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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100025/sex-biased-transcriptome-divergence-along-a-latitudinal-gradient
#1
Scott L Allen, Russell Bonduriansky, Carla Sgro, Stephen F Chenoweth
Although not all sex-dependent gene expression is adaptive, it is likely an important genomic mechanism that allows each sex to independently adapt to environmental changes. Among Drosophila species, sex-biased genes display remarkably consistent evolutionary patterns; male-biased genes evolve faster than unbiased genes in both coding sequence and expression level, suggesting sex-differences in selection through time. However, comparatively little is known of the evolutionary process shaping sex-biased expression within species...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097084/the-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-cdpk-and-cdpk-related-kinase-gene-families-in-hevea-brasiliensis-comparison-with-five-other-plant-species-in-structure-evolution-and-expression
#2
Xiao-Hu Xiao, Meng Yang, Jin-Lei Sui, Ji-Yan Qi, Yong-Jun Fang, Song-Nian Hu, Chao-Rong Tang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) play important roles in various physiological processes of plants, including growth and development, stress responses and hormone signaling. Although the CDPK gene family has been characterized in several model plants, little is known about this gene family in Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree). Here, we characterize the entire H. brasiliensis CDPK and CDPK-related kinase (CRK) gene families comprising 30 CDPK genes (HbCPK1 to 30) and nine CRK genes (HbCRK1 to 9)...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095889/evolution-of-gut-microbiota-composition-from-birth-to-24-weeks-in-the-infantmet-cohort
#3
Cian J Hill, Denise B Lynch, Kiera Murphy, Marynka Ulaszewska, Ian B Jeffery, Carol Anne O'Shea, Claire Watkins, Eugene Dempsey, Fulvio Mattivi, Kieran Touhy, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Paul W O' Toole, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age. METHODS: V4-V5 region 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing and, in parallel, bacteriological culture. The metabolomic profile of infant urine at 4 weeks of age was also examined by LC-MS. RESULTS: Full-term (FT), spontaneous vaginally delivered (SVD) infants' microbiota remained stable at both phylum and genus levels during the 24-week period examined...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088151/phase-transition-of-a-symmetric-diblock-copolymer-induced-by-nanorods-with-different-surface-chemistry
#4
Yu-Qi Guo, Jun-Xing Pan, Min-Na Sun, Jin-Jun Zhang
We investigate the phase transition of a symmetric diblock copolymer induced by nanorods with different surface chemistry. The results demonstrate that the system occurs the phase transition from a disordered structure to ordered parallel lamellae and then to the tilted layered structure as the number of rods increases. The dynamic evolution of the domain size and the order parameter of the microstructure are also examined. Furthermore, the influence of rod property, rod-phase interaction, rod-rod interaction, rod length, and polymerization degree on the behavior of the polymer system is also investigated systematically...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087779/genomics-of-parallel-experimental-evolution-in-drosophila
#5
J L Graves, K L Hertweck, M A Phillips, M V Han, L G Cabral, T T Barter, L F Greer, M K Burke, L D Mueller, M R Rose
What are the genomic foundations of adaptation in sexual populations? We address this question using fitness-character and whole-genome sequence data from 30 Drosophila laboratory populations. These 30 populations are part of a nearly forty-year laboratory radiation featuring three selection regimes, each shared by ten populations for up to 837 generations, with moderately large effective population sizes. Each of three sets of ten populations that shared a selection regime consist of five populations that have long been maintained under that selection regime, paired with five populations that had only recently been subjected to that selection regime...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087770/mitochondrial-mutation-rate-spectrum-and-heteroplasmy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-spontaneous-mutation-accumulation-lines-of-differing-population-size
#6
Anke Konrad, Owen Thompson, Robert H Waterston, Donald G Moerman, Peter D Keightley, Ulfar Bergthorsson, Vaishali Katju
Mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, given their elevated rates of evolution, have served as pivotal markers for phylogeographic studies and recent phylogenetic events. In order to determine the dynamics of spontaneous mitochondrial mutations in small populations in the absence and presence of selection, we evolved mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel over 409 consecutive generations at three varying population sizes of N = 1, 10 and 100 hermaphrodites. The N =1 populations should have a minimal influence of natural selection to provide the spontaneous mutation rate and the expected rate of neutral evolution, whereas larger population sizes should experience increasing intensity of selection...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087420/on-the-quirks-of-maximum-parsimony-and-likelihood-on-phylogenetic-networks
#7
