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Vaccine derived poliovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930011/poliovirus-excretion-in-children-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disorders-india
#1
Madhu Chhanda Mohanty, Manisha Rajan Madkaikar, Mukesh Desai, Prasad Taur, Uma Prajwal Nalavade, Deepa Kailash Sharma, Maya Gupta, Aparna Dalvi, Snehal Shabrish, Manasi Kulkarni, Jahnavi Aluri, Jagadish Mohanrao Deshpande
Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014-April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID)...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890193/evaluating-cessation-of-the-type-2-oral-polio-vaccine-by-modeling-pre-and-post-cessation-detection-rates
#2
Steve J Kroiss, Michael Famulare, Hil Lyons, Kevin A McCarthy, Laina D Mercer, Guillaume Chabot-Couture
The globally synchronized removal of the attenuated Sabin type 2 strain from the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in April 2016 marked a major change in polio vaccination policy. This change will provide a significant reduction in the burden of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), but may increase the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreaks during the transition period. This risk can be monitored by tracking the disappearance of Sabin-like type 2 (SL2) using data from the polio surveillance system...
September 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882442/polio-immunity-and-the-impact-of-mass-immunization-campaigns-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#3
Arend Voorman, Nicole A Hoff, Reena H Doshi, Vivian Alfonso, Patrick Mukadi, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Ado Bwaka, William Weldon, Sue Gerber, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: In order to prevent outbreaks from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, maintenance of population immunity in non-endemic countries is critical. METHODS: We estimated population seroprevalence using dried blood spots collected from 4893 children 6-59months olds in the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). RESULTS: Population immunity was 81%, 90%, and 70% for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively...
September 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838198/lessons-from-globally-coordinated-cessation-of-serotype-2-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-for-the-remaining-serotypes
#4
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
Background: Comparing model expectations with the experience of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotype 2 (OPV2) cessation can inform risk management for the expected cessation of OPV containing serotypes 1 and 3 (OPV13). Methods: We compare the expected post-OPV2-cessation OPV2-related viruses from models with the evidence available approximately 6 months after OPV2 cessation. We also model the trade-offs of use vs nonuse of monovalent OPV (mOPV) for outbreak response considering all 3 serotypes...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838194/lessons-from-the-polio-endgame-overcoming-the-failure-to-vaccinate-and-the-role-of-subpopulations-in-maintaining-transmission
#5
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
Background: Recent detections of circulating serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in northern Nigeria (Borno and Sokoto states) and Pakistan (Balochistan Province) and serotype 1 wild poliovirus in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria (Borno) represent public health emergencies that require aggressive response. Methods: We demonstrate the importance of undervaccinated subpopulations, using an existing dynamic poliovirus transmission and oral poliovirus vaccine evolution model...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838193/considerations-for-the-full-global-withdrawal-of-oral-polio-vaccine-after-eradication-of-polio
#6
Lee M Hampton, Gaël Maufras du Châtellier, Jacqueline Fournier-Caruana, Ann Ottosen, Jennifer Rubin, Lisa Menning, Margaret Farrell, Stephanie Shendale, Manish Patel
Eliminating the risk of polio from vaccine-derived polioviruses is essential for creating a polio-free world, and eliminating that risk will require stopping use of all oral polio vaccines (OPVs) once all types of wild polioviruses have been eradicated. In many ways, the experience with the global switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) can inform the eventual full global withdrawal of OPV. Significant preparation will be needed for a thorough, synchronized, and full withdrawal of OPV, and such preparation would be aided by setting a reasonably firm date for OPV withdrawal as far in advance as possible, ideally at least 24 months...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838178/introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-and-trivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-bivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-switch-in-the-african-region
#7
Carol Tevi-Benissan, Joseph Okeibunor, Gaël Maufras du Châtellier, Afework Assefa, Joseph Nsiari-Muzenyi Biey, Dah Cheikh, Messeret Eshetu, Blanche-Philomene Anya, Halima Dao, Yusuf Nasir, Bartholomew Dicky Akanmori, Richard Mihigo
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic plan outlines the phased removal of oral polio vaccines (OPVs), starting with type 2 poliovirus-containing vaccine and introduction of inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization to mitigate against risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus. The objective includes strengthening routine immunization as the primary pillar to sustaining high population immunity. After 2 years without reporting any wild poliovirus (July 2014-2016), the region undertook the synchronized switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) as recommended by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838170/experience-with-inactivated-polio-vaccine-introduction-and-the-switch-from-trivalent-to-bivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-in-the-world-health-organization-s-western-pacific-region
#8
