keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

in vitro evolution

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053248/in-vitro-evolution-of-unmodified-16s-rrna-for-simple-ribosome-reconstitution
#1
Yoshiki Murase, Hiroki Nakanishi, Gakushi Tsuji, Takeshi Sunami, Norikazu Ichihashi
One of the largest challenges in the synthesis of artificial cell that can reproduce is in vitro assembly of ribosomes from in vitro synthesized rRNAs and proteins. In this study, to circumvent the chemical modification of 16S rRNA for reconstitution of fully active 30S subunit, we performed artificial evolution of 16S rRNA, which forms the functional 30S subunit without chemical modifications. We first established an in vitro selection scheme by combining the integrated synthesis, assembly, and translation (iSAT) system with the liposome sorting technique...
October 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052350/platelet-lysate-activates-quiescent-cell-proliferation-and-reprogramming-in-human-articular-cartilage-involvement-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1
#2
Van Thi Nguyen, Ranieri Cancedda, Fiorella Descalzi
The idea of rescuing the body self-repair capability lost during evolution is progressively gaining ground in Regenerative Medicine. In particular, growth factors and bioactive molecules derived from activated platelets emerged as promising therapeutic agents acting as trigger for repair of tissue lesions and restoration of tissue functions. Aim of this study was to assess the potential of a Platelet Lysate (PL) for human articular cartilage repair considering its activity on progenitor cells and differentiated chondrocytes...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046444/relative-resistance-of-mhc-b-to-nef-mediated-downregulation-is-conserved-among-primate-lentiviruses-and-influences-antiviral-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#3
Francis Mwimanzi, Mako Toyoda, Macdonald Mahiti, Jaclyn K Mann, Jeffrey N Martin, David Bangsberg, Mark A Brockman, Philip Goulder, Frank Kirchhoff, Zabrina L Brumme, Thumbi Ndung'u, Takamasa Ueno
Patient-derived HIV-1 subtype B Nef clones downregulate HLA-A more efficiently than HLA-B. However, it remains unknown whether this property is common to Nef proteins across primate lentiviruses, and how antiviral immune responses may be affected. We examined 263 Nef clones from diverse primate lentiviruses including different pandemic HIV-1 group M subtypes for their ability to downregulate MHC-A and MHC-B from the cell surface. Though lentiviral Nef proteins differed markedly in their absolute MHC-A and MHC-B downregulation abilities, all lentiviral Nef lineages downregulated MHC-A on average 11-32% more efficiently than MHC-B...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044824/replication-protein-a-1-has-a-preference-for-the-telomeric-g-rich-sequence-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#4
Raphael Souza Pavani, Marcela O Vitarelli, Carlos A H Fernandes, Fabio F Mattioli, Mariana Morone, Milene C Menezes, Marcos R M Fontes, Maria Isabel N Cano, Maria Carolina Elias
Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded binding protein, is a heterotrimeric complex formed by RPA-1, RPA-2 and RPA-3. RPA is a fundamental player in replication, repair, recombination and checkpoint signaling. In addition, increasing evidences have been adding functions to RPA in telomere maintenance, such as interaction with telomerase to facilitate its activity and also involvement in telomere capping in some conditions. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease is a protozoa parasite that appears early in the evolution of eukaryotes...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043986/potential-of-big-data-analytics-in-the-french-in-vitro-diagnostics-market
#5
Nicolas Dubois, Nicolas Garnier, Christophe Meune
The new paradigm of the big data raises many expectations, particularly in the field of health. Curiously, even though medical biology laboratories generate a great amount of data, the opportunities offered by this new field are poorly documented. For better understanding the clinical context of chronical disease follow-up, for leveraging preventive and/or personalized medicine, the contribution of big data analytics seems very promising. It is within this framework that we have explored to use data of a Breton group of laboratories of medical biology to analyze the possible contributions of their exploitation in the improvement of the clinical practices and to anticipate the evolution of pathologies for the benefit of patients...
October 18, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042494/insights-from-the-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-lepraemurium-massive-gene-decay-and-reductive-evolution
#6
Andrej Benjak, Tanvi P Honap, Charlotte Avanzi, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, Iris Estrada-García, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa, Anne C Stone, Stewart T Cole
Mycobacterium lepraemurium is the causative agent of murine leprosy, a chronic, granulomatous disease similar to human leprosy. Due to the similar clinical manifestations of human and murine leprosy and the difficulty of growing both bacilli axenically, Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium were once thought to be closely related, although it was later suggested that M. lepraemurium might be related to Mycobacterium avium In this study, the complete genome of M. lepraemurium was sequenced using a combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036608/insights-into-rna-polymerase-catalysis-and-adaptive-evolution-gained-from-mutational-analysis-of-a-locus-conferring-rifampicin-resistance
#7
Olga Yurieva, Vadim Nikiforov, Vadim Nikiforov, Michael O'Donnell, Arkady Mustaev
S531 of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) β subunit is a part of RNA binding domain in transcription complex. While highly conserved, S531 is not involved in interactions within the transcription complex as suggested by X-ray analysis. To understand the basis for S531 conservation we performed systematic mutagenesis of this residue. We find that the most of the mutations significantly decreased initiation-to-elongation transition by RNAP. Surprisingly, some changes enhanced the production of full-size transcripts by suppressing abortive loss of short RNAs...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035823/ratiometric-drug-delivery-using-non-liposomal-nanocarriers-as-an-approach-to-increase-efficacy-and-safety-of-combination-chemotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Marina Santiago Franco, Mônica Cristina Oliveira
The observation that different drug ratios of the same drug combination can lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects when tested against the same cancer cell line in vitro gave rise to a new trend, the ratiometric delivery. This strategy consists of co-encapsulating a specific synergistic ratio of a drug combination into a nanocarrier so that synergism observed in vitro will be faithfully translated to in vivo, optimizing combination therapy. In this review we focus on how to quantify synergism in vitro, followed by how this affected the evolution of nanocarriers culminating in the ratiometric delivery, and finally we summarize the results of the non-liposomal formulations that were built upon this concept...
