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Vaccine derived poliovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314143/modeling-poliovirus-transmission-in-pakistan-and-afghanistan-to-inform-vaccination-strategies-in-undervaccinated-subpopulations
#1
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A Pallansch, Stephen L Cochi, Derek T Ehrhardt, Noha H Farag, Stephen C Hadler, Lee M Hampton, Maureen Martinez, Steve G F Wassilak, Kimberly M Thompson
Due to security, access, and programmatic challenges in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, both countries continue to sustain indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission and threaten the success of global polio eradication and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation. We fitted an existing differential-equation-based poliovirus transmission and OPV evolution model to Pakistan and Afghanistan using four subpopulations to characterize the well-vaccinated and undervaccinated subpopulations in each country. We explored retrospective and prospective scenarios for using inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization or supplemental immunization activities (SIAs)...
January 3, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311608/a-novel-rat-cvb1-vp1-monoclonal-antibody-3a6-detects-a-broad-range-of-enteroviruses
#2
Niila V V Saarinen, Jutta E Laiho, Sarah J Richardson, Marie Zeissler, Virginia M Stone, Varpu Marjomäki, Tino Kantoluoto, Marc S Horwitz, Amirbabak Sioofy-Khojine, Anni Honkimaa, Minna M Hankaniemi, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Heikki Hyöty, Vesa P Hytönen, Olli H Laitinen
Enteroviruses (EVs) are common RNA viruses that cause diseases ranging from rash to paralytic poliomyelitis. For example, EV-A and EV-C viruses cause hand-foot and mouth disease and EV-B viruses cause encephalitis and myocarditis, which can result in severe morbidity and mortality. While new vaccines and treatments for EVs are under development, methods for studying and diagnosing EV infections are still limited and therefore new diagnostic tools are required. Our aim was to produce and characterize new antibodies that work in multiple applications and detect EVs in tissues and in vitro...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276577/are-circulating-type-2-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-vdpvs-genetically-distinguishable-from-immunodeficiency-associated-vdpvs
#3
Kun Zhao, Jaume Jorba, Jing Shaw, Jane Iber, Qi Chen, Kelley Bullard, Olen M Kew, Cara C Burns
Public health response to vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) that is transmitted from person to person (circulating VDPV [cVDPV]) differs significantly from response to virus that replicates in individuals with primary immunodeficiency (immunodeficiency-associated VDPV [iVDPV]). cVDPV outbreaks require a community immunization response, whereas iVDPV chronic infections require careful patient monitoring and appropriate individual treatment. To support poliovirus outbreak response, particularly for type 2 VDPV, we investigated the genetic distinctions between cVDPV2 and iVDPV2 sequences...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260690/emergence-of-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-during-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-guinea-2014-2015
#4
Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia, Manasi Majumdar, Ousmane Kebe, Aichatou D Fall, Moussa Kone, Mouctar Kande, Moustapha Dabo, Mohamed Salif Sylla, Djenou Sompare, Wayne Howard, Ousmane Faye, Javier Martin, Kader Ndiaye
During the 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 13 type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were isolated from 6 polio patients and 7 healthy contacts. To clarify the genetic properties of cVDPVs and their emergence, we combined epidemiologic and virologic data for polio cases in Guinea. Deviation of public health resources to the Ebola outbreak disrupted polio vaccination programs and surveillance activities, which fueled the spread of neurovirulent VDPVs in an area of low vaccination coverage and immunity...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197328/vaccine-derived-poliovirus-surveillance-in-china-during-2001-2013-the-potential-challenge-for-maintaining-polio-free-status
#5
Hai-Bo Wang, Hui-Ming Luo, Li Li, Chun-Xiang Fan, Li-Xin Hao, Chao Ma, Qi-Ru Su, Hong Yang, Kathleen H Reilly, Hua-Qing Wang, Ning Wen
BACKGROUND: The goal of polio eradication is to complete elimination and containment of all wild, vaccine-related and Sabin polioviruses. Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) surveillance in China from 2001-2013 is summarized in this report, which has important implications for the global polio eradication initiative. METHODS: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and their contacts with VDPVs isolated from fecal specimens were identified in our AFP surveillance system or by field investigation...
