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Patrick Rühl, Uwe Pöll, Johannes Braun, Andreas Klingl, Arnulf Kletzin
: Sequence comparisons showed that the sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus Arh 1 (TpSOR) is branching deeply within dendrograms of these proteins (29-34% identity). A synthetic gene encoding the TpSOR expressed in E. coli resulted in a protein of 14.7±0.9 nm in diameter and an apparent molecular mass of 556 kDa. Sulfite and thiosulfate were formed from elemental sulfur in a temperature range of 10-98°C (Topt≈80°C) and a pH range of 6-11...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Shahram Torabian
Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass)...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Gabriella P Rimmer, Pratul K Agarwal, Elizabeth E Howell
Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium toward the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor-pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value)...
November 1, 2016: Biochemistry
Benjamin A Webb, K Karl Compton, Rafael Castañeda Saldaña, Timofey Arapov, W Keith Ray, Richard F Helm, Birgit E Scharf
The bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti is attracted to seed exudates of its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Since quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are exuded by germinating seeds, we assayed chemotaxis of S. meliloti towards betonicine, choline, glycine betaine, stachydrine, and trigonelline. The wild type displayed a positive response to all QACs. Using LC-MS, we determined that each germinating alfalfa seed exuded QACs in the nanogram range. Compared to the closely related non-host species, spotted medic (Medicago arabica), unique profiles were released...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Cédric Gaillard, Yunhui Wang, Rudy Covis, Thomas Vives, Maud Benoit, Thierry Benvegnu
This article contains data on the Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images related to multi-scaled self-assemblies resulting from 'green' cationic glycine betaine surfactant/anionic kappa-carrageenan interactions. These data gave clear evidence of the evolution of the micron-, nano-sized structures obtained at two surfactant/polymer molar ratios (3.5 and 0.8) and after the dilution of the aqueous dispersions with factors of 5 and 10 times. This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Monitoring the architecture of anionic ĸ-carrageenan/cationic glycine betaine amide surfactant assemblies by dilution: A multiscale approach" (Gaillard et al...
December 2016: Data in Brief
C Gaillard, Y Wang, R Covis, T Vives, Maud Benoît, T Benvegnu
The interaction between glycine betaine-based cationic surfactant and algal polysaccharide κ-carrageenan was studied by investigating the dilution effect of the surfactant/polymer assemblies driven by electrostatic interactions. Two aqueous solutions of cationic surfactant and κ-carrageenan at two molar ratios (3.5 and 0.8) diluted with factors of 5 and 10 times, were tested by various analytical methods including a multiscale observation by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) to understand the solution behavior of surfactant and oppositely charged polymer at both nano- and micrometer scale...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Urmimala Sen, Trinetra Mukherjee, Sucharita Bose, Chayan Roy, Moidu Jameela Rameez, Wriddhiman Ghosh, Subhra Kanti Mukhopadhyay
Here, we present the draft genome of Haladaptatus sp. strain R4, a halophilic archaea that produces an orange-pink pigment and is capable of growing in a wide salinity range. The genome assembly shows genes for arsenic resistance, siderophore production, trehalose and glycine betaine biosynthesis, uptake and transporters of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions.
2016: Genome Announcements
Riffat John, Uma Ganeshan, Badri N Singh, Tanushri Kaul, Malireddy K Reddy, Sudhir K Sopory, Manchikatla V Rajam
Topoisomerases are unique enzymes having an ability to remove or add DNA supercoils and untangle the snarled DNA. They can cut, shuffle, and religate DNA strands and remove the torsional stress during DNA replication, transcription or recombination events. In the present study, we over-expressed topoisomerase II (TopoII) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) and examined its role in growth and development as well as salt (NaCl) stress tolerance. Several putative transgenic plants were generated and the transgene integration and expression was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses, and RT-PCR analysis respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rachael Beale, Ruth Airs
A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS, electrospray ionisation) method has been developed for the quantification of nitrogenous osmolytes (N-osmolytes) in the particulate fraction of natural water samples. Full method validation demonstrates the validity of the method for measuring glycine betaine (GBT), choline and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in particulates from seawater. Limits of detection were calculated as 3.5, 1.2 and 5.9 pg injected onto column (equivalent to 1.5, 0.6 and 3.9 nmol per litre) for GBT, choline and TMAO respectively...
September 28, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Abeer Hashem, E F Abd Allah, A A Alqarawi, A A Al-Huqail, M A Shah
The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt...
