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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915212/rapid-detection-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-sequence-type-47
#1
M Mentasti, P Cassier, S David, C Ginevra, L Gomez-Valero, A Underwood, B Afshar, J Etienne, J Parkhill, V Chalker, C Buchrieser, T G Harrison, S Jarraud
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophia serogroup 1 (Lp1) sequence type 47 is the leading cause of legionellosis in North-Western Europe but surprisingly it is rarely isolated from environmental samples. Comparative genomics was applied to develop a PCR assay and to better understand the evolution of this strain. METHODS: Comparative analysis of 36 genomes representative of the Lp species was used to identify specific PCR targets which were then evaluated in silico on 545 sequenced genomes, and in vitro on 436 Legionella strains, 106 respiratory samples and three environmental samples from proven ST47 sources...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914793/challenges-in-translational-development-of-pharmaceutical-cocrystals
#2
Dnyaneshwar P Kale, Sandeep S Zode, Arvind K Bansal
The last 2 decades have witnessed increased research in the area of cocrystals resulting in deeper scientific understanding, increase in intellectual property landscape, and evolution in the regulatory environment. Pharmaceutical cocrystals have received significant attention as a new solid form on account of their ability to modulate poor physicochemical properties of drug molecules. However, pharmaceutical development of cocrystals could be challenging, thus limiting their translation into viable drug products...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913727/regulated-complex-assembly-safeguards-the-fidelity-of-sleeping-beauty-transposition
#3
Yongming Wang, Diana Pryputniewicz-Dobrinska, Enikö Éva Nagy, Christopher D Kaufman, Manvendra Singh, Steve Yant, Jichang Wang, Anna Dalda, Mark A Kay, Zoltán Ivics, Zsuzsanna Izsvák
The functional relevance of the inverted repeat structure (IR/DR) in a subgroup of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons has been enigmatic. In contrast to mariner transposition, where a topological filter suppresses single-ended reactions, the IR/DR orchestrates a regulatory mechanism to enforce synapsis of the transposon ends before cleavage by the transposase occurs. This ordered assembly process shepherds primary transposase binding to the inner 12DRs (where cleavage does not occur), followed by capture of the 12DR of the other transposon end...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912845/molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications-of-bacterial-persistence
#4
Joran Elie Michiels, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Any bacterial population harbors a small number of phenotypic variants that survive exposure to high concentrations of antibiotic. Importantly, these so-called 'persister cells' compromise successful antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections and are thought to contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Intriguingly, drug-tolerant persisters have also been identified as a factor underlying failure of chemotherapy in tumor cell populations. Recent studies have begun to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying persister formation and revolve around stress responses and toxin-antitoxin modules...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912168/tensor-resolved-raman-spectroscopic-analysis-of-wear-induced-residual-stress-fields-in-long-term-alumina-hip-joint-retrievals
#5
Wenliang Zhu, Elia Marin, Nobuhiko Sugano, Giuseppe Pezzotti
Polarized Raman spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the full set of stress tensor components in the wear-induced residual stress fields on two long-term (>20 y) (monolithic) alumina (Al2O3) femoral head retrievals coupled to polyethylene liners. The tensor-resolved residual stress state stored onto the Al2O3 ceramic head surface was found to retain "memory" of the sliding conditions in vivo and of the wear-induced consumption of the polyethylene counterpart. The evolution of tensor-resolved residual stress motifs in the three-dimensional space was examined, and key features, including exceptionally high shear stresses in one case, were uncovered...
November 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911816/rapid-emergence-and-mechanisms-of-resistance-by-u87-glioblastoma-cells-to-doxorubicin-in-an-in-vitro-tumor-microfluidic-ecology
#6
Jeonghun Han, Yukyung Jun, So Hyun Kim, Hong-Hoa Hoang, Yeonjoo Jung, Suyeon Kim, Jaesang Kim, Robert H Austin, Sanghyuk Lee, Sungsu Park
In vitro prediction of the probable rapid emergence of resistance to a drug in tumors could act to winnow out potential candidates for further costly development. We have developed a microfluidic device consisting of ∼500 hexagonal microcompartments that provides a complex ecology with wide ranges of drug and nutrient gradients and local populations. This ecology of a fragmented metapopulation induced the drug resistance in stage IV U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in 7 d. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of the resistant cells identified mutations and differentially expressed genes...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908747/tci-tcii-and-tcvi-trypanosoma-cruzi-samples-from-chagas-disease-patients-with-distinct-clinical-forms-and-critical-analysis-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-behavior-response-to-treatment-and-infection-evolution-in-murine-model
#7
Maykon Tavares de Oliveira, Renata Tupinambá Branquinho, Gláucia Diniz Aléssio, Carlos Geraldo Campos Mello, Nívia Carolina Nogueira de Paiva, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, Marta de Lana
The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite's genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, "Vero"cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection...