December 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190264/fractional-dose-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-campaign-sindh-province-pakistan-2016
#6
Aslam Pervaiz, Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Mirza Amir Baig, Ashley Burman, Jamal A Ahmed, Sharifa Akter, Fayaz A Jatoi, Abdirahman Mahamud, Rana Jawad Asghar, Naila Azam, Muhammad Nadeem Shah, Mumtaz Ali Laghari, Kamaluddin Soomro, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Derek Ehrhardt, Rana M Safdar, Noha Farag
Following the declaration of eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 in September 2015, trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) was withdrawn globally to reduce the risk for type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV2) transmission; all countries implemented a synchronized switch to bivalent OPV (type 1 and 3) in April 2016 (1,2). Any isolation of VDPV2 after the switch is to be treated as a potential public health emergency and might indicate the need for supplementary immunization activities (3,4). On August 9, 2016, VDPV2 was isolated from a sewage sample taken from an environmental surveillance site in Hyderabad, Sindh province, Pakistan...
December 1, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165333/pressure-for-pattern-specific-intertypic-recombination-between-sabin-polioviruses-evolutionary-implications
#7
Ekaterina Korotkova, Majid Laassri, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Svetlana Petrovskaya, Elvira Rodionova, Elena Cherkasova, Anatoly Gmyl, Olga E Ivanova, Tatyana P Eremeeva, Galina Y Lipskaya, Vadim I Agol, Konstantin Chumakov
Complete genomic sequences of a non-redundant set of 70 recombinants between three serotypes of attenuated Sabin polioviruses as well as location (based on partial sequencing) of crossover sites of 28 additional recombinants were determined and compared with the previously published data. It is demonstrated that the genomes of Sabin viruses contain distinct strain-specific segments that are eliminated by recombination. The presumed low fitness of these segments could be linked to mutations acquired upon derivation of the vaccine strains and/or may have been present in wild-type parents of Sabin viruses...
November 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126173/immunogenicity-of-different-routine-poliovirus-vaccination-schedules-a-randomized-controlled-trial-karachi-pakistan
#8
Ali F Saleem, Ondrej Mach, Mohammad T Yousafzai, Asia Khan, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Syed S Zaidi, Muhammad M Alam, Farheen Quadri, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
Background: We assessed immunity against polioviruses induced with new Pakistani immunization schedule and compared it with alternative immunization schedules. Methods: Newborns were randomized to receive one of the following vaccination schedules, administered at birth, 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Arm A: 4x IPV; Arm B: 4x bOPV; Arm C and D: bOPV, bOPV, bOPV, bOPV+ inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); Arm E: 4x trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV). At 22 weeks of age, children received one challenge dose of tOPV, and children in arm D received one additional IPV dose...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105974/update-on-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-worldwide-january-2016%C3%A2-june-2017
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100529/vaccine-related-poliovirus-shedding-in-trivalent-polio-vaccine-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status-analysis-from-under-five-children
#10
Joanne Hassan, Laura Wangai, Peter Borus, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Lucy Wanja Karani, Mercy Kithinji, Michael Kiptoo
BACKGROUND: Poliomyelitis is an acute viral infection caused by poliovirus and transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The causative agent is one of the three serotypes of poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, 3) that differ slightly in capsid protein. Prolonged vaccine-related poliovirus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals has been linked to possible reservoir for reintroduction of polioviruses after eradication. The study therefore aimed at estimating the duration for vaccine-related poliovirus shedding among potentially and HIV-infected persons...
November 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095803/update-on-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-worldwide-january-2016-june-2017
#11
Jaume Jorba, Ousmane M Diop, Jane Iber, Elizabeth Henderson, Roland W Sutter, Steven G F Wassilak, Cara C Burns
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, detection of WPV1 has been limited to three countries, with 37 cases in 2016 and 11 cases in 2017 as of September 27. The >99.99% decline worldwide in polio cases since the launch of the GPEI is attributable to the extensive use of the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and comprehensive national routine immunization programs...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993765/prolonged-excretion-of-poliovirus-among-individuals-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-world-health-organization-registry
#12
Grace Macklin, Yi Liao, Marina Takane, Kathleen Dooling, Stuart Gilmour, Ondrej Mach, Olen M Kew, Roland W Sutter
Individuals with primary immunodeficiency disorder may excrete poliovirus for extended periods and will constitute the only remaining reservoir of virus after eradication and withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine. Here, we analyzed the epidemiology of prolonged and chronic immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived poliovirus cases in a registry maintained by the World Health Organization, to identify risk factors and determine the length of excretion. Between 1962 and 2016, there were 101 cases, with 94/101 (93%) prolonged excretors and 7/101 (7%) chronic excretors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974220/the-risk-of-type-2-oral-polio-vaccine-use-in-post-cessation-outbreak-response
#13
Kevin A McCarthy, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Michael Famulare, Hil M Lyons, Laina D Mercer
BACKGROUND: Wild type 2 poliovirus was last observed in 1999. The Sabin-strain oral polio vaccine type 2 (OPV2) was critical to eradication, but it is known to revert to a neurovirulent phenotype, causing vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. OPV2 is also transmissible and can establish circulating lineages, called circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which can also cause paralytic outbreaks. Thus, in April 2016, OPV2 was removed from immunization activities worldwide...
