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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914233/lessons-from-two-cases-of-radiation-induced-skin-injuries-in-fluoroscopic-procedures-in-bulgaria
#1
Desislava Kostova-Lefterova, Jenia Vassileva, M M Rehani
Radiation-induced injuries to patient skin as a result of fluoroscopy guided interventional procedures are infrequently reported, often misdiagnosed and there is a need to learn lessons from every injury. Methods: This paper describes two cases of radiation induced skin injuries that are, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever reported cases from Bulgaria and possibly from Eastern Europe, and would thus have educational value. Results: The important messages from the skin injuries reported here are: lack of awareness among part of the interventional specialists about the potential for radiation induced skin injury, misdiagnosis after injury happened because of lack of awareness and knowledge among general physicians, dermatologists and surgeons who followed up cases of skin injuries; lack of system to monitor patients with relatively high exposure; important role played by the medical physicist in diagnosing the injury and overall in initiating actions; role of training and informational material displayed in interventional facilities...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906083/are-in-house-diagnostic-mr-physicists-necessary-for-clinical-implementation-of-mri-guided-radiotherapy
#2
EDITORIAL
Minsong Cao, Kyle R Padgett, Yi Rong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905385/synthetic-breast-phantoms-from-patient-based-eigenbreasts
#3
Gregory M Sturgeon, Subok Park, William Paul Segars, Joseph Y Lo
PURPOSE: The limited number of 3D patient-based breast phantoms available could be augmented by synthetic breast phantoms in order to facilitate virtual clinical trials using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation. METHODS: These synthetic breast phantoms were developed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of dimensions needed to describe a training set of images. PCA decomposed a training set of M breast CT volumes (with millions of voxels each) into an M-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895282/a-patient-safety-education-program-in-a-medical-physics-residency
#4
Eric C Ford, Matthew Nyflot, Matthew B Spraker, Gabrielle Kane, Kristi R G Hendrickson
Education in patient safety and quality of care is a requirement for radiation oncology residency programs according to accrediting agencies. However, recent surveys indicate that most programs lack a formal program to support this learning. The aim of this report was to address this gap and share experiences with a structured educational program on quality and safety designed specifically for medical physics therapy residencies. Five key topic areas were identified, drawn from published recommendations on safety and quality...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890091/-what-does-the-medical-physicist-expect-from-the-radiation-oncologist-and-vice-versa
#5
A Lisbona
The cooperation between radiation oncologist and medical physicist is essential to guarantee the quality and safety of the irradiation of our patients. It would be wrong to consider that the intervention of medical physicists in the patient management process is limited to the provision of calibrated and controlled equipment and to guarantee the validity of the dose distribution and the treatment time, while the radiation oncologist has the complete control of all clinical activities related to irradiation...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877370/on-the-existence-of-he%C3%AF-he-bond-in-the-endohedral-fullerene-%C3%B0-%C3%B0%C2%B52-c60
#6
Tymofii Yu Nikolaienko, Eugene S Kryachko, Grygoriy A Dolgonos
Twenty years have already been passed since the endohedral fullerene's void ceaselessly attracts attention of both, experimentalists and theoreticians, computational chemists and physicists in particular, who direct their efforts on computer simulations of encapsulating atoms and molecules into fullerene void and on unraveling the arising bonding patterns. We review recent developments on the endohedral He2 @C60 fullerene, on its experimental observation and on related computational works. The two latter are the main concerns in the present work: on the one hand, there experimentally exists the He dimer embedded into C60 void...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877344/development-of-a-3d-remote-dosimetry-protocol-compatible-with-mrgimrt
#7
Stewart Mein, Leith Rankine, John Adamovics, Harold Li, Mark Oldham
PURPOSE: To develop a novel remote 3D dosimetry protocol to verify Magnetic Resonance-guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) treatments. The protocol was applied to investigate the accuracy of TG-119 IMRT irradiations delivered by the MRIdian(®) system (ViewRay(®) , Oakwood Village, Ohio) allowing for a 48 hour delay between irradiation at a field institution and subsequent readout at a base institution. METHODS: The 3D dosimetry protocol utilizes a novel formulation of PRESAGE(®) radiochromic dosimeters developed for high post-irradiation stability and compatibility with optical-CT readout...
