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glycine-betaine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922384/effects-of-salinity-and-drought-on-growth-ionic-relations-compatible-solutes-and-activation-of-antioxidant-systems-in-oleander-nerium-oleander-l
#1
Dinesh Kumar, Mohamad Al Hassan, Miguel A Naranjo, Veena Agrawal, Monica Boscaiu, Oscar Vicente
Nerium oleander is an ornamental species of high aesthetic value, grown in arid and semi-arid regions because of its drought tolerance, which is also considered as relatively resistant to salt; yet the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying oleander's stress tolerance remain largely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, one-year-old oleander seedlings were exposed to 15 and 30 days of treatment with increasing salt concentrations, up to 800 mM NaCl, and to complete withholding of irrigation; growth parameters and biochemical markers characteristic of conserved stress-response pathways were then determined in stressed and control plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917144/silicon-improves-seed-germination-and-alleviates-drought-stress-in-lentil-crops-by-regulating-osmolytes-hydrolytic-enzymes-and-antioxidant-defense-system
#2
Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings...
September 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900731/selenium-mitigates-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-plants-by-modulating-chlorophyll-fluorescence-osmolyte-accumulation-and-antioxidant-system
#3
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L(-1)) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 μM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888960/complete-genome-sequence-of-endophyte-bacillus-flexus-klbmp-4941-reveals-its-plant-growth-promotion-mechanism-and-genetic-basis-for-salt-tolerance
#4
Tian-Tian Wang, Peng Ding, Pan Chen, Ke Xing, Juan-Luan Bai, Wen Wan, Ji-Hong Jiang, Sheng Qin
Bacillus flexus KLBMP 4941 is a halotolerant endophyte isolated from the halophyte Limonium sinense. This strain can improve host seedling growth under salt stress conditions. We here report the complete genome information of endophyte KLBMP 4941. It has a circular chromosome and two plasmids for a total genome 4,104,242 bp in size with a G+C content of 38.09%. Genes related to plant growth promotion (PGP), such as those associated with nitrogen fixation, siderophore, spermidine, and acetoin synthesis were found in the KLBMP 4941 genome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881317/modulation-of-antioxidative-defense-expression-and-osmolyte-content-by-co-application-of-24-epibrassinolide-and-salicylic-acid-in-pb-exposed-indian-mustard-plants
#5
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Shagun Bali, Saroj Arora, Anket Sharma, Ravdeep Kaur, Renu Bhardwaj
The study focuses on potential of combined pre-soaking treatment of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) and Salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating Pb phytotoxicity in Brassica juncea L. plants. The seeds after treatment with combination of both the hormones were sown in mixture of soil, sand and manure (3:1:1) and were exposed to Pb concentrations (0.25mM, 0.50mM and 0.75mM). After 30 days of growth, the plants were harvested and processed, for quantification of various metabolites. It was found that pre-sowing of seeds in combination of EBL and SA, mitigated the adverse effects of metal stress by modulating antioxidative defense response and enhanced osmolyte contents...
September 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873565/the-betaine-profile-of-cereal-flours-unveils-new-and-uncommon-betaines
#6
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Giovanna Ferrari, Domenico Castaldo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
We report the LC-ESI-MS/MS determination of betaines in commercial flours of cereals and pseudocereals most utilized in human nutrition. Results showed that glycine betaine, trigonelline, proline betaine, N(ε)-trimethyllysine were metabolites common to all examined flours, whereas an uncommon betaine, valine betaine, and glutamine betaine were present only in flours of barley, rye, oat, durum wheat, winter wheat, Triticum dicoccum and Triticum monococcum. Valine betaine and glutamine betaine, the latter never reported before in plants and animals, are not evenly distributed in the Poaceae family, but their presence or absence in flours depends on the subfamily to which the plant belongs...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791946/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-gbdr-gene-is-transcribed-from-a-%C3%AF-54-dependent-promoter-under-the-control-of-ntrc-cbrb-ihf-and-beti
#7
Diego Germán Sánchez, Emiliano David Primo, María Teresa Damiani, Angela Teresita Lisa
Pseudomonasaeruginosa uses choline as a source of carbon and nitrogen, and also for the synthesis of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant under stress conditions such as drought and salinity. The transcription factor GbdR is the specific regulator of choline metabolism and it belongs to the Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Despite the link between choline catabolism and bacterial pathogenicity, gbdR regulation has not been explored in detail. In the present work, we describe how gbdR transcription can be initiated from a σ54-dependent promoter...