October 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033898/functional-characterization-of-paralogous-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-type-and-corazonin-type-neuropeptides-in-an-echinoderm
#9
Shi Tian, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Homologs of the vertebrate neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been identified in invertebrates, including the insect neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ). Recently, we reported the discovery of GnRH-type and CRZ-type signaling systems in an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens, demonstrating that the evolutionary origin of paralogous GnRH-type and CRZ-type neuropeptides can be traced back to the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we have investigated the physiological roles of the GnRH-type (ArGnRH) and the CRZ-type (ArCRZ) neuropeptides in A...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033399/the-contribution-of-efficient-production-of-monozygotic-twins-to-beef-cattle-breeding
#10
Yutaka Hashiyada
Production of sires with high breeding potential is indispensable for prompt and reliable breeding using their semen in the cattle industry. Currently, in Japan, we aim to further the production of Japanese black sires via a new breeding system that uses genetically homologous monozygotic twins so that better growth performance and carcass traits can be translated to the increased production of beef with higher economic value. Several studies have reported that monozygotic twins are produced by embryo bisection...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031737/the-evolution-of-the-genetic-code-impasses-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Ádám Kun, Ádám Radványi
The origin of the genetic code and translation is a "notoriously difficult problem". In this survey we present a list of questions that a full theory of the genetic code needs to answer. We assess the leading hypotheses according to these criteria. The stereochemical, the coding coenzyme handle, the coevolution, the four-column theory, the error minimization and the frozen accident hypotheses are discussed. The integration of these hypotheses can account for the origin of the genetic code. But experiments are badly needed...
October 11, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030439/conjugation-mediated-horizontal-gene-transfer-of-clostridium-perfringens-plasmids-in-the-chicken-gastrointestinal-tract-results-in-the-formation-of-new-virulent-strains
#12
Jake A Lacey, Anthony L Keyburn, Mark E Ford, Ricardo W Portela, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
Clostridium perfringens is a gastrointestinal pathogen capable of causing disease in a variety of hosts. Necrotic enteritis in chickens is caused by C. perfringens strains that produce the pore-forming toxin NetB, the major virulence factor for this disease. Like many other C. perfringens toxins and antibiotic resistance genes, NetB is encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Conjugative transfer of the netB-containing plasmid pJIR3535 has been demonstrated in vitro with a netB null mutant. This study has investigated the effect of plasmid transfer on disease pathogenesis, with two genetically distinct transconjugants constructed under in vitro conditions, within the intestinal tract of chickens...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029327/the-exonization-and-functionalization-of-an-alu-j-element-in-the-protein-coding-region-of-glycoprotein-hormone-alpha-gene-represent-a-novel-mechanism-to-the-evolution-of-hemochorial-placentation-in-primates
#13
Haidi Chen, Li Chen, Yune Wu, Hao Shen, Guang Yang, Cheng Deng
Alu elements contribute considerably to gene regulation and genome evolution in primates. The generation of new exons from Alu elements has been found in various human genes, and the regulatory function of the Alu exon has been investigated in many studies. However, the functionalization of Alu elements in protein coding regions remains unknown. Here, we reported that an Alu-J element exonized in the glycoprotein hormone alpha (GPHA) gene and encoded an additional N-terminal peptide (Alu-J encoding peptide) of the mature GPHA peptide, leading to a splicing variant of Alu-GPHA in anthropoid primates approximately 35 million years ago...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993610/evolution-of-host-adaptation-in-the-salmonella-typhoid-toxin
#14
Xiang Gao, Lingquan Deng, Gabrielle Stack, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Ajit Varki, Jorge E Galán
The evolution of virulence traits is central for the emergence or re-emergence of microbial pathogens and for their adaptation to a specific host (1-5) . Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhi (6,7) , the cause of typhoid fever in humans (8-12) . Typhoid toxin has a unique A2B5 architecture with two covalently linked enzymatic 'A' subunits, PltA and CdtB, associated with a homopentameric 'B' subunit made up of PltB, which has binding specificity for the N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) sialoglycans (6,13) predominantly present in humans (14) ...