September 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875594/automatic-x-ray-image-contrast-enhancement-based-on-parameter-auto-optimization
#8
Jianfeng Qiu, H Harold Li, Tiezhi Zhang, Fangfang Ma, Deshan Yang
PURPOSE: Insufficient image contrast associated with radiation therapy daily setup x-ray images could negatively affect accurate patient treatment setup. We developed a method to perform automatic and user-independent contrast enhancement on 2D kilo voltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) x-ray images. The goal was to provide tissue contrast optimized for each treatment site in order to support accurate patient daily treatment setup and the subsequent offline review. METHODS: The proposed method processes the 2D x-ray images with an optimized image processing filter chain, which consists of a noise reduction filter and a high-pass filter followed by a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) filter...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871987/low-dose-rate-brachytherapy-for-prostate-cancer-in-low-resource-settings
#9
Michelle I Echevarria, Arash O Naghavi, Yazan A Abuodeh, Kamran A Ahmed, Carlos Chevere, Daniel Fernandez, Kosj Yamoah
PURPOSE: In areas with limited health care, it is important to identify and implement effective treatment methods and to optimize available resources. We investigated the implementation of a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy program for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) in a low-resource setting such as Puerto Rico (PR), where PCa is the main cause of cancer-associated death. METHODS AND MATERIALS: After institutional approval, the medical records of patients with nonmetastatic PCa undergoing LDR brachytherapy from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed from PR...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866124/modeling-the-peak-of-emergence-in-systems-design-and-katachi
#10
REVIEW
Beth Cardier, H T Goranson, Niccolo Casas, Patric Lundberg, Alessio Erioli, Ryuji Takaki, Dénes Nagy, Larry D Sanford
It is difficult to model emergence in biological systems using reductionist paradigms. A requirement for computational modeling is that individual entities can be recorded parametrically and related logically, but their transformation into systems cannot be captured this way. The problem stems from an inability to formally represent system-level interactions and implicit influences, such as context, shifts in causal agency or scale, and self-reference. This hampers biological systems modeling and its computational counterpart, indicating a need for new fundamental abstraction frameworks that include system-level characteristics...
August 30, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865683/evaluation-of-near-miss-and-adverse-events-in-radiation-oncology-using-a-comprehensive-causal-factor-taxonomy
#11
Matthew B Spraker, Robert Fain, Olga Gopan, Jing Zeng, Matthew Nyflot, Loucille Jordan, Gabrielle Kane, Eric Ford
PURPOSE: Incident learning systems (ILSs) are a popular strategy for improving safety in radiation oncology (RO) clinics, but few reports focus on the causes of errors in RO. The goal of this study was to test a causal factor taxonomy developed in 2012 by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and adopted for use in the RO: Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Three hundred event reports were randomly selected from an institutional ILS database and Safety in Radiation Oncology (SAFRON), an international ILS...
September 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862765/an-fmea-evaluation-of-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-dose-delivery-failures-at-tolerance-criteria-levels
#12
Jacqueline Tonigan Faught, Peter A Balter, Jennifer L Johnson, Stephen F Kry, Laurence E Court, Francesco C Stingo, David S Followill
PURPOSE: The objective of this work was to assess both the perception of failure modes in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) when the linac is operated at the edge of tolerance given in AAPM TG-40(1) and TG-142(2) as well as the application of FMEA to this specific section of the IMRT process. METHODS: An online survey was distributed to approximately 2000 physicists worldwide that participate in quality services provided by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core - Houston (IROC-H)...
September 1, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862205/mathematical-formulation-of-125-i-seed-dosimetry-parameters-and-heterogeneity-correction-in-lung-permanent-implant-brachytherapy
#13
Hesameddin Mostaghimi, Ali Reza Mehdizadeh, Leili Darvish, Sadegh Akbari, Hadi Rezaei
OBJECTIVES: Precise determination of dose distribution around low-energy brachytherapy sources as well as considering tissue heterogeneity is crucial for optimized treatment planning. This study is aimed at determination and mathematically formulation of American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPM TG-43) dosimetry parameters of 125I seed (model 6711) and calculation of dose difference caused by neglecting lung heterogeneity in permanent implant brachytherapy...
July 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843639/characteristics-of-the-most-recently-awarded-magnetic-resonance-imaging-patents-in-the-united-states
#14
REVIEW
Sushma Gaddam, Gregory Lemberskiy, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
PURPOSE: To characterize recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technical development and innovation based on data regarding MRI-related patents awarded in 2016. METHODS: The US Patent and Trademark Office website was searched for patents awarded in 2016 and an abstract containing "magnetic resonance." Patent characteristics were summarized. An MRI physicist classified patents' themes. RESULTS: A total of 423 MRI-related patents were awarded in 2016...