August 9, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741209/pb-induced-changes-in-roots-of-two-cultivated-rice-cultivars-grown-in-lead-contaminated-soil-mediated-by-smoke
#8
Nazneen Akhtar, Sehresh Khan, Ijaz Malook, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Jamil
Nowadays, public concerns regarding deleterious effect of lead (Pb) is on rise due to its abundance and toxic effect on plants and other living organisms. In plants, it has no noticeable biological importance but can cause various morphological, physiological, and biochemical malfunctions. To evaluate the remediating potential of plant-derived smoke (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), a pot culture experiment was designed to investigate the physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and antioxidant parameters of roots in lead (0 (control), 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm)-contaminated soil...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711787/seed-priming-and-transgenerational-drought-memory-improves-tolerance-against-salt-stress-in-bread-wheat
#9
Tahira Tabassum, Muhammad Farooq, Riaz Ahmad, Ali Zohaib, Abdul Wahid
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl2) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz...
July 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710664/role-of-sodium-ion-transporters-and-osmotic-adjustments-in-stress-alleviation-of-cynodon-dactylon-under-nacl-treatment-a-parallel-investigation-with-rice
#10
Swarnendu Roy, Usha Chakraborty
Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc...
July 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702937/genetic-engineering-strategies-for-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-and-quality-enhancement-in-horticultural-crops-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Nehanjali Parmar, Kunwar Harendra Singh, Deepika Sharma, Lal Singh, Pankaj Kumar, J Nanjundan, Yasin Jeshima Khan, Devendra Kumar Chauhan, Ajay Kumar Thakur
Genetic engineering technique offers myriads of applications in improvement of horticultural crops for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and produce quality enhancement. During last two decades, a large number of transgenic horticultural crops has been developed and more are underway. A number of genes including natural and synthetic Cry genes, protease inhibitors, trypsin inhibitors and cystatin genes have been used to incorporate insect and nematode resistance. For providing protection against fungal and bacterial diseases, various genes like chitinase, glucanase, osmotin, defensin and pathogenesis-related genes are being transferred to many horticultural crops world over...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694800/bacterial-survival-under-extreme-uv-radiation-a-comparative-proteomics-study-of-rhodobacter-sp-isolated-from-high-altitude-wetlands-in-chile
#12
Vilma Pérez, Martha Hengst, Lenka Kurte, Cristina Dorador, Wade H Jeffrey, Ruddy Wattiez, Veronica Molina, Sabine Matallana-Surget
Salar de Huasco, defined as a polyextreme environment, is a high altitude saline wetland in the Chilean Altiplano (3800 m.a.s.l.), permanently exposed to the highest solar radiation doses registered in the world. We present here the first comparative proteomics study of a photoheterotrophic bacterium, Rhodobacter sp., isolated from this remote and hostile habitat. We developed an innovative experimental approach using different sources of radiation (in situ sunlight and UVB lamps), cut-off filters (Mylar, Lee filters) and a high-throughput, label-free quantitative proteomics method to comprehensively analyze the effect of seven spectral bands on protein regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643085/exogenous-application-of-nitric-oxide-modulates-osmolyte-metabolism-antioxidants-enzymes-of-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-and-promotes-growth-under-cadmium-stress-in-tomato
#13
Parvaiz Ahmad, Mohammed Abass Ahanger, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam
Experiments were carried out to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in ameliorating the negative effects of cadmium stress in tomato seedlings. Plants treated with cadmium (CdCl2, 150 μM) showed reduced growth, biomass yield, pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange parameters. Exogenous application of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) with nutrient solution protected chlorophyll pigments, restored chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters, and caused significant enhancements in growth and biomass yield...
