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B Jones, R G Dale
A summary of the key aspects of radiobiological modelling is provided, based on the theoretical and practical concepts of the linear quadratic (LQ) model, which gradually replaced other numerical approaches. The closely related biological effective dose (BED) concept is useful in many clinical applications. BED formulations in conventional photon-based radiotherapy continue to be developed, and can be extended to the now increasingly used proton and ion-beam therapy, to very low or high dose ranges, the dose rate effect, hypoxia and repopulation...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Roberta Anderson, Elwood Armour, Courtney Beeckler, Valerie Briner, Amanda Choflet, Andrea Cox, Amanda N Fader, Marie N Hannah, Robert Hobbs, Ellen Huang, Marilyn Kiely, Junghoon Lee, Marc Morcos, Paige E McMillan, Dave Miller, Sook Kien Ng, Rashmi Prasad, Annette Souranis, Robert Thomsen, Theodore L DeWeese, Akila N Viswanathan
PURPOSE: As a core component of a new gynecologic cancer radiation program, we envisioned, structured, and implemented a novel Interventional Radiation Oncology (IRO) unit and magnetic resonance (MR)-brachytherapy environment in an existing MR simulator. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We describe the external and internal processes required over a 6-8 month time frame to develop a clinical and research program for gynecologic brachytherapy and to successfully convert an MR simulator into an IRO unit...
March 13, 2018: Brachytherapy
Katherine S Chen, Scott M Glaser, Allison E Garda, John A Vargo, M Saiful Huq, Dwight E Heron, Sushil Beriwal
BACKGROUND: Clinical pathways outline criteria for dose homogeneity and critical organ dosimetry. Based upon an internal audit showing suboptimal compliance with dosimetric parameters in whole breast irradiation (WBI), we conducted a mandatory web-based teaching conference for the network. This study reports the impact of this initiative on subsequent treatment plans. METHODS: Radiation treatment plans were collected for the 10 most recent patients receiving WBI at 16 institutions within the UPMC Hillman Cancer Center network...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Ioannis A Tsalafoutas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether electronic collimation software, which is available in all digital X-ray systems, may comprise an overexposure risk. METHODS: In the context of surveys on Diagnostic Reference Levels carried out in two radiographic facilities, along with data on exposure factors, the radiographic field sizes were also recorded. In one facility (Unit A), a wireless flat panel detector is used with a conventional X-ray unit, while in the other, a fully digital system is installed (Unit B)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Shuai Zhang, Burkhard Militzer, Lorin X Benedict, François Soubiran, Philip A Sterne, Kevin P Driver
Carbon-hydrogen plasmas and hydrocarbon materials are of broad interest to laser shock experimentalists, high energy density physicists, and astrophysicists. Accurate equations of state (EOSs) of hydrocarbons are valuable for various studies from inertial confinement fusion to planetary science. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics results at lower temperatures, we compute the EOSs for hydrocarbons from simulations performed at 1473 separate (ρ, T)-points distributed over a range of compositions...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Leonardo Reyes Gonzalez, Claudia N González Brambila, Francisco Veloso
This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico...
2018: PloS One
Michael W Deem, Melia Elizabeth Bonomo
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) constitute a multi-functional, constantly evolving immune system in bacteria and archaea cells. A heritable, molecular memory is generated of phage, plasmids, or other mobile genetic elements that attempt to attack the cell. This memory is used to recognize and interfere with subsequent invasions from the same genetic elements. This versatile prokaryotic tool has also been used to advance applications in biotechnology...
March 15, 2018: Physical Biology
Zaiyang Long, Donald J Tradup, Pengfei Song, Scott F Stekel, Shigao Chen, Katrina N Glazebrook, Nicholas J Hangiandreou
Because of the rapidly growing use of ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) in clinical practices, there is a significant need for development of clinical physics performance assessment methods for this technology. This study aims to report two clinical medical physicists' tasks: (a) acceptance testing (AT) of SWE function on ten commercial ultrasound systems for clinical liver application and (b) comparison of SWE measurements of targets across vendors for clinical musculoskeletal application. For AT, ten GE LOGIQ E9 XDclear 2...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Luc Beaulieu, Dee-Ann Radford, J Eduardo Villarreal-Barajas
The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
James R Kerns, David Followill, Jessica Lowenstein, Andrea Molineu, Paola Alvarez, Paige A Taylor, Stephen F Kry
PURPOSE: Reference dosimetry data can provide an independent second check of acquired values when commissioning or validating a treatment planning system (TPS). The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core at Houston (IROC-Houston) has measured numerous linear accelerators throughout its existence. The results of those measurements are given here, comparing accelerators and the agreement of measurement versus institutional TPS calculations. METHODS: Data from IROC-Houston on-site reviews from 2000 through 2014 were analyzed for all Elekta accelerators, approximately 50...