July 29, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836506/unintended-and-accidental-medical-radiation-exposures-in-radiology-guidelines-on-investigation-and-prevention
#15
Colin J Martin, J Vassileva, Eliseo Vano, M Mahesh, Steve Ebdon-Jackson, K Ng, Donald P Frush, R Loose, John Damilakis
This paper sets out guidelines for managing radiation exposure incidents involving patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology. The work is based on collation of experiences from representatives of international and national organizations for radiologists, medical physicists, radiographers, regulators, and equipment manufacturers, derived from an International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting. More serious overexposures can result in skin doses high enough to produce tissue reactions, in interventional procedures and computed tomography, most notably from perfusion studies...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834624/capturing-extraordinary-soft-assembled-charge-like-polypeptides-as-a-strategy-for-nanocarrier-design
#16
Aroa Duro-Castano, Vicent J Nebot, Amaya Niño-Pariente, Ana Armiñán, Juan J Arroyo-Crespo, Alison Paul, Natalia Feiner-Gracia, Lorenzo Albertazzi, María J Vicent
The rational design of nanomedicines is a challenging task given the complex architectures required for the construction of nanosized carriers with embedded therapeutic properties and the complex interface of these materials with the biological environment. Herein, an unexpected charge-like attraction mechanism of self-assembly for star-shaped polyglutamates in nonsalty aqueous solutions is identified, which matches the ubiquitous "ordinary-extraordinary" phenomenon previously described by physicists. For the first time, a bottom-up methodology for the stabilization of these nanosized soft-assembled star-shaped polyglutamates is also described, enabling the translation of theoretical research into nanomaterials with applicability within the drug-delivery field...
August 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834551/risk-assessment-of-a-new-acceptance-testing-procedure-for-conventional-linear-accelerators
#17
Taylor Harry, Sridhar Yaddanapudi, Bin Cai, Keith Stinson, S Murty Goddu, Camille Noel, Sasa Mutic, Todd Pawlicki
PURPOSE: New techniques and materials have recently been developed to expedite the conventional linac acceptance testing procedure(1) which use the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) for data collection. This new procedure is designed to be more efficient and robust than the conventional approach. The purpose of this work is to perform a comparative risk assessment of the two acceptance testing procedures (ATPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis was used to assess risks for both ATP approaches...
August 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827007/failure-modes-and-effects-analysis-for-ocular-brachytherapy
#18
Yongsook C Lee, Yongbok Kim, Jason Wei-Yeong Huynh, Russell J Hamilton
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify potential failure modes (FMs) having a high risk and to improve our current quality management (QM) program in Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) ocular brachytherapy by undertaking a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and a fault tree analysis (FTA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Process mapping and FMEA were performed for COMS ocular brachytherapy. For all FMs identified in FMEA, risk priority numbers (RPNs) were determined by assigning and multiplying occurrence, severity, and lack of detectability values, each ranging from 1 to 10...
August 18, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826776/risk-of-low-dose-radiation-and-the-beir-vii-report-a-critical-review-of-what-it-does-and-doesn-t-say
#19
REVIEW
Michael K O'Connor
This article briefly reviews the history behind the BEIR VII report and the use of the linear no-threshold hypothesis. The BEIR VII committee considered four primary sources of data on the stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. These were environmental studies, occupational studies, medical studies and studies on the atomic bomb survivors. These sources are briefly reviewed along with key studies that run counter to the LNT hypothesis. We review many of the assumptions, hypotheses and subjective decisions used to generate risk estimates in the BEIR VII report...
August 18, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820311/clinical-radiobiology-of-proton-therapy-modeling-of-rbe
#20
B Jones
PURPOSE: To better estimate relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in therapeutic proton beams by using a modeled approach, in order to improve their clinical safety and effectiveness. INTRODUCTION: Concerns exist about the 1.1 RBE used in proton therapy, since it may lead to unintentional over- and under-dosage in patients and so lead to unexpected clinical outcomes. Late reacting normal tissues (with low α/β values), might be overdosed if RBE >1.1; very radiosensitive tumors (with high α/β), might be under-dosed if RBE <1...
August 18, 2017: Acta Oncologica
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