Read by QxMD icon Read

Vaccine derived poliovirus

R J Duintjer Tebbens, K M Thompson
If the world can successfully control all outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus that may occur soon after global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, then immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) from rare and mostly asymptomatic long-term excretors (defined as ⩾6 months of excretion) will become the main source of potential poliovirus outbreaks for as long as iVDPV excretion continues. Using existing models of global iVDPV prevalence and global long-term poliovirus risk management, we explore the implications of uncertainties related to iVDPV risks, including the ability to identify asymptomatic iVDPV excretors to treat with polio antiviral drugs (PAVDs) and the transmissibility of iVDPVs...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Zhuoran Zhang, Enzhuo Yang, Chunmiao Hu, Han Cheng, Crystal Y Chen, Dan Huang, Richard Wang, Yue Zhao, Lijun Rong, Marco Vignuzzi, Hongbo Shen, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
While we are approaching the global eradication of circulating wild-type polioviruses(PV), vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Complete cessation of all poliovirus infections may require stopping use of OPV and formulating improved vaccines and new antiviral drugs. Currently, no licensed drugs are available to treat chronically infected poliovirus excretors. Here, we created a modified PV expressing Gaussia Luciferase (PV-GLuc) and developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) antiviral assay...
October 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Margarita Pons-Salort, Natalie A Molodecky, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Andrew Etsano, Rui Gama Vaz, Hamid Jafari, Nicholas C Grassly, Isobel M Blake
BACKGROUND: Global withdrawal of serotype-2 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV2) took place in April 2016. This marked a milestone in global polio eradication and was a public health intervention of unprecedented scale, affecting 155 countries. Achieving high levels of serotype-2 population immunity before OPV2 withdrawal was critical to avoid subsequent outbreaks of serotype-2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In August 2015, we estimated vaccine-induced population immunity against serotype-2 poliomyelitis for 1 January 2004-30 June 2015 and produced forecasts for April 2016 by district in Nigeria and Pakistan...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Mohammadreza Shaghaghi, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Hassan Abolhassani, Saeed Soleyman-Jahi, Leila Parvaneh, Sussan Mahmoudi, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Reza Yazdani, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Mohammad H Eslamian, Hamideh Tabatabaie, Maryam Yousefi, Yaghoob M Kandelousi, Aliasghar Oujaghlou, Nima Rezaei, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type poliovirus serotypes 2 and 3. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency might shed vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) for an extended period, which could pose a major threat to polio eradication programs. Since 1995, sixteen VDPV populations have been isolated from 14 patients with immunodeficiency in Iran. For these patients, vaccine-associated paralysis, mostly in >1 extremity, was the first manifestation of primary immunodeficiency...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hugo Kavunga Membo, Aaron Mweene, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Justin Masumu, Riziki Yogolelo, Norbert Ngendabanyikwa, Eddy Sokolua, Fred Sagamiko, Edgar Simulundu, Steve Ahuka, Jean Jacques Muyembe
INTRODUCTION: The last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Africa was reported in July 2014, thus underscoring the tremendous progress towards polio eradication worldwide. This study aimed to analyze the results of a seven-year surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and to identify potential gaps that need to be addressed. METHODS: Epidemiological and virological data obtained from AFP surveillance among AFP cases less than 15 years from January 2008 to December 2014 in DRC were retrospectively considered and analyzed in this study...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Yong Zhang, Qiang Sun, Hui Cui, Dongmei Yan, Qin Fan, Yang Song, Shuangli Zhu, Xiaolei Li, Guohong Huang, Tianjiao Ji, Lan Hu, Dongyan Wang, Qian Yang, Wenbo Xu
Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maël Bessaud, Serge A Sadeuh-Mba, Marie-Line Joffret, Richter Razafindratsimandresy, Patsy Polston, Romain Volle, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Bruno Blondel, Richard Njouom, Francis Delpeyroux
Enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans and can cause diverse clinical syndromes ranging from minor febrile illness to severe and potentially fatal diseases. Enterovirus species C (EV-C) consists of more than 20 types, among which the three serotypes of polioviruses, the etiological agents of poliomyelitis, are included. Biodiversity and evolution of EV-C genomes are shaped by frequent recombination events. Therefore, identification and characterization of circulating EV-C strains require the sequencing of different genomic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lee M Hampton, Margaret Farrell, Alejandro Ramirez-Gonzalez, Lisa Menning, Stephanie Shendale, Ian Lewis, Jennifer Rubin, Julie Garon, Jennifer Harris, Terri Hyde, Steven Wassilak, Manish Patel, Robin Nandy, Diana Chang-Blanc
Since the 1988 World Health Assembly resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis, transmission of the three types of wild poliovirus (WPV) has been sharply reduced (1). WPV type 2 (WPV2) has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated in September 2015. Because WPV type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, WPV type 1 (WPV1) is likely the only WPV that remains in circulation (1). This marked progress has been achieved through widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs), most commonly trivalent OPV (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses and has been a mainstay of efforts to prevent polio since the early 1960s...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sunil Bahl, Harish Verma, Pankaj Bhatnagar, Pradeep Haldar, Asish Satapathy, K N Arun Kumar, Jennifer Horton, Concepcion F Estivariz, Abhijeet Anand, Roland Sutter
