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Vaccine derived poliovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866483/wild-and-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-circulation-and-implications-for-polio-eradication
#1
P L Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861118/estimated-effect-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-campaigns-nigeria-and-pakistan-january-2014-april-2016
#2
George Shirreff, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rui Gama Vaz, Roland W Sutter, Nicholas C Grassly
In 2014, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) campaigns were implemented in Nigeria and Pakistan after clinical trials showed that IPV boosts intestinal immunity in children previously given oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We estimated the effect of these campaigns by using surveillance data collected during January 2014-April 2016. In Nigeria, campaigns with IPV and trivalent OPV (tOPV) substantially reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis caused by circulating serotype-2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771642/global-polio-eradication-the-journey-so-far
#3
Naveen Thacker, Vijay N Yewale, Ashish Pathak
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPE I), since its launch in 1988 has achieved more than 99% reduction in polio cases globally, using oral polio vaccine (OPV). Currently only two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) have not been able to stop transmission of wild poliovirus (wPV). In this article, we discuss some of the challenges faced by these two countries. The lessons learnt from the tremendous public health success stories of India and Nigeria are also highlighted. Reintroduction of wPV in the polio-free areas remains a valid risk globally and some recent examples are discussed...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771638/india-s-research-contributions-towards-polio-eradication-1965-2015
#4
T Jacob John
Pioneering research has been conducted in India during the past five decades, comprehensively covering epidemiology of poliovirus infection and of polio, efficacy and effectiveness of oral and inactivated polio vaccines (OPV, IPV) as well as pathogenesis of wild and vaccine polioviruses. It was estimated, based on epidemiology data, that India had a very heavy burden of polio, with average 500-1000 cases per day. Prevention was an urgent need, but OPV showed unacceptably low vaccine efficacy (VE) for poliovirus types 1 and 3...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771637/polio-endgame-information-gaps-related-to-vaccines-and-immunity
#5
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the understanding of a risk-free implementation of the polio endgame. Immediate concerns relate to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization schedule. A comprehensive understanding of mucosal immunity in populations and best response options against circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks in post tOPV-bOPV switch is essential to mitigate the risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus importations and emergence of cVDPVs in polio-free countries...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771636/polio-eradication-and-endgame-plan-victory-within-grasp
#6
Manish Patel, Lisa Menning, Pankaj Bhatnagar
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988, the number of polio-endemic countries has decreased from 125 to 2 (Afghanistan and Pakistan). To secure the gains and to address the remaining challenges, the GPEI developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018 (the Plan), endorsed by all Member States at the WHA in May 2013. One of the major elements that distinguishes this Plan from previous GPEI strategies is the approach to ending all polioviruses, both wild and vaccine-derived...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771634/cross-sectional-serologic-assessment-of-immunity-to-poliovirus-in-differential-risk-areas-of-india-india-seroprevalence-survey-2014
#7
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence against all three poliovirus serotypes in traditional high risk areas in Bihar, lowest routine immunization coverage areas in Madhya Pradesh and migrant population living in Mumbai urban slums. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey. SETTING: Subjects selected by house to house visit (community based) and transported to government health facilities for further study procedures. PARTICIPANTS: 1137 randomly selected healthy infants 6-11 months of age residing in the selected high-risk areas...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760579/comprehensive-screening-for-immunodeficiency-associated-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-an-essential-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-cessation-risk-management-strategy
#8
R J Duintjer Tebbens, K M Thompson
If the world can successfully control all outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus that may occur soon after global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, then immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) from rare and mostly asymptomatic long-term excretors (defined as ⩾6 months of excretion) will become the main source of potential poliovirus outbreaks for as long as iVDPV excretion continues. Using existing models of global iVDPV prevalence and global long-term poliovirus risk management, we explore the implications of uncertainties related to iVDPV risks, including the ability to identify asymptomatic iVDPV excretors to treat with polio antiviral drugs (PAVDs) and the transmissibility of iVDPVs...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733043/cell-based-high-throughput-screening-assay-identifies-2-2-difluoro-2-deoxycytidine-gemcitabine-as-potential-anti-poliovirus-agent
#9
Zhuoran Zhang, Enzhuo Yang, Chunmiao Hu, Han Cheng, Crystal Y Chen, Dan Huang, Richard Wang, Yue Zhao, Lijun Rong, Marco Vignuzzi, Hongbo Shen, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
While we are approaching the global eradication of circulating wild-type polioviruses(PV), vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Complete cessation of all poliovirus infections may require stopping use of OPV and formulating improved vaccines and new antiviral drugs. Currently, no licensed drugs are available to treat chronically infected poliovirus excretors. Here, we created a modified PV expressing Gaussia Luciferase (PV-GLuc) and developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) antiviral assay...