June 22, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630000/betaine-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-expression-during-physiological-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-pregnancy
#14
Jesús Alfredo Rosas-Rodríguez, José Guadalupe Soñanez-Organis, José Arquimides Godoy-Lugo, Juan Alberto Espinoza-Salazar, Cesar Jeravy López-Jacobo, Norma Aurora Stephens-Camacho, Guadalupe González-Ochoa
Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (betaine aldehyde: NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase, (E.C. 1.2.1.8; BADH) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BA) to glycine betaine (GB) and is essential for polyamine catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis, and carnitine biosynthesis. GB is an important osmolyte that regulates the homocysteine levels, contributing to a vascular risk factor reduction. In this sense, distinct investigations describe the physiological roles of GB, but there is a lack of information about the GB novo synthesis process and regulation during cardiac hypertrophy induced by pregnancy...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527001/the-relative-abundance-of-dimethylsulfoniopropionate-dmsp-among-other-zwitterions-in-branching-coral-at-heron-island-southern-great-barrier-reef
#15
Hilton B Swan, Elisabeth S M Deschaseaux, Graham B Jones, Bradley D Eyre
Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and eleven other target zwitterions were quantified in the branch tips of six Acropora species and Stylophora pistillata hard coral growing on the reef flat surrounding Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for sample analysis with isotope dilution MS applied to quantify DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was ten times greater in A. aspera than A. valida, with this difference being maintained throughout the spring, summer and winter seasons...
May 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#16
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477153/nitrogen-removal-performance-and-operation-strategy-of-anammox-process-under-temperature-shock
#17
Weiqiang Zhu, Jin Li, Huiyu Dong, Dan Wang, Peiyu Zhang
Sequencing batch reactors were used to study anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process under temperature shock. Both long-term (15-35 °C) and short-term (10-50 °C) temperature effects on nitrogen removal performance were performed. In reactor operation test, the results indicated that ammonium removal rate decreased from 0.35 kg/(m(3) day) gradually to 0.059 kg/(m(3) day) when temperature dropped from 35 to 15 °C. Although bacteria morphology was not modified, sludge settling velocity decreased with decreasing temperature...
May 5, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470931/betaine-catalysis-for-hierarchical-reduction-of-co2-with-amines-and-hydrosilane-to-form-formamides-aminals-and-methylamines
#18
Xiao-Fang Liu, Xiao-Ya Li, Chang Qiao, Hong-Chen Fu, Liang-Nian He
An efficient, sustainable organocatalyst, glycine betaine, was developed for the reductive functionalization of CO2 with amines and diphenylsilane. Methylamines and formamides were obtained in high yield by tuning the CO2 pressure and reaction temperature. Based on identification of the key intermediate, that is, the aminal, an alternative mechanism for methylation involving the C(0) silyl acetal and aminal is proposed. Furthermore, reducing the CO2 amount afforded aminals with high yield and selectivity. Therefore, betaine catalysis affords products with a diversified energy content that is, formamides, aminals and methylamines, by hierarchical two-, four- and six-electron reduction, respectively, of CO2 coupled with C-N bond formation...
May 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421049/transcriptomic-and-metabolomics-profiling-of-phage-host-interactions-between-phage-pap1-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Xia Zhao, Mengyu Shen, Xingyu Jiang, Wei Shen, Qiu Zhong, Yuhui Yang, Yinling Tan, Melissa Agnello, Xuesong He, Fuquan Hu, Shuai Le
The basic biology of bacteriophage-host interactions has attracted increasing attention due to a renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of bacteriophages. In addition, knowledge of the host pathways inhibited by phage may provide clues to novel drug targets. However, the effect of phage on bacterial gene expression and metabolism is still poorly understood. In this study, we tracked phage-host interactions by combining transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected with a lytic bacteriophage, PaP1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386731/comparative-metagenomics-reveals-insights-into-the-deep-sea-adaptation-mechanism-of-the-microorganisms-in-iheya-hydrothermal-fields
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hai-Liang Wang, Li Sun
In this study, comparative metagenomic analysis was performed to investigate the genetic profiles of the microbial communities inhabiting the sediments surrounding Iheya North and Iheya Ridge hydrothermal fields. Four samples were used, which differed in their distances from hydrothermal vents. The results showed that genes involved in cell surface structure synthesis, polyamine metabolism and homeostasis, osmoadaptation, pH and Na(+) homeostasis, and heavy-metal transport were abundant. Pathways for putrescine and spermidine synthesis and transport were identified in the four metagenomes, which possibly participate in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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