2016: BioMed Research International
Lisa M Nigro, Andrew S Hyde, Barbara J MacGregor, Andreas Teske
Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xuan Ma, Yong-Bin Ou, Yong-Feng Gao, Stanley Lutts, Tao-Tao Li, Yang Wang, Yong-Fu Chen, Yu-Fang Sun, Yin-An Yao
The effects of moderate salinity on the responses of woody plants to UV-B radiation were investigated using two Populus species (Populus alba and Populus russkii). Under UV-B radiation, moderate salinity reduced the oxidation pressure in both species, as indicated by lower levels of cellular H2O2 and membrane peroxidation, and weakened the inhibition of photochemical efficiency expressed by O-J-I-P changes. UV-B-induced DNA lesions in chloroplast and nucleus were alleviated by salinity, which could be explained by the higher expression levels of DNA repair system genes under UV-B&salt condition, such as the PHR, DDB2, and MutSα genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Qi Zhao, Jinwei Suo, Sixue Chen, Yudan Jin, Xiaolin Ma, Zepeng Yin, Yuhong Zhang, Tai Wang, Ji Luo, Wenhai Jin, Xia Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Shaojun Dai
Soil alkalization severely affects crop growth and agricultural productivity. Alkali salts impose ionic, osmotic, and high pH stresses on plants. The alkali tolerance molecular mechanism in roots from halophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora is still unclear. Here, the changes associated with Na2CO3 tolerance in P. tenuiflora roots were assessed using physiological and iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses. We set up the first protein dataset in P. tenuiflora roots containing 2,671 non-redundant proteins. Our results showed that Na2CO3 slightly inhibited root growth, caused ROS accumulation, cell membrane damage, and ion imbalance, as well as reduction of transport and protein synthesis/turnover...
2016: Scientific Reports
A F C Greenslade, J L Ward, J L Martin, D I Corol, S J Clark, L E Smart, G I Aradottir
Crop protection is an integral part of establishing food security, by protecting the yield potential of crops. Cereal aphids cause yield losses by direct damage and transmission of viruses. Some wild relatives of wheat show resistance to aphids but the mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate the location of the partial resistance to the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, in diploid wheat lines of Triticum monococcum, we conducted aphid performance studies using developmental bioassays and electrical penetration graphs, as well as metabolic profiling of partially resistant and susceptible lines...
May 2016: Annals of Applied Biology
Jozef Dingemans, Pieter Monsieurs, Sung-Huan Yu, Aurélie Crabbé, Konrad U Förstner, Anne Malfroot, Pierre Cornelis, Rob Van Houdt
UNLABELLED: Chronic colonization of the lungs by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To gain insights into the characteristic biofilm phenotype of P. aeruginosa in the CF lungs, mimicking the CF lung environment is critical. We previously showed that growth of the non-CF-adapted P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain in a rotating wall vessel, a device that simulates the low fluid shear (LS) conditions present in the CF lung, leads to the formation of in-suspension, self-aggregating biofilms...
2016: MBio
Mohammad S Khan, Muhammad A Khan, Dawood Ahmad
Transgenic plants with improved salt and drought stress tolerance have been developed with a large number of abiotic stress-related genes. Among these, the most extensively used genes are the glycine betaine biosynthetic codA, the DREB transcription factors, and vacuolar membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. The use of codA, DREBs, and Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in transgenic plants has conferred stress tolerance and improved plant phenotype. However, the future deployment and commercialization of these plants depend on their safety to the environment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
F W Wang, M L Wang, C Guo, N Wang, X W Li, H Chen, Y Y Dong, X F Chen, Z M Wang, H Y Li
Glycine betaine is an important quaternary ammonium compound that is produced in response to several abiotic stresses in many organisms. The synthesis of glycine betaine requires the catalysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), which can convert betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine in plants, especially in halotolerant plants. In this study, we isolated the full-length cDNA of BADH from Suaeda corniculata (ScBADH) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Adam M Nock, Matthew J Wargo
UNLABELLED: Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Mohammad Ahmad, Seema Ameen, Tariq Omar Siddiqi, Parvez Khan, Altaf Ahmad
Glycine betaine (GB) is one of the key compatible solutes that accumulate in the cell at exceedingly high level under the conditions of high salinity. It plays a crucial role in the maintenance of osmolarity of the cell without affecting the physiological processes. Analysis of stress-induced physiological conditions in living cells, therefore, requires real-time monitoring of cellular GB level. Glycine Betaine Optical Sensor (GBOS), a genetically-encoded FRET-based nanosensor developed in this study, allows the real-time monitoring of GB levels inside living cells...
December 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Raluca Cicevan, Mohamad Al Hassan, Adriana F Sestras, Jaime Prohens, Oscar Vicente, Radu E Sestras, Monica Boscaiu
Drought tolerance was evaluated in twelve cultivars of three ornamental Tagetes species (T. patula, T. tenuifolia and T. erecta). A stress treatment was performed by completely stopping watering of plants maintained in controlled greenhouse conditions. After three weeks, several plant growth parameters (stem length (SL), fresh weight (FW) and water content (WC)), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids (Car)), osmolytes (proline (Pro), glycine betaine (GB) and total soluble sugars (TSS)), an oxidative stress maker (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and antioxidants (total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF)) were measured...
2016: PeerJ
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