November 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907154/pheromone-recognition-and-selectivity-by-comr-proteins-among-streptococcus-species
#8
Erin Shanker, Donald A Morrison, Antoine Talagas, Sylvie Nessler, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna
Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS) mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS) that is processed (XIP), secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903712/the-myeloma-stem-cell-concept-revisited-from-phenomenology-to-operational-terms
#9
REVIEW
Hans Erik Johnsen, Martin Bøgsted, Alexander Schmitz, Julie Støve Bødker, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Preben Johansen, Peter Valent, Niklas Zojer, Els Van Valckenborgh, Karin Vanderkerken, Mark van Duin, Pieter Sonneveld, Martin Perez-Andres, Alberto Orfao, Karen Dybkær
The concept of the myeloma stem cell may have important therapeutic implications, yet its demonstration has been hampered by a lack of consistency in terms and definitions. Here, we summarize the current documentation and propose single-cell in vitro studies for future translational studies. By the classical approach, a CD19(-)/CD45(low/-)/CD38(high)/CD138(+) malignant plasma cell, but not the CD19(+)/CD38(low/-) memory B cell compartment, is enriched for tumorigenic cells that initiate myeloma in xenografted immunodeficient mice, supporting that myeloma stem cells are present in the malignant PC compartment...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902320/in-silico-analysis-of-surface-structure-variation-of-pcv2-capsid-resulted-from-loops-mutation-of-its-capsid-protein-cap
#10
Naidong Wang, Yang Zhan, Aibing Wang, Lijie Zhang, Reza Khayat, Yi Yang
Outbreaks of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (PCV2) associated diseases (PCVADs) have caused substantial economic losses worldwide in the last 20 y. The PCV capsid protein (Cap) is the sole structural protein and main antigenic determinant of this virus. In this study, not only were phylogenetic trees constructed, but variation of surface structure of the PCV capsid were analyzed in the course of evolution. Unique surface patterns of the icosahedral 5-fold axes of the PCV2 capsid were identified and characterized, all of which were absent in PCV type 1 (PCV1)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898268/descriptive-analysis-of-in-vitro-cutting-of-swine-mitral-cusps-comparison-of-high-power-laser-and-scalpel-blade-cutting-techniques
#11
Nathali Cordeiro Pinto, Pablo Maria Alberto Pomerantzeff, Alessandro Deana, Denise Zezell, Carolina Benetti, Vera Demarchi Aiello, Luciana Almeida Lopes, Fabio Biscegli Jatene, M Cristina Chavantes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The most common injury to the heart valve with rheumatic involvement is mitral stenosis, which is the reason for a big number of cardiac operations in Brazil. Commissurotomy is the traditional technique that is still widely used for this condition, although late postoperative restenosis is concerning. This study's purpose was to compare the histological findings of porcine cusp mitral valves treated in vitro with commissurotomy with a scalpel blade to those treated with high-power laser (HPL) cutting, using appropriate staining techniques...
November 30, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887857/a-potential-contribution-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-by-the-mediation-of-monocyte-differentiation-in-the-development-and-progression-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#12
Hsin-Ying Lu, Chun-Yao Huang, Chun-Ming Shih, Yi-Wen Lin, Chein-Sung Tsai, Feng-Yen Lin, Chun-Che Shih
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by the destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, an adipokine known as CD26) influences cell signaling, cell-matrix interactions, and the regulation of the functional activity of incretins in metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Although the role of DPP-4 in AAA evolution has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of DPP-4-regulated AAA development remains unknown...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885032/directed-evolution-of-cytochrome-c-for-carbon-silicon-bond-formation-bringing-silicon-to-life
#13
S B Jennifer Kan, Russell D Lewis, Kai Chen, Frances H Arnold
Enzymes that catalyze carbon-silicon bond formation are unknown in nature, despite the natural abundance of both elements. Such enzymes would expand the catalytic repertoire of biology, enabling living systems to access chemical space previously only open to synthetic chemistry. We have discovered that heme proteins catalyze the formation of organosilicon compounds under physiological conditions via carbene insertion into silicon-hydrogen bonds. The reaction proceeds both in vitro and in vivo, accommodating a broad range of substrates with high chemo- and enantioselectivity...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884616/mechanical-properties-of-contact-lenses-the-contribution-of-measurement-techniques-and-clinical-feedback-to-50-years-of-materials-development
#14
REVIEW
Tarnveer Singh Bhamra, Brian J Tighe
PURPOSE: This review summarises the way in which mechanical property measurements combined with clinical perception have influenced the last half century of materials evolution in contact lens development. METHODS: Literature concerning the use of in-vitro testing in assessment of the mechanical behaviour of contact lenses, and the mutual deformation of the lens material and ocular tissue was examined. Tensile measurements of historic and available hydrogel lenses have been collected, in addition to manufacturer-generated figures for the moduli of commercial silicone hydrogel lenses...
