Asghar, Naila Azam, Muhammad Nadeem Shah, Mumtaz Ali Laghari, Kamaluddin Soomro, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Derek Ehrhardt, Rana M Safdar, Noha Farag
Following the declaration of eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 in September 2015, trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) was withdrawn globally to reduce the risk for type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV2) transmission; all countries implemented a synchronized switch to bivalent OPV (type 1 and 3) in April 2016 (1,2). Any isolation of VDPV2 after the switch is to be treated as a potential public health emergency and might indicate the need for supplementary immunization activities (3,4). On August 9, 2016, VDPV2 was isolated from a sewage sample taken from an environmental surveillance site in Hyderabad, Sindh province, Pakistan...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165333/pressure-for-pattern-specific-intertypic-recombination-between-sabin-polioviruses-evolutionary-implications
#19
Ekaterina Korotkova, Majid Laassri, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Svetlana Petrovskaya, Elvira Rodionova, Elena Cherkasova, Anatoly Gmyl, Olga E Ivanova, Tatyana P Eremeeva, Galina Y Lipskaya, Vadim I Agol, Konstantin Chumakov
Complete genomic sequences of a non-redundant set of 70 recombinants between three serotypes of attenuated Sabin polioviruses as well as location (based on partial sequencing) of crossover sites of 28 additional recombinants were determined and compared with the previously published data. It is demonstrated that the genomes of Sabin viruses contain distinct strain-specific segments that are eliminated by recombination. The presumed low fitness of these segments could be linked to mutations acquired upon derivation of the vaccine strains and/or may have been present in wild-type parents of Sabin viruses...
November 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126173/immunogenicity-of-different-routine-poliovirus-vaccination-schedules-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-karachi-pakistan
#20
Ali F Saleem, Ondrej Mach, Mohammad T Yousafzai, Asia Khan, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Syed S Zaidi, Muhammad M Alam, Farheen Quadri, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
Background: We assessed immunity against polioviruses induced with a new Pakistani poliovirus immunization schedule and compared it to alternative poliovirus immunization schedules. Methods: Newborns were randomized to undergo vaccination based on 1 of 5 vaccination schedules, with doses administered at birth and at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Arm A received inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at all time points. Arm B received bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) at all time points...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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