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Mark A Bee, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard
Acoustic signaling plays key roles in mediating many of the reproductive and social behaviors of anurans (frogs and toads). Moreover, acoustic signaling often occurs at night, in structurally complex habitats, such as densely vegetated ponds, and in dense breeding choruses characterized by high levels of background noise and acoustic clutter. Fundamental to anuran behavior is the ability of the auditory system to determine accurately the location from where sounds originate in space (sound source localization) and to assign specific sounds in the complex acoustic milieu of a chorus to their correct sources (sound source segregation)...
October 12, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Kerri A Van Arnem, David P Supinski, Jonathan E Tucker, Shawn Varney
BACKGROUND: Trauma patients sustaining blunt injuries are exposed to multiple radiologic studies. Evidence indicates that the risk of cancer from exposure to ionizing radiation rises in direct proportion to the cumulative effective dose (CED) received. The purpose of this study is to quantify the amount of ionizing radiation accumulated when arriving directly from point of injury to San Antonio Military Medical Center (SAMMC), a level I trauma center, compared with those transferred from other facilities...
September 13, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marko Jusup, Tânia Sousa, Tiago Domingos, Velimir Labinac, Nina Marn, Zhen Wang, Tin Klanjšček
We review the most comprehensive metabolic theory of life existing to date. A special focus is given to the thermodynamic roots of this theory and to implications that the laws of physics-such as the conservation of mass and energy-have on all life. Both the theoretical foundations and biological applications are covered. Hitherto, the foundations were more accessible to physicists or mathematicians, and the applications to biologists, causing a dichotomy in what always should have been a single body of work...
September 9, 2016: Physics of Life Reviews
William F Sensakovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
C S Moore, T J Wood, G Avery, S Balcam, L Needler, H Joshi, J R Saunderson, A W Beavis
The use of three physical image quality metrics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm) have recently been examined by our group for their appropriateness in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with an Agfa computed radiography (CR) imaging system. This study uses the same methodology but investigates AEC calibration for abdomen, pelvis and spine CR imaging. AEC calibration curves were derived using a simple uniform phantom (equivalent to 20 cm water) to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Malou Henriksen-Lacey, Susana Carregal-Romero, Luis M Liz-Marzán
An impressive development has been achieved toward the production of well defined "smart" inorganic nanoparticles, in which the physicochemical properties can be controlled and predicted to a high degree of accuracy. Nanoparticle design is indeed highly advanced, multi-modal and multi-targeting being the norm, yet we do not fully understand yet the obstacles that nanoparticles face when used in vivo. Increased cooperation between chemists and biochemists, immunologists and physicists, has allowed us to think outside the box and we are slowly starting to understand the interactions that nanoparticles undergo under more realistic situations...
October 6, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
David L Levin, Mark L Schiebler, Susan R Hopkins
As pulmonary functional imaging moves beyond the realm of the radiologist and physicist, it is important that imagers have a common language and understanding of the relevant physiology of the lung. This review will focus on key physiological concepts and pitfalls relevant to functional lung imaging.
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Jean-Pierre Bissonnette, Michael Milosevic, Marco Carlone, Kyle E Malkoske
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Matthew C DeLorenzo, Dee H Wu, Kai Yang, Isaac B Rutel
The purpose of this study was to introduce and describe the development of RadShield, a Java-based graphical user interface (GUI), which provides a base design that uniquely performs thorough, spatially distributed calculations at many points and reports the maximum air-kerma rate and barrier thickness for each barrier pursuant to NCRP Report 147 methodology. Semiautomated shielding design calculations are validated by two approaches: a geometry-based approach and a manual approach. A series of geometry-based equations were derived giv-ing the maximum air-kerma rate magnitude and location through a first derivative root finding approach...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Arpan V Prabhu, David R Hansberry, Nitin Agarwal, David A Clump, Dwight E Heron
PURPOSE: Physicians encourage patients to be informed about their health care options, but much of the online health care-related resources can be beneficial only if patients are capable of comprehending it. This study's aim was to assess the readability level of online patient education resources for radiation oncology to conclude whether they meet the general public's health literacy needs as determined by the guidelines of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA)...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Young-Hoon Kim, Himchan Cho, Tae-Woo Lee
Twenty years after layer-type metal halide perovskites were successfully developed, 3D metal halide perovskites (shortly, perovskites) were recently rediscovered and are attracting multidisciplinary interest from physicists, chemists, and material engineers. Perovskites have a crystal structure composed of five atoms per unit cell (ABX3) with cation A positioned at a corner, metal cation B at the center, and halide anion X at the center of six planes and unique optoelectronic properties determined by the crystal structure...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yelong Zheng, Hongyu Lu, Wei Yin, Dashuai Tao, Lichun Shi, Yu Tian
Forces acted on legs of water-walking arthropods with weights in dynes are of great interest for entomologist, physicists, and engineers. While their floating mechanism has been recognized, the in vivo leg forces stationary have not yet been simultaneously achieved. In this study, their elegant bright-edged leg shadows are used to make the tiny forces visible and measurable based on the updated Archimedes' principle. The force was approximately proportional to the shadow area with a resolution from nanonewton to piconewton/pixel...