Christopher Bryant, Mareike Fischer, Simone Linz, Charles Semple
Maximum parsimony is one of the most frequently-discussed tree reconstruction methods in phylogenetic estimation. However, in recent years it has become more and more apparent that phylogenetic trees are often not sufficient to describe evolution accurately. For instance, processes like hybridization or lateral gene transfer that are commonplace in many groups of organisms and result in mosaic patterns of relationships cannot be represented by a single phylogenetic tree. This is why phylogenetic networks, which can display such events, are becoming of more and more interest in phylogenetic research...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079359/pristine-graphene-electrode-in-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#9
Aozhen Xie, Ningning Xuan, Kun Ba, Zhengzong Sun
Graphene, the sp2 carbonaceous two dimensional (2D) material, is gaining more attentions in recent electrochemical studies. However, this atomic thick electrode usually suffers with surface contamination and poor electrochemical endurance. To overcome the drawbacks, we developed a PMMA-assisted, flipped transfer method to fabricate the graphene electrode with pristine surface and prolonged lifetime in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The HER performances of the single-layer graphene (SLG) were evaluated on various insulating and conductive substrates, including SiO2, polymers, SLG, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), and copper...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072602/-janus-kinase-ing-up-the-treatment-of-primary-myelofibrosis-building-better-combination-strategies
#10
Rita Assi, Srdan Verstovsek, Naval Daver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article discusses the promising agents that are approved or currently under investigation for the treatment of myelofibrosis and reviews the ongoing Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors-based combinatorial strategies in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Myelofibrosis is a Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm with constitutive JAK/STAT activation. The JAK-inhibitor ruxolitinib is the only approved drug for this disease in the United States and Europe based on two randomized phase III studies that demonstrated clinically meaningful reduction in spleen size, improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and an overall survival advantage with prolonged follow-up...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071790/synthesizing-perspectives-on-the-evolution-of-cooperation-within-and-between-species
#11
Jessica L Barker, Judith L Bronstein, Maren L Friesen, Emily I Jones, H Kern Reeve, Andrew G Zink, Megan E Frederickson
Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intra-specific and inter-specific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline three advantages of cooperation relative to non-cooperation (acquisition of otherwise inaccessible goods and services, more efficient acquisition of resources, and buffering against variability), and predict when individuals should cooperate with a conspecific versus a heterospecific partner to obtain these advantages...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071788/chromosome-inversions-and-ecological-plasticity-in-the-main-african-malaria-mosquitoes
#12
Diego Ayala, Pelayo Acevedo, Marco Pombi, Ibrahima Dia, Daniela Boccolini, Carlo Costantini, Frédéric Simard, Didier Fontenille
Chromosome inversions have fascinated the scientific community, mainly because of their role in the rapid adaption of different taxa to changing environments. However, the ecological traits linked to chromosome inversions have been poorly studied. Here, we investigated the roles played by 23 chromosome inversions in the adaptation of the four major African malaria mosquitoes to local environments in Africa. We studied their distribution patterns by using spatially explicit modeling and characterized the ecogeographical determinants of each inversion range...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065296/patterns-and-drivers-of-egg-pigment-intensity-and-colour-diversity-in-the-ocean-a-meta-analysis-of-phylum-echinodermata
#13
E M Montgomery, J-F Hamel, A Mercier
Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064122/correlation-between-degradation-pathway-and-toxicity-of-acetaminophen-and-its-by-products-by-using-the-electro-fenton-process-in-aqueous-media
#14
Thi Xuan Huong Le, Thi Van Nguyen, Zoulkifli Amadou Yacouba, Laetitia Zoungrana, Florent Avril, Duy Linh Nguyen, Eddy Petit, Julie Mendret, Valerie Bonniol, Mikhael Bechelany, Stella Lacour, Geoffroy Lesage, Marc Cretin
The evolution of the degradation by-products of an acetaminophen (ACE) solution was monitored by HPLC-UV/MS and IC in parallel with its ecotoxicity (Vibrio fischeri 81.9%, Microtox(®) screening tests) during electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation performed on carbon felt. The aromatic compounds 2-hydroxy-4-(N-acetyl) aminophenol, 1,4-benzoquinone, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid were identified as toxic sub-products during the first stage of the electrochemical treatment, whereas aliphatic short-chain carboxylic acids (oxalic, maleic, oxamic, formic, acetic and fumaric acids) and inorganic ions (ammonium and nitrate) were well identified as non-toxic terminal sub-products...
