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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526851/characterization-of-trpa-channels-in-the-starfish-patiria-pectinifera-involvement-of-thermally-activated-trpa1-in-thermotaxis-in-marine-planktonic-larvae
#1
Shigeru Saito, Gen Hamanaka, Narudo Kawai, Ryohei Furukawa, Jun Gojobori, Makoto Tominaga, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Yoko Satta
The vast majority of marine invertebrates spend their larval period as pelagic plankton and are exposed to various environmental cues. Here we investigated the thermotaxis behaviors of the bipinnaria larvae of the starfish, Patiria pectinifera, in association with TRPA ion channels that serve as thermal receptors in various animal species. Using a newly developed thermotaxis assay system, we observed that P. pectinifera larvae displayed positive thermotaxis toward high temperatures, including toward temperatures high enough to cause death...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524624/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-progress-in-understanding-the-disease-and-prioritizing-strategies-for-drug-development
#2
REVIEW
P Ghataorhe, C J Rhodes, L Harbaum, M Attard, J Wharton, M R Wilkins
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), at one time a largely overlooked disease, is now the subject of intense study in many academic and biotech groups. The availability of new treatments has increased awareness of the condition. This in turn has driven a change in the demographics of PAH, with an increase in the mean age at diagnosis. The diagnosis of PAH in more elderly patients has highlighted the need for careful phenotyping of patients and for further studies to understand how best to manage pulmonary hypertension associated with, for example, left heart disease...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523337/a-parallel-between-two-important-romanian-histologists-of-twentieth-century-alexandru-tupa-1886-1956-and-cornel-crisan-1895-1958
#3
Dan Cristian Bârsu
During the XXth century, the evolution of histology in Romania was marked by different personalities. The aim of our paper is to present a parallel between two Professors of Histology: Alexandru Tupa (1886-1956) and Cornel Crisan (1895-1958) - who were contemporaries. Thus, we bring a homage to their memory, because in 2016 was the anniversary of 130 years since the birth of Al. Tupa and in 2018 will be the commemoration of 60 years since the death of C. Crisan. Both carried out their didactic and scientific activities at two prestigious Faculties of Medicine from Romania: Tupa in Jassy and Crisan in Cluj...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522532/higher-predation-risk-for-insect-prey-at-low-latitudes-and-elevations
#4
Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K Petry, Nigel R Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C Bonebrake, Erin K Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L Gray, David S Hik, Sarah J Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige, Akihiro Nakamura, Colleen S Nell, Elizabeth Nichols, Alena Prokurat, Katerina Sam, Niels M Schmidt, Alison Slade, Victor Slade, Alžběta Suchanková, Tiit Teder, Saskya van Nouhuys, Vigdis Vandvik, Anita Weissflog, Vital Zhukovich, Eleanor M Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic trend in attack rates by birds or mammals...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521164/biotransformation-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-with-hexachlorocyclohexane-transforming-sphingobium-chinhatense-strain-ip26
#5
Norbert V Heeb, Andreas Grubelnik, Birgit Geueke, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Peter Lienemann
Bacterial evolution has resulted in the appearance of several Sphingomonadacea strains that gained the ability to metabolize hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). HCHs have been widely used as pesticides but were banned under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 2009. Here we present evidence for bacterial transformation reactions of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), which are structurally related to HCHs. HBCDs were used as flame retardants. They are now also considered as POPs and their production and use is restricted since 2013...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516775/reagent-design-and-ligand-evolution-for-the-development-of-a-mild-copper-catalyzed-hydroxylation-reaction
#6
Patrick S Fier, Kevin M Maloney
Parallel synthesis and mass-directed purification of a modular ligand library, high-throughput experimentation, and rational ligand evolution have led to a novel copper catalyst for the synthesis of phenols with a traceless hydroxide surrogate. The mild reaction conditions reported here enable the late-stage synthesis of numerous complex, druglike phenols.