October 7, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
F Z Mokrane, R Colleter, S Duchesne, P Gerard, F Savall, E Crubezy, C Guilbeau-Frugier, R Moreno, A Sewonu, H Rousseau, N Telmon, F Dedouit
INTRODUCTION: Among 800 burials dated between the 15th and 18th centuries and found in the center of Rennes (Brittany, France), a collection of five heart-shaped lead urns was discovered. This material was studied using classical methods (external study, autopsy and histology), and also modern imaging like computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) before and after coronary opacification. The aim of this manuscript is to describe different steps of ancient soft tissues study, especially using imaging techniques...
September 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
Angelo Pierangelo, David Fuks, Pierre Validire, Ali Benali, Brice Gayet
OBJECTIVES: Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a promising new imaging technique enabling in-vivo analysis of tissues at the cellular level, in real time. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of indocyanine green-aided pCLE for the diagnosis of malignant liver nodules. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From October 2014 to July 2015, liver specimens from 30 consecutive patients were analyzed ex vivo using pCLE directly after resection, with indocyanine green as contrast agent...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Gabriella Captur, Peter Gatehouse, Kathryn E Keenan, Friso G Heslinga, Ruediger Bruehl, Marcel Prothmann, Martin J Graves, Richard J Eames, Camilla Torlasco, Giulia Benedetti, Jacqueline Donovan, Bernd Ittermann, Redha Boubertakh, Andrew Bathgate, Celine Royet, Wenjie Pang, Reza Nezafat, Michael Salerno, Peter Kellman, James C Moon
BACKGROUND: T1 mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) have the potential to guide patient care and serve as surrogate end-points in clinical trials, but measurements differ between cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanners and pulse sequences. To help deliver T1 mapping to global clinical care, we developed a phantom-based quality assurance (QA) system for verification of measurement stability over time at individual sites, with further aims of generalization of results across sites, vendor systems, software versions and imaging sequences...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Anton Mans, Danny Schuring, Mark P Arends, Cornelia A J M Vugts, Jochem W H Wolthaus, Heidi T Lotz, Marjan Admiraal, Rob J W Louwe, Michel C Öllers, Jeroen B van de Kamer
In 2010, the NCS (Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry) installed a subcommittee to develop guidelines for quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments. The report (published in 2015) has been written by Dutch medical physicists and has therefore, inevitably, a Dutch focus. This paper is a condensed version of these guidelines, the full report in English is freely available from the NCS website After describing the transition from IMRT to VMAT, the paper addresses machine quality assurance (QA) and treatment planning system (TPS) commissioning for VMAT...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Kazufusa Mizonobe, Yuta Shiraishi, Satoshi Nakano, Chiaki Fukuda, Osamu Asanuma, Kohei Harada, Hiroyuki Date
American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report No.204 recommends the size-specific dose estimates (SSDE), wherein SSDE=computed tomography dose index-volume (CTDIvol )×size correction factor (SCF), as an index of the CT dose to consider patient thickness. However, the study on SSDE has not been made yet for area detector CT (ADCT) device such as a 320-row CT scanner. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SCF values for ADCT by means of a simulation technique to look into the differences in SCF values due to beam width...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Declan Butler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Nature
Qiongge Li, Maria F Chan
Over half of cancer patients receive radiotherapy (RT) as partial or full cancer treatment. Daily quality assurance (QA) of RT in cancer treatment closely monitors the performance of the medical linear accelerator (Linac) and is critical for continuous improvement of patient safety and quality of care. Cumulative longitudinal QA measurements are valuable for understanding the behavior of the Linac and allow physicists to identify trends in the output and take preventive actions. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time-series prediction modeling techniques were both applied to 5-year daily Linac QA data...
September 14, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Raimundo Real, A Márcia Barbosa, Joseph W Bull
Species distributions are typically represented by records of their observed occurrence at a given spatial and temporal scale. Such records are inevitably incomplete and contingent on the spatial-temporal circumstances under which the observations were made. Moreover, organisms may respond differently to similar environmental conditions at different places or moments, so their distribution is, in principle, not completely predictable. We argue that this uncertainty exists, and warrants considering species distributions as analogous to coherent quantum objects, whose distributions are better described by a wavefunction rather than by a set of locations...
September 10, 2016: Systematic Biology
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