December 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062590/shared-characteristics-underpinning-c4-leaf-maturation-derived-from-analysis-of-multiple-c3-and-c4-species-of-flaveria
#15
Britta M C Kümpers, Steven J Burgess, Ivan Reyna-Llorens, Richard Smith-Unna, Chris Boursnell, Julian M Hibberd
Most terrestrial plants use C3 photosynthesis to fix carbon. In multiple plant lineages a modified system known as C4 photosynthesis has evolved. To better understand the molecular patterns associated with induction of C4 photosynthesis, the genus Flaveria that contains C3 and C4 species was used. A base to tip maturation gradient of leaf anatomy was defined, and RNA sequencing was undertaken along this gradient for two C3 and two C4 Flaveria species. Key C4 traits including vein density, mesophyll and bundle sheath cross-sectional area, chloroplast ultrastructure, and abundance of transcripts encoding proteins of C4 photosynthesis were quantified...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059504/particulate-photocatalyst-sheets-based-on-carbon-conductor-layer-for-efficient-z-scheme-pure-water-splitting-at-ambient-pressure
#16
Qian Wang, Takashi Hisatomi, Yohichi Suzuki, Zhenhua Pan, Jeongsuk Seo, Masao Katayama, Tsutomu Minegishi, Hiroshi Nishiyama, Tsuyoshi Takata, Kazuhiko Seki, Akihiko Kudo, Taro Yamada, Kazunari Domen
Development of sunlight-driven water splitting systems with high efficiency, scalability, and cost-competitiveness is a central issue for mass production of solar hydrogen as a renewable and storable energy carrier. Photocatalyst sheets comprising a particulate hydrogen evolution photocatalyst (HEP) and an oxygen evolution photocatalyst (OEP) embedded in a conductive thin film can realize efficient and scalable solar hydrogen production using Z-scheme water splitting. However, the use of expensive precious metal thin films that also promote reverse reactions is a major obstacle to developing a cost-effective process at ambient pressure...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057553/time-to-split-salvia-s-l-lamiaceae-new-insights-from-old-world-salvia-phylogeny
#17
Maria Will, Regine Claßen-Bockhoff
AIMS: Salvia L. is widely known as the largest genus in the mint family. A morphological modification of the androecium (lever-like stamens) was used to support this genus. However, molecular data revealed that Salvia is polyphyletic. Since phylogenetic studies largely underrepresented Old World Salvia species, we filled this gap and combined new data with existing sequences. The aim of our study was the identification of well-supported clades that provide the basis for evolutionary and taxonomic conclusions...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052920/evolution-of-transcript-modification-by-n6-methyladenosine-in-primates
#18
Lijia Ma, Boxuan Zhao, Kai Chen, Amber Thomas, Jigyasa H Tuteja, Xin He, Chuan He, Kevin White
Phenotypic differences within populations and between closely related species are often driven by variation and evolution of gene expression (King and Wilson 1975; Romero et al. 2012; Villar et al. 2014). However, most analyses have focused on the effects of genomic variation at cis-regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers that control transcriptional activity, and little is understood about the influence of post-transcriptional processes on transcript evolution. Post-transcriptional modification of RNA by N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been shown to be widespread throughout the transcriptome (Desrosiers et al...
January 4, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052323/complex-dynamics-underlie-the-evolution-of-imperfect-wing-pattern-convergence-in-butterflies
#19
Susan D Finkbeiner, Adriana D Briscoe, Sean P Mullen
Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species...
January 4, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049419/asymmetry-and-integration-of-cellular-morphology-in-micrasterias-compereana
#20
Jiří Neustupa
BACKGROUND: Unicellular green algae of the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales) have complex cells with multiple lobes and indentations, and therefore, they are considered model organisms for research on plant cell morphogenesis and variation. Micrasterias cells have a typical biradial symmetric arrangement and multiple terminal lobules. They are composed of two semicells that can be further differentiated into three structural components: the polar lobe and two lateral lobes. Experimental studies suggested that these cellular parts have specific evolutionary patterns and develop independently...
January 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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