October 4, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952612/patients-with-primary-immunodeficiencies-are-a-reservoir-of-poliovirus-and-a-risk-to-polio-eradication
#14
Asghar Aghamohammadi, Hassan Abolhassani, Necil Kutukculer, Steve G Wassilak, Mark A Pallansch, Samantha Kluglein, Jessica Quinn, Roland W Sutter, Xiaochuan Wang, Ozden Sanal, Tatiana Latysheva, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Ewa Bernatowska, Irina A Tuzankina, Beatriz T Costa-Carvalho, Jose Luis Franco, Raz Somech, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Surjit Singh, Liliana Bezrodnik, Francisco J Espinosa-Rosales, Anna Shcherbina, Yu-Lung Lau, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Fred Modell, Vicki Modell, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Mark A McKinlay
Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949979/survey-of-poliovirus-antibodies-in-borno-and-yobe-states-north-eastern-nigeria
#15
Mustapha Modu Gofama, Harish Verma, Hamisu Abdullahi, Natalie A Molodecky, Kehinde T Craig, Utibe-Abasi Urua, Mohammed Ashir Garba, Mohammed Arab Alhaji, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Fiona Braka, Ado J G Muhammad, Roland W Sutter
BACKGROUND: Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) on antibody seroprevalence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930011/poliovirus-excretion-in-children-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders-india
#16
Madhu Chhanda Mohanty, Manisha Rajan Madkaikar, Mukesh Desai, Prasad Taur, Uma Prajwal Nalavade, Deepa Kailash Sharma, Maya Gupta, Aparna Dalvi, Snehal Shabrish, Manasi Kulkarni, Jahnavi Aluri, Jagadish Mohanrao Deshpande
Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014-April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID)...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890193/evaluating-cessation-of-the-type-2-oral-polio-vaccine-by-modeling-pre-and-post-cessation-detection-rates
#17
Steve J Kroiss, Michael Famulare, Hil Lyons, Kevin A McCarthy, Laina D Mercer, Guillaume Chabot-Couture
The globally synchronized removal of the attenuated Sabin type 2 strain from the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in April 2016 marked a major change in polio vaccination policy. This change will provide a significant reduction in the burden of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), but may increase the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreaks during the transition period. This risk can be monitored by tracking the disappearance of Sabin-like type 2 (SL2) using data from the polio surveillance system...
September 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882442/polio-immunity-and-the-impact-of-mass-immunization-campaigns-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#18
Arend Voorman, Nicole A Hoff, Reena H Doshi, Vivian Alfonso, Patrick Mukadi, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Ado Bwaka, William Weldon, Sue Gerber, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. METHODS: We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). RESULTS: Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively...
October 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838198/lessons-from-globally-coordinated-cessation-of-serotype-2-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-for-the-remaining-serotypes
#19
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
Background: Comparing model expectations with the experience of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotype 2 (OPV2) cessation can inform risk management for the expected cessation of OPV containing serotypes 1 and 3 (OPV13). Methods: We compare the expected post-OPV2-cessation OPV2-related viruses from models with the evidence available approximately 6 months after OPV2 cessation. We also model the trade-offs of use vs nonuse of monovalent OPV (mOPV) for outbreak response considering all 3 serotypes...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838194/lessons-from-the-polio-endgame-overcoming-the-failure-to-vaccinate-and-the-role-of-subpopulations-in-maintaining-transmission
#20
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
Background: Recent detections of circulating serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in northern Nigeria (Borno and Sokoto states) and Pakistan (Balochistan Province) and serotype 1 wild poliovirus in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria (Borno) represent public health emergencies that require aggressive response. Methods: We demonstrate the importance of undervaccinated subpopulations, using an existing dynamic poliovirus transmission and oral poliovirus vaccine evolution model...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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