Wild poliovirus type 2 was declared eradicated in September 2015 (1). In April 2016, India, switched from use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV; containing types 1, 2, and 3 polio vaccine viruses), to bivalent OPV (bOPV; containing types 1 and 3), as part of a globally synchronized initiative to withdraw Sabin poliovirus type 2 vaccine. Concurrently, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced into India's routine immunization program to maintain an immunity base that would mitigate the number of paralytic cases in the event of epidemic transmission of poliovirus type 2 (2,3)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 5, 2016: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
Jaume Jorba, Ousmane M Diop, Jane Iber, Roland W Sutter, Steven G Wassilak, Cara C Burns
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis worldwide (1). One of the main tools used in polio eradication efforts has been the live, attenuated, oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) (2), an inexpensive vaccine easily administered by trained volunteers. OPV might require several doses to induce immunity, but provides long-term protection against paralytic disease. Through effective use of OPV, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has brought wild polioviruses to the threshold of eradication (1)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Andrew Etsano, Eunice Damisa, Faisal Shuaib, Gatei Wa Nganda, Ogu Enemaku, Samuel Usman, Adekunle Adeniji, Jaume Jorba, Jane Iber, Chima Ohuabunwo, Chimeremma Nnadi, Eric Wiesen
In September 2015, more than 1 year after reporting its last wild poliovirus (WPV) case in July 2014 (1), Nigeria was removed from the list of countries with endemic poliovirus transmission,* leaving Afghanistan and Pakistan as the only remaining countries with endemic WPV. However, on April 29, 2016, a laboratory-confirmed, circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) isolate was reported from an environmental sample collected in March from a sewage effluent site in Maiduguri Municipal Council, Borno State, a security-compromised area in northeastern Nigeria...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Brian J Kempf, Olve B Peersen, David J Barton
UNLABELLED: RNA recombination is important in the formation of picornavirus species groups and the ongoing evolution of viruses within species groups. In this study, we examined the structure and function of poliovirus polymerase, 3D(pol), as it relates to RNA recombination. Recombination occurs when nascent RNA products exchange one viral RNA template for another during RNA replication. Because recombination is a natural aspect of picornavirus replication, we hypothesized that some features of 3D(pol) may exist, in part, to facilitate RNA recombination...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Carol L Ecale Zhou
Modeling the molecular mechanisms that govern genetic variation can be useful in understanding the dynamics that drive genetic state transition in quasispecies viruses. For example, there is considerable interest in understanding how the relatively benign vaccine strains of poliovirus eventually revert to forms that confer neurovirulence and cause disease (ie, vaccine-derived poliovirus). This report describes a stochastic simulation model, S2M, which can be used to generate hypothetical outcomes based on known mechanisms of genetic diversity...
2016: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Margarita Pons-Salort, Cara C Burns, Hil Lyons, Isobel M Blake, Hamid Jafari, M Steven Oberste, Olen M Kew, Nicholas C Grassly
Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2)...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Lee M Hampton, Kimberly M Thompson
BACKGROUND: The endgame for polio eradication includes coordinated global cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), starting with the cessation of vaccine containing OPV serotype 2 (OPV2) by switching all trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV). The logistics associated with this global switch represent a significant undertaking, with some possibility of inadvertent tOPV use after the switch. METHODS: We used a previously developed poliovirus transmission and OPV evolution model to explore the relationships between the extent of inadvertent tOPV use, the time after the switch of the inadvertent tOPV use and corresponding population immunity to serotype 2 poliovirus transmission, and the ability of the inadvertently introduced viruses to cause a serotype 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreak in a hypothetical population...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Lee M Hampton, Kimberly M Thompson
BACKGROUND: The endgame for polio eradication involves coordinated global cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) with cessation of serotype 2 OPV (OPV2 cessation) implemented in late April and early May 2016 and cessation of serotypes 1 and 3 OPV (OPV13 cessation) currently planned for after 2018. The logistics associated with globally switching all use of trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) represent a significant undertaking, which may cause some complications, including delays that lead to different timing of the switch across shared borders...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Michelle Morales, Rudolf H Tangermann, Steven G F Wassilak
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis. Wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission persists in only two countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) after the removal of Nigeria from the list of countries with endemic polio in September 2015.* Indigenous WPV type 2 has not been detected since 1999 and was declared eradicated by the Global Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication in September 2015.(†) Since November 2012, when the last case of WPV type 3 was detected in Nigeria, WPV type 1 has been the sole circulating type of WPV (1)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Hui-Ting Chan, Yuhong Xiao, William C Weldon, Steven M Oberste, Konstantin Chumakov, Henry Daniell
The WHO recommends complete withdrawal of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) Type 2 by April 2016 globally and replacing with at least one dose of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV). However, high-cost, limited supply of IPV, persistent circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses transmission and need for subsequent boosters remain unresolved. To meet this critical need, a novel strategy of a low cost cold-chain free plant-made viral protein 1 (VP1) subunit oral booster vaccine after single IPV dose is reported. Codon optimization of the VP1 gene enhanced expression by 50-fold in chloroplasts...
May 7, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"