March 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Bradley W Schuller, Kristi R G Hendrickson, Yi Rong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Michael T Milano, Jimm Grimm, Scott G Soltys, Ellen Yorke, Vitali Moiseenko, Wolfgang A Tomé, Arjun Sahgal, Jinyu Xue, Lijun Ma, Timothy D Solberg, John P Kirkpatrick, Louis S Constine, John C Flickinger, Lawrence B Marks, Issam El Naqa
PURPOSE: Dosimetric and clinical predictors of radiation-induced optic nerve/chiasm neuropathy (RION) after single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or hypofractionated (2-5 fractions) radiosurgery (fSRS) were analyzed from pooled data that were extracted from published reports (PubMed indexed from 1990 to June 2015). This study was undertaken as part of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Working Group on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy, investigating normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) after hypofractionated radiation...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jay Burmeister, Adrian Nalichowski, Michael Snyder, Robert Halford, Geoff Baran, Brian Loughery, Ahmad Hammoud, Joe Rakowski, Todd Bossenberger
We describe the commissioning of the first dedicated commercial total body irradiation (TBI) unit in clinical operation. The Best Theratronics GammaBeam 500 is a Co-60 teletherapy unit with extended field size and imaging capabilities. Radiation safety, mechanical and imaging systems, and radiation output are characterized. Beam data collection, calibration, and external dosimetric validation are described. All radiation safety and mechanical tests satisfied relevant requirements and measured dose distributions meet recommendations of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report #17...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Mark Gainey, Montserrat Carles, Michael Mix, Philipp T Meyer, Michael Bock, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Dimos Baltas
Recently, there has been an increase in the imaging modalities available for radiotherapy planning and radiotherapy prognostic outcome: dual energy computed tomography (CT; DECT), dynamic contrast enhanced CT, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI, positron emission tomography-CT, dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography-MR. These techniques enable more precise gross tumor volume definition than CT alone and moreover allow subvolumes within the gross tumor volume to be defined which may be given a boost dose or an individual voxelized dose prescription may be derived...
March 9, 2018: Future Oncology
Elena Gallio, Francesca Romana Giglioli, Andrea Girardi, Alessia Guarneri, Umberto Ricardi, Roberto Ropolo, Riccardo Ragona, Christian Fiandra
PURPOSE: Automated treatment planning is a new frontier in radiotherapy. The Auto-Planning module of the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS) was evaluated for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments. METHODS: Ten cases were included in the study. Six plans were generated for each case by four medical physics experts. The first two planned with Pinnacle TPS, both with manual module (MP) and Auto-Planning one (AP). The other two physicists generated two plans with Monaco TPS (VM)...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Lukmanda Evan Lubis, Leonard Airell Craig, Hilde Bosmans, Djarwani Soeharso Soejoko
This study aimed to quantify the dose and quality of the preprogrammed imaging modes on two cardiac angiography devices (Philips Allura FD10 Clarity and Allura FD10) using a task-specific in-house phantom, and to discuss the appropriateness of the pre-programmed settings. A Figure of Merit (FOM), defined as the squared Signal Difference to Noise Ratio (SDNR) divided by Entrance Surface Air Kerma (ESAK), was calculated for phantom inserts with different sizes and concentrations of iodine, as well as tin foils...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Kalliopi Platoni, Sotiria Triantopoulou, Maria Dilvoi, Efi Koutsouveli, Agapi Ploussi, Virginia Tsapaki
PURPOSE: Though the number of women scientists is increasing over the years, studies show that they are still under-represented in leadership roles. The purpose of this work is to establish the percentage of women Medical Physicists (wMPs) that have participated in European scientific events and evaluate it as an indication of the current position of women in the field of Medical Physics in Europe and to propose possible ways to encourage their participation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data regarding the participants in European scientific events of Medical Physics were collected...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Yuan Cao, Valla Fatemi, Shiang Fang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Efthimios Kaxiras, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero
The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has puzzled physicists for decades. Such difficulties have stimulated new research paradigms, such as ultracold atom lattices for simulating quantum materials. Here we report on the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two graphene sheets with a small twist angle. For angles near 1.1°, the first 'magic' angle, twisted bilayer graphene exhibits ultraflat bands near charge neutrality, which lead to correlated insulating states at half-filling...
March 5, 2018: Nature
Andreas Hjelm Brandt
This PhD project is based on a longstanding collaboration between physicists and engineers from the Center of Fast Ultrasound Imaging (CFU) at the Technical University of Denmark and medical doctors from the department of Radiology at Rigshospitalet. The intent of this cooperation is to validate new ultrasonic methods for future clinical use. 
Study I compares two B-mode ultrasound methods: the new experimental technique Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beam-forming combined with Tissue Harmonic Imaging (SASB-THI), and a conventional technique combined with THI...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Jean-Pierre Bissonnette
The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists, in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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