November 21, 2016: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881707/a-cd80-biased-ctla4-ig-fusion-protein-with-superior-in-vivo-efficacy-by-simultaneous-engineering-of-affinity-selectivity-stability-and-fcrn-binding
#15
Julie Douthwaite, Jacques Moisan, Cyril Privezentzev, Blagoje Soskic, Shereen Sabbah, Suzanne Cohen, Andie Collinson, Elizabeth England, Catherine Huntington, Ben Kemp, Li Zhuang, Suzanne Hudak, D Gareth Rees, Debbie Goldberg, Chris Barton, Linda Chang, Inna Vainshtein, Meina Liang, Laurie Iciek, Philip Ambery, Mark Peakman, Tristan J Vaughan, Tim I M Tree, David M Sansom, Michael A Bowen, Ralph R Minter, Lutz Jermutus
Affinity- and stability-engineered variants of CTLA4-Ig fusion molecules with enhanced pharmacokinetic profiles could yield improved therapies with the potential of higher efficacy and greater convenience to patients. In this study, to our knowledge, we have, for the first time, used in vitro evolution to simultaneously optimize CTLA4 affinity and stability. We selected for improved binding to both ligands, CD80 and CD86, and screened as dimeric Fc fusions directly in functional assays to identify variants with stronger suppression of in vitro T cell activation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881654/identification-of-new-world-quails-susceptible-to-alv-j-infection
#16
Jiří Plachý, Markéta Reinišová, Dana Kučerová, Filip Šenigl, Volodymyr Stepanets, Tomáš Hron, Kateřina Trejbalová, Daniel Elleder, Jiří Hejnar
: The J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1. The resistance to J subgroup avian leukosis virus in a great majority of galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na+/H+ exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied the natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877132/immunophenotyping-reveals-the-diversity-of-human-dental-pulp-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-vivo-and-their-evolution-upon-in-vitro-amplification
#17
Maxime Ducret, Hugo Fabre, Olivier Degoul, Gianluigi Atzeni, Colin McGuckin, Nico Forraz, Frédéric Mallein-Gerin, Emeline Perrier-Groult, Brigitte Alliot-Licht, Jean-Christophe Farges
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from human dental pulp (DP) can be expanded in vitro for cell-based and regenerative dentistry therapeutic purposes. However, their heterogeneity may be a hurdle to the achievement of reproducible and predictable therapeutic outcomes. To get a better knowledge about this heterogeneity, we designed a flow cytometric strategy to analyze the phenotype of DP cells in vivo and upon in vitro expansion with stem cell markers. We focused on the CD31(-) cell population to exclude endothelial and leukocytic cells...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872793/improved-methods-to-produce-tissue-engineered-skin-substitutes-suitable-for-the-permanent-closure-of-full-thickness-skin-injuries
#18
Danielle Larouche, Laurence Cantin-Warren, Maxime Desgagné, Rina Guignard, Israël Martel, Akram Ayoub, Amélie Lavoie, Robert Gauvin, François A Auger, Véronique J Moulin, Lucie Germain
There is a clinical need for skin substitutes to replace full-thickness skin loss. Our group has developed a bilayered skin substitute produced from the patient's own fibroblasts and keratinocytes referred to as Self-Assembled Skin Substitute (SASS). After cell isolation and expansion, the current time required to produce SASS is 45 days. We aimed to optimize the manufacturing process to standardize the production of SASS and to reduce production time. The new approach consisted in seeding keratinocytes on a fibroblast-derived tissue sheet before its detachment from the culture plate...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871856/will-cardiac-optogenetics-find-the-way-through-the-obscure-angles-of-heart-physiology
#19
Nicola Pianca, Tania Zaglia, Marco Mongillo
Optogenetics is a technique exploded in the last 10 years, which revolutionized several areas of biological research. The brightest side of this technology is the use of light to modulate non-invasively, with high spatial resolution and millisecond time scale, excitable cells genetically modified to express light-sensitive microbial ion channels (opsins). Neuroscience has first benefited from such fascinating strategy, in intact organisms. By shining light to specific neuronal subpopulations, optogenetics allowed unearth the mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell communication within the context of intact organs, such as the brain, formed by complex neuronal circuits...
November 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869745/many-activities-one-structure-functional-plasticity-of-ribozyme-folds
#20
REVIEW
Matthew W L Lau, Adrian R Ferré-D'Amaré
Catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, are involved in a number of essential biological processes, such as replication of RNA genomes and mobile genetic elements, RNA splicing, translation, and RNA degradation. The function of ribozymes requires the formation of active sites decorated with RNA functional groups within defined three-dimensional (3D) structures. The genotype (sequence) of RNAs ultimately determines what 3D structures they adopt (as a function of their environmental conditions). These 3D structures, in turn, give rise to biochemical activity, which can further elaborate them by catalytic rearrangements or association with other molecules...
November 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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