Santosh Gurung, Jennifer B Harris, Abu Obeida Eltayeb, Lee M Hampton, Sergey Diorditsa, Tigran Avagyan, W William Schluter
The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) has maintained its polio-free status since 2000. The emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), however, remains a risk, as oral polio vaccine (OPV) is still used in many of the region's countries, and pockets of unimmunized or underimmunized children exist in some countries. From 2014 to 2016, the region participated in the globally coordinated efforts to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into all countries that did not yet include it in their national immunization schedules, and to "switch" from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries still using OPV in 2016...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838168/disposing-of-excess-vaccines-after-the-withdrawal-of-oral-polio-vaccine
#9
Sarah Wanyoike, Alejandro Ramirez Gonzalez, Samantha B Dolan, Julie Garon, Chantal Laroche Veira, Lee M Hampton, Diana Chang Blanc, Manish M Patel
Until recently, waste management for national immunization programs was limited to sharps waste, empty vaccine vials, or vaccines that had expired or were no longer usable. However, because wild-type 2 poliovirus has been eradicated, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization deemed that all countries must simultaneously cease use of the type 2 oral polio vaccine and recommended that all countries and territories using oral polio vaccine (OPV) "switch" from trivalent OPV (tOPV; types 1, 2, and 3 polioviruses) to bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3 polioviruses) during a 2-week period in April 2016...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838162/monitoring-and-validation-of-the-global-replacement-of-topv-with-bopv-april-may-2016
#10
Margaret Farrell, Lee M Hampton, Stephanie Shendale, Lisa Menning, Alejandro Ramirez Gonzalez, Julie Garon, Samantha B Dolan, Gaël Maufras du Châtellier, Sarah Wanyoike, Diana Chang Blanc, Manish M Patel
The phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) associated with the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 began with the synchronized global replacement of trivalent OPV (tOPV) with bivalent OPV (bOPV) during April - May 2016, a transition referred to as the "switch." The World Health Organization's (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended conducting this synchronized switch in all 155 OPV-using countries and territories (which collectively administered several hundred million doses of tOPV each year via several hundred thousand facilities) to reduce risks of re-emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838159/a-supply-and-demand-management-perspective-on-the-accelerated-global-introductions-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-in-a-constrained-supply-market
#11
Ian Lewis, Ann Ottosen, Jennifer Rubin, Diana Chang Blanc, Simona Zipursky, Emily Wootton
A total of 105 countries have introduced IPV as of September 2016 of which 85 have procured the vaccine through UNICEF. The Global Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 called for the rapid introduction of at least one dose of IPV into routine immunization schedules in 126 all OPV-using countries by the end of 2015. At the time of initiating the procurement process, demand was estimated based on global modeling rather than individual country indications. In its capacity as procurement agency for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF set out to secure access to IPV supply for around 100 countries...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806355/seroprevalence-of-anti-polio-antibodies-in-children-from-polio-high-risk-areas-of-pakistan-a-cross-sectional-survey-2015-2016
#12
Imtiaz Hussain, Ondrej Mach, Atif Habib, Zaid Bhatti, Zamir Suhag, M Steven Oberste, William C Weldon, Roland W Sutter, Sajid B Soofi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pakistan is one of the 3 remaining wild poliovirus endemic countries. We collected sera from children to assess the prevalence of poliovirus antibodies in selected high-risk areas for poliovirus transmission. METHODS: Children in 2 age groups (6-11 and 36-48 months) were randomly selected between November 2015 and March 2016 in 6 areas of Pakistan (Sindh Province: Karachi and Kashmore; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province: Peshawar, Bannu and Nowshera; Punjab Province: Faisalabad)...
September 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770239/comparison-of-elisa-and-dual-stage-real-time-rt-pcr-to-differentiate-sabin-like-and-non-sabin-like-poliovirus-isolates
#13
Nirmal Kaundal, Purva Sarkate, Charu Prakash, Narayan Rishi
Environmental surveillance of polioviruses has been used as an important tool in monitoring circulation of wild polioviruses and/or Vaccine derived polioviruses in sewage samples. It is important to distinguish Sabin like isolates from non-Sabin like; ELISA & dual stage real time RT-PCR have been used for the same. Current study was carried out on sewage isolates to compare ELISA & RT-PCR with sequencing to distinguish Sabin like from non-Sabin like. Out of 468 sewage specimens, 91 (19.44%) were non-polio enteroviruses positive and 377 (80...
June 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704202/the-integration-of-the-molecular-methods-in-the-diagnosis-algorithm-for-the-poliovirus-detection-in-the-sewage-water-comparing-concentration-and-detection-methods-a-pilot-study
#14
Anda Bãicuş
Introduction Two cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1(cVDPV1), from southwestern Ukraine, bordering Romania, were confirmed in 2015 and the environmental enterovirus surveillance was enhanced in our country. The molecular detection of human enteroviruses as a screening test followed by isolation on cell culture lines or sequencing could be proposed as a new diagnosis algorithm. Material and Methods The sensitivity of two molecular methods for the detection of enterovirus strains in 10 ml of sewage water (15 samples) was studied with Film Array ME panel BioFire (Biomerieux, France) and Xpert EV assay (Cepheid, USA)...