October 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993289/sirt1-and-parp1-as-epigenome-safeguards-and-micrornas-as-sasp-associated-signals-in-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#15
REVIEW
Seyedhossein Hekmatimoghaddam, Ali Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mohamad Reza Zare-Khormizi, Fatemeh Pourrajab
Cellular senescence (CS) is underlying mechanism of organism aging and is closely interconnected with age-related diseases (ARDs). Thus, any attempt that influences CS, may be undertaken to reverse or inhibit senescence, whereby could prolong healthy life span. Until now, two main proposes are epigenetic and genetic modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns rejuvenation through effective reprogramming in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients, by which is effective in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993269/hydrogen-peroxide-resistance-in-strigomonas-culicis-effects-on-mitochondrial-functionality-and-aedes-aegypti-interaction
#16
Ana Cristina Souza Bombaça, Felipe de Almeida Dias, Vitor Ennes-Vidal, Aline Dos Santos Garcia-Gomes, Marcos Henrique Ferreira Sorgine, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic molecules involved in several biological processes such as cellular signaling, proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Adaptations to oxidative environments are crucial for the success of the colonization of insects by protozoa. Strigomonas culicis is a monoxenic trypanosomatid found in the midgut of mosquitoes and presenting a life cycle restricted to the epimastigote form. Among S. culicis peculiarities, there is an endosymbiotic bacterium in the cytoplasm, which completes essential biosynthetic routes of the host cell and may represent an intermediary evolutive step in organelle origin, thus constituting an interesting model for evolutive researches...
October 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985616/bio-corrosion-behavior-and-mechanical-characteristics-of-magnesium-titania-hydroxyapatite-nanocomposites-coated-by-magnesium-oxide-flakes-and-silicon-for-use-as-resorbable-bone-fixation-material
#17
Shahrouz Zamani Khalajabadi, Aminudin Bin Haji Abu, Norhayati Ahmad, Muhammad Azizi Mat Yajid, Norizah Bt Hj Redzuan, Rozita Nasiri, Waseem Haider, Iman Noshadi
This study was aimed to improve of the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of Mg/15TiO2/5HA nanocomposite by silicon and magnesium oxide coatings prepared using a powder metallurgy method. The phase evolution, chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of uncoated and coated samples were characterized. Electrochemical and immersion tests used to investigate the in vitro corrosion behavior of the fabricated samples. The adhesion strength of ~36MPa for MgO and ~32MPa for Si/MgO coatings to substrate was measured by adhesion test...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984651/new-anti-her2-agents-from-second-generation-tyrosine-kinases-inhibitors-to-bifunctional-antibodies
#18
Joseph Gligorov, Sandrine Richard, Vladimir Todorovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HER2-positive breast cancers have benefited since the end of the twentieth century, not only from the improvement of biological knowledge, but also from major technological advances. The latter allowed the synthesis of the first generation of enzymatic inhibitors of the HER receptor family such as lapatinib, but above all, monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab or pertuzumab having profoundly modified the management of these cancers. However, despite outstanding progresses, there are still patients who are not cured with these first-generation treatments, and they will need new approaches to improve disease control and impact patients' survival...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981773/evolutionarily-distinct-carotenoid-cleavage-dioxygenases-are-responsible-for-crocetin-production-in-buddleja-davidii
#19
Oussama Ahrazem, Gianfranco Diretto, Javier Argandoña, Ángela Rubio-Moraga, José Manuel Julve, Diego Orzáez, Antonio Granell, Lourdes Gómez-Gómez, Qiao Zhao
Crocetin, one of the few colored apocarotenoids known in nature, is present in flowers and fruits and has long been used medicinally and as a colorant. Saffron is the main source of crocetin, although a few other plants produce lower amounts of this apocarotenoid. Notably, Buddleja davidii accumulates crocetin in its flowers. Recently, a carotenoid dioxygenase cleavage enzyme, CCD2, has been characterized as responsible for crocetin production in Crocus species. We searched for CCD2 homologues in B. davidii and identified several CCD enzymes from the CCD1 and CCD4 subfamilies...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981753/designing-fcabs-well-expressed-and-stable-high-affinity-antigen-binding-fc-fragments
#20
Gordana Wozniak-Knopp, Gerhard Stadlmayr, Jan Walther Perthold, Katharina Stadlbauer, Maximilian Woisetschläger, Haijun Sun, Florian Rüker
Fc fragment with antigen-binding (Fcab) is a novel construct which can be selected to recognize specifically a wide variety of target proteins. We describe the selection and affinity maturation of Fcab clones targeting VEGF, an important pro-angiogenesis factor. To investigate the extent of engineering permissible to Fcabs we applied targeted mutagenesis to all three C-terminal loop structures and the C-terminus of the CH3 domain to isolate high-affinity binders by directed evolution and yeast display. The matured clone, CT6, binds to VEGF with low nanomolar affinity and inhibits VEGF-stimulated proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro...
August 1, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
keyword
keyword
47909
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"