October 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701425/population-immunity-against-serotype-2-poliomyelitis-leading-up-to-the-global-withdrawal-of-the-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-spatio-temporal-modelling-of-surveillance-data
#10
Margarita Pons-Salort, Natalie A Molodecky, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Andrew Etsano, Rui Gama Vaz, Hamid Jafari, Nicholas C Grassly, Isobel M Blake
BACKGROUND: Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648512/vaccine-derived-polioviruses-and-children-with-primary-immunodeficiency-iran-1995-2014
#11
Mohammadreza Shaghaghi, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Hassan Abolhassani, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Leila Parvaneh, Sussan Mahmoudi, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Reza Yazdani, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Mohammad H Eslamian, Hamideh Tabatabaie, Maryam Yousefi, Yaghoob M Kandelousi, Aliasghar Oujaghlou, Nima Rezaei, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type poliovirus serotypes 2 and 3. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency might shed vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) for an extended period, which could pose a major threat to polio eradication programs. Since 1995, sixteen VDPV populations have been isolated from 14 patients with immunodeficiency in Iran. For these patients, vaccine-associated paralysis, mostly in >1 extremity, was the first manifestation of primary immunodeficiency...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642491/acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-indicators-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-during-2008-2014
#12
Hugo Kavunga Membo, Aaron Mweene, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Justin Masumu, Riziki Yogolelo, Norbert Ngendabanyikwa, Eddy Sokolua, Fred Sagamiko, Edgar Simulundu, Steve Ahuka, Jean Jacques Muyembe
INTRODUCTION: The last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Africa was reported in July 2014, thus underscoring the tremendous progress towards polio eradication worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the results of a seven-year surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and to identify potential gaps that need to be addressed. METHODS: Epidemiological and virological data obtained from AFP surveillance among AFP cases less than 15 years from January 2008 to December 2014 in DRC were retrospectively considered and analyzed in this study...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642136/circulation-of-multiple-serotypes-of-highly-divergent-enterovirus-c-in-the-xinjiang-uighur-autonomous-region-of-china
#13
Yong Zhang, Qiang Sun, Hui Cui, Dongmei Yan, Qin Fan, Yang Song, Shuangli Zhu, Xiaolei Li, Guohong Huang, Tianjiao Ji, Lan Hu, Dongyan Wang, Qian Yang, Wenbo Xu
Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617004/whole-genome-sequencing-of-enterovirus-species-c-isolates-by-high-throughput-sequencing-development-of-generic-primers
#14
Maël Bessaud, Serge A Sadeuh-Mba, Marie-Line Joffret, Richter Razafindratsimandresy, Patsy Polston, Romain Volle, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Bruno Blondel, Richard Njouom, Francis Delpeyroux
Enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans and can cause diverse clinical syndromes ranging from minor febrile illness to severe and potentially fatal diseases. Enterovirus species C (EV-C) consists of more than 20 types, among which the three serotypes of polioviruses, the etiological agents of poliomyelitis, are included. Biodiversity and evolution of EV-C genomes are shaped by frequent recombination events. Therefore, identification and characterization of circulating EV-C strains require the sequencing of different genomic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606675/cessation-of-trivalent-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-and-introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-worldwide-2016
#15
Lee M Hampton, Margaret Farrell, Alejandro Ramirez-Gonzalez, Lisa Menning, Stephanie Shendale, Ian Lewis, Jennifer Rubin, Julie Garon, Jennifer Harris, Terri Hyde, Steven Wassilak, Manish Patel, Robin Nandy, Diana Chang-Blanc
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, transmission of the three types of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been sharply reduced (1). WPV type 2 (WPV2) has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated in September 2015. Because WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, WPV type 1 (WPV1) is likely the only WPV that remains in circulation (1). This marked progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses and has been a mainstay of efforts to prevent polio since the early 1960s...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559683/fractional-dose-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-immunization-campaign-telangana-state-india-june-2016
#16
Sunil Bahl, Harish Verma, Pankaj Bhatnagar, Pradeep Haldar, Asish Satapathy, K N Arun Kumar, Jennifer Horton, Concepcion F Estivariz, Abhijeet Anand, Roland Sutter
Wild poliovirus type 2 was declared eradicated in September 2015 (1). In April 2016, India, switched from use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV; containing types 1, 2, and 3 polio vaccine viruses), to bivalent OPV (bOPV; containing types 1 and 3), as part of a globally synchronized initiative to withdraw Sabin poliovirus type 2 vaccine. Concurrently, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced into India's routine immunization program to maintain an immunity base that would mitigate the number of paralytic cases in the event of epidemic transmission of poliovirus type 2 (2,3)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498430/environmental-isolation-of-circulating-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-after-interruption-of-wild-poliovirus-transmission-nigeria-2016
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498429/update-on-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-worldwide-january-2015%C3%A2-may-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491079/update-on-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-worldwide-january-2015-may-2016
#19
Jaume Jorba, Ousmane M Diop, Jane Iber, Roland W Sutter, Steven G Wassilak, Cara C Burns
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide (1). One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been the live, attenuated, oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) (2), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but provides long-term protection against paralytic disease. Through effective use of OPV, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has brought wild polioviruses to the threshold of eradication (1)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490081/environmental-isolation-of-circulating-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-after-interruption-of-wild-poliovirus-transmission-nigeria-2016
#20
Andrew Etsano, Eunice Damisa, Faisal Shuaib, Gatei Wa Nganda, Ogu Enemaku, Samuel Usman, Adekunle Adeniji, Jaume Jorba, Jane Iber, Chima Ohuabunwo, Chimeremma Nnadi, Eric Wiesen
In September 2015, more than 1 year after reporting its last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in July 2014 (1), Nigeria was removed from the list of countries with endemic poliovirus transmission,* leaving Afghanistan and Pakistan as the only remaining countries with endemic WPV. However, on April 29, 2016, a laboratory-confirmed, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) isolate was reported from an environmental sample collected in March from a sewage effluent site in Maiduguri Municipal Council, Borno State, a security-compromised area in northeastern Nigeria...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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