July 8, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669764/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-highly-evolved-type-3-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-in-china
#15
Xiaowei Zhang, Chong Qin, Wei Li, Zhenhua Zheng, Hanzhong Wang, Zongqiang Cui
In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a highly evolved type 3 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) strain designated as WIV14, isolated in 2014 from a 4-year-old child suspected of having an enteroviral infection in China. Complete genome sequence of WIV14 revealed multiple nucleotide substitutions when compared with the attenuated poliovirus (PV) Sabin 3, including the reversion of three major attenuation sites to wild type. From the nucleotide divergence for the P1/capsid region, we estimated that the evolution time of WIV14 was more than 7 years, indicating the possible long time of replication...
June 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542124/virologic-monitoring-of-poliovirus-type-2-after-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-type-2-withdrawal-in-april-2016-worldwide-2016-2017
#16
Ousmane M Diop, Humayun Asghar, Evgeniy Gavrilin, Nicksy Gumede Moeletsi, Gloria Rey Benito, Fem Paladin, Sirima Pattamadilok, Yan Zhang, Ajay Goel, Arshad Quddus
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has made substantial progress since its launch in 1988; only 37 wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were detected in 2016, the lowest annual count ever. Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, and wild poliovirus type 2 was officially declared eradicated in September 2015. This success is attributable to the wide use of live oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Since 2001, numerous outbreaks were caused by the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) whose genetic drift from the parental OPV strains indicates prolonged replication or circulation (1)...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528761/responding-to-a-cvdpv1-outbreak-in-ukraine-implications-challenges-and-opportunities
#17
Nino Khetsuriani, Ihor Perehinets, Dorit Nitzan, Dragoslav Popovic, Thomas Moran, Vusala Allahverdiyeva, Shahin Huseynov, Eugene Gavrilin, Liudmyla Slobodianyk, Olha Izhyk, Anna Sukhodolska, Sahar Hegazi, Katerina Bulavinova, Sergei Platov, Patrick O'Connor
BACKGROUND: The European Region, certified polio-free in 2002, remains at risk of wild poliovirus reintroduction and emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) until global polio eradication is achieved, as demonstrated by the cVDPV1 outbreak in Ukraine in 2015. METHODS: We reviewed epidemiologic, clinical and virology data on cVDPV cases, surveillance and immunization coverage data, and reports of outbreak-related surveys, country missions, and expert group meetings...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480271/epidemiological-surveillance-of-poliomyelitis-during-the-military-and-political-conflict-in-the-central-african-republic-2013-and-2014
#18
Alain Farra, Ella C Gonofio, Alexandre Manirakiza, Arthur Mazitchi, Raphaël Mbaïlao, Casimir Manengu, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache
BACKGROUND: Since December 2012, the Central African Republic (CAR) has been undergoing a severe military and political conflict. This situation has resulted in general insecurity and total disorganization of surveillance activities, including those for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In this study, we used laboratory data to evaluate surveillance of AFP in 2013 and 2014, the most critical period of the conflict. METHODS: The laboratory data on AFP were analyzed retrospectively for the age, sex, vaccination status (oral poliovirus vaccines), and geographical origin of the samples...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468861/detection-of-emerging-vaccine-related-polioviruses-by-deep-sequencing
#19
Malaya K Sahoo, Marisa Holubar, ChunHong Huang, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, Yuanyuan Liu, Jesse J Waggoner, Stephanie B Troy, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Yvonne Maldonado, Benjamin A Pinsky
Oral poliovirus vaccine can mutate to regain neurovirulence. To date, evaluation of these mutations has been performed primarily on culture-enriched isolates by using conventional Sanger sequencing. We therefore developed a culture-independent, deep-sequencing method targeting the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and P1 genomic region to characterize vaccine-related poliovirus variants. Error analysis of the deep-sequencing method demonstrated reliable detection of poliovirus mutations at levels of <1%, depending on read depth...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419204/immune-serum-from-sabin-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-immunization-neutralizes-multiple-individual-wild-and-vaccine-derived-polioviruses
#20
Mingbo Sun, Changgui Li, Wenbo Xu, Guoyang Liao, Rongcheng Li, Jian Zhou, Yanping Li, Wei Cai, Dongmei Yan, Yanchun Che, Zhifang Ying, Jianfeng Wang, Huijuan Yang, Yan Ma, Lei Ma, Guang Ji, Li Shi, Shude Jiang, Qihan Li
Background: A Sabin strain-based inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Sabin-IPV) is the rational option for completely eradicating poliovirus transmission. The neutralizing capacity of Sabin-IPV immune serum to different strains of poliovirus is a key indicator of the clinical protective efficacy of this vaccine. Methods: Sera collected from 500 infants enrolled in a randomized, blinded, positive control, phase 2 clinical trial were randomly divided into 5 groups: Groups A, B, and C received high, medium, and low doses, respectively, of Sabin-IPV, while groups D and E received trivalent oral polio vaccine and Salk strain-based IPV, respectively, all on the same schedule...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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