May 18, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514124/-partial-breast-reconstruction-by-modified-breast-reduction-techniques
#7
REVIEW
Dean D Ad-El, Sagit Meshulam Derazon, Eran Sharon, Asaf Olshinka
Partial resections of the breast are more than 50% of breast oncological surgery. The resulting defect can be substantial and cause meaningful deformity that leads to reduced body image satisfaction of the patients, affecting their ability to cope with the cancer. Parallel to the development of breast oncology techniques, an evolution of breast reconstruction techniques occurred. During the last decade, by using techniques from cosmetic breast surgery (such as breast reductions, augmentations and mastopexies), we can reconstruct extensive partial defects of the breasts at the immediate and delayed setting and achieve symmetrical aesthetic results...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510537/converging-evolution-leads-to-near-maximal-junction-diversity-through-parallel-mechanisms-in-b-and-t-cell-receptors
#8
Jennifer Israel Cohen, Jeroen Heijst, Jacob Glanville, Yoram Louzoun
T and B cell receptor (TCR and BCR) complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) genetic diversity is produced through multiple diversification and selection stages. Potential holes in the CDR3 repertoire were argued to be linked to immunodeficiencies and diseases. In contrast with BCRs, TCRs have practically no Dβ germline genetic diversity, and the question whether they can produce a diverse CDR3 repertoire emerges. In order to address the genetic diversity of the adaptive immune system, appropriate quantitative measures for diversity and large scale sequencing are required...
May 16, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509909/experimental-evolution-and-the-dynamics-of-adaptation-and-genome-evolution-in-microbial-populations
#9
Richard E Lenski
Evolution is an on-going process, and it can be studied experimentally in organisms with rapid generations. My team has maintained 12 populations of Escherichia coli in a simple laboratory environment for >25 years and 60 000 generations. We have quantified the dynamics of adaptation by natural selection, seen some of the populations diverge into stably coexisting ecotypes, described changes in the bacteria's mutation rate, observed the new ability to exploit a previously untapped carbon source, characterized the dynamics of genome evolution and used parallel evolution to identify the genetic targets of selection...
May 16, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507289/cells-reprogramming-to-stem-cells-inhibit-the-reprogramming-of-adjacent-cells-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#10
Yoshikatsu Sato, Nagisa Sugimoto, Tadayoshi Hirai, Akihiro Imai, Minoru Kubo, Yuji Hiwatashi, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Under certain circumstances differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to form stem cells in land plants, but only a portion of the cells reprograms successfully. A long-distance inhibitory signal from reprogrammed cells to surrounding cells has been reported in some ferns. Here we show the existence of anisotropic inhibitory signal to regulate stem cell formation in the moss Physcomitrella patens. When single cells were isolated from a gametophore leaf, over 90% of them were reprogrammed to stem cells with characteristic nuclear expansion...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505375/between-a-pod-and-a-hard-test-the-deep-evolution-of-amoebae
#11
Seungho Kang, Alexander K Tice, Frederick W Spiegel, Jeffrey D Silberman, Tomáš Pánek, Ivan Cepicka, Martin Kostka, Anush Kosakyan, Daniel M Alcântara, Andrew J Roger, Lora L Shadwick, Alexey Smirnov, Alexander Kudryavstev, Daniel J G Lahr, Matthew W Brown
Amoebozoa is the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa, the lineage that contains the animals and Fungi, as well as their protistan relatives, and the breviate and apusomonad flagellates. Amoebozoa is extraordinarily diverse, encompassing important model organisms and significant pathogens. Although amoebozoans are integral to global nutrient cycles and present in nearly all environments, they remain vastly understudied. We present a robust phylogeny of Amoebozoa based on broad representative set of taxa in a phylogenomic framework (325 genes)...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502791/single-strand-consensus-sequencing-reveals-that-hiv-type-but-not-subtype-significantly-impacts-viral-mutation-frequencies-and-spectra
#12
Jonathan M O Rawson, Daryl M Gohl, Sean R Landman, Megan E Roth, Morgan E Meissner, Tara S Peterson, James S Hodges, Kenneth B Beckman, Louis M Mansky
A long-standing question of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genetic variation and evolution has been whether differences exist in mutation rate and/or mutation spectra among HIV types (i.e., HIV-1 versus HIV-2) as well as among HIV groups (i.e., HIV-1 groups M-P and HIV-2 groups A-H) and HIV-1 Group M subtypes (i.e., subtypes A-D, F-H, and J-K). To address this, a new single-strand consensus sequencing assay was developed for the determination of HIV mutation frequencies and spectra using the Illumina sequencing platform...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500359/effect-of-including-damage-at-the-tissue-level-in-the-nonlinear-homogenisation-of-trabecular-bone
#13
Francesc Levrero-Florencio, Krishnagoud Manda, Lee Margetts, Pankaj Pankaj
Being able to predict bone fracture or implant stability needs a proper constitutive model of trabecular bone at the macroscale in multiaxial, non-monotonic loading modes. Its macroscopic damage behaviour has been investigated experimentally in the past, mostly with the restriction of uniaxial cyclic loading experiments for different samples, which does not allow for the investigation of several load cases in the same sample as damage in one direction may affect the behaviour in other directions. Homogenised finite element models of whole bones have the potential to assess complicated scenarios and thus improve clinical predictions...
May 12, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499116/postgraduate-alcohol-and-other-drug-practitioner-training-in-new-zealand-significant-influences
#14
Peter J Adams, Doug Sellman, David Newcombe, Simon Adamson, Sam White, Daryle Deering, Fraser Todd
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to present a case study of the evolution of postgraduate-level training programs for alcohol and other drug (AOD) practitioners provided by two universities in New Zealand. METHOD: The case study compiles details on relevant treatment contexts and systems in New Zealand and key milestones and significant developments in postgraduate AOD practitioner programs in two locations over a 30-year period. The details were compiled by the authors, all of whom were closely involved with the development of the training programs...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496186/an-ancient-selective-sweep-linked-to-reproductive-life-history-evolution-in-sockeye-salmon
#15
Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Study of parallel (or convergent) phenotypic evolution can provide important insights into processes driving sympatric, ecologically-mediated divergence and speciation, as ecotype pairs may provide a biological replicate of the underlying signals and mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence for a selective sweep creating an island of divergence associated with reproductive behavior in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), identifying a series of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms across a ~22,733 basepair region spanning the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 9 gene exhibiting signatures of divergent selection associated with stream- and shore-spawning in both anadromous and resident forms across their pan-Pacific distribution...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492730/paleoenvironmental-evolution-of-continental-carbonates-in-west-central-brazil
#16
Emiliano C Oliveira, Dilce F Rossetti, Giselle Utida
This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphical study of Quaternary (Middle to Late Pleistocene/Holocene) continental carbonates outcrops inside Pantanal Basin and its surroundings, especially in Serra da Bodoquena, Pantanal do Miranda and Corumbá/Ladário plateau, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as in Serra das Araras, in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim is to understand the depositional paleoenvironments and analyse climate and tectonic influences in their genesis and evolution. The results show that the deposition of these continental carbonates started in the Middle to Late Pleistocene and have continued, with some interruptions, until the present days...
May 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487706/evolution-and-expression-patterns-of-cyc-tb1-genes-in-anacyclus-phylogenetic-insights-for-floral-symmetry-genes-in-asteraceae
#17
María A Bello, Pilar Cubas, Inés Álvarez, Guillermo Sanjuanbenito, Javier Fuertes-Aguilar
Homologs of the CYC/TB1 gene family have been independently recruited many times across the eudicots to control aspects of floral symmetry The family Asteraceae exhibits the largest known diversification in this gene paralog family accompanied by a parallel morphological floral richness in its specialized head-like inflorescence. In Asteraceae, whether or not CYC/TB1 gene floral symmetry function is preserved along organismic and gene lineages is unknown. In this study, we used phylogenetic, structural and expression analyses focused on the highly derived genus Anacyclus (tribe Anthemidae) to address this question...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482659/position-dependent-diffusion-tensors-in-anisotropic-media-from-simulation-oxygen-transport-in-and-through-membranes
#18
An Ghysels, Richard M Venable, Richard Walter Pastor, Gerhard Hummer
A Bayesian-based methodology is developed to estimate diffusion tensors from molecular dynamics simulations of permeants in anisotropic media, and is applied to oxygen in lipid bilayers. By a separation of variables in the Smoluchowski diffusion equation, the multidimensional diffusion is reduced to coupled one-dimensional diffusion problems that are treated by discretization. The resulting diffusivity profiles characterize the membrane transport dynamics as a function of the position across the membrane, discriminating between diffusion normal and parallel to the membrane...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482006/predictability-and-parallelism-of-multi-trait-adaptation
#19
Randall Brian Langerhans
Environments shape the traits of organisms. Environmental variation may rarely alter selection on only a few traits, but instead precipitate wholesale changes of the multidimensional selective regime-many traits might experience divergent selection across divergent environments. Such changes in selection can elicit multifarious evolution. How predictable (from theory) and how parallel (consistent occurrences) is multi-trait divergence across replicated environments? Here, I address this question using the post-Pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes on Andros Island...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480139/dynamics-and-genetic-diversification-of-escherichia-coli-during-experimental-adaptation-to-an-anaerobic-environment
#20
Thomas J Finn, Sonal Shewaramani, Sinead C Leahy, Peter H Janssen, Christina D Moon
BACKGROUND: Many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, and can proliferate in both anoxic and oxic environments. Under anaerobic conditions, fermentation is the primary means of energy generation in contrast to respiration. Furthermore, the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations that arise during anaerobic growth differ to those under aerobic growth. A long-term selection experiment was undertaken to investigate the genetic changes that underpin how the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, adapts to anaerobic environments...
2017: PeerJ
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