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Amal Al-Tamimi, Mohamad Khatib, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Nadia Mulinacci
Capparis spinosa L. is a perennial plant typical of the Mediterranean flora and a multipurpose plant used for curing various human ailments. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), as constituents of Capparaceae, play important roles in protecting against abiotic stress. Aim of this work was to determine QACs in root and leaves of caper from two proveniences. The presence of stachydrine, choline, glycine betaine and homo-stachydrine has been confirmed by high resolution MS, while 1 H NMR was applied to quantify the main QACs in the aqueous extracts...
May 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
Graham G Willsey, Sebastian Ventrone, Kristin C Schutz, Aaron M Wallace, John W Ribis, Benjamin T Suratt, Matthew J Wargo
The interactions between K lebsiella pneumoniae and the host environment at the site of infection largely unknown. Pulmonary surfactant serves as an initial point of contact for inhaled bacteria entering the lung and is thought to contain molecular cues that aid colonization and pathogenesis. To gain insight into this ecological transition, we characterized the transcriptional response of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 to purified pulmonary surfactant. This work revealed changes within the K. pneumoniae transcriptome that likely contribute to host colonization, adaptation, and virulence in vivo Notable transcripts expressed under these conditions include genes involved in capsule synthesis, LPS modification, antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and metabolism...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Ya-Hui Shao, Li-Zhong Guo, Yu-Qing Zhang, Hao Yu, Bai-Suo Zhao, Hai-Qiang Pang, Wei-Dong Lu
Although some bacteria, including Chromohalobacer salexigens DSM 3043, can use glycine betaine (hereafter referred to as GB) as the sole carbon and energy source, little information is available about the genes and their encoded proteins involved in the initial step of GB degradation pathway. In the present study, the results of conserved domain analysis, construction of in-frame deletion mutants, and in vivo functional complementation assay suggested that the open reading frames Csal_1004 and Csal_1005, designated bmoA and bmoB , may act as the terminal oxygenase and the ferredoxin reductase in a novel Rieske-type oxygenase system to convert GB to dimethylglycine in C...
April 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xiong Deng, Yue Liu, Xuexin Xu, Dongmiao Liu, Genrui Zhu, Xing Yan, Zhimin Wang, Yueming Yan
In this study, we performed the first comparative proteomic analysis of wheat flag leaves and developing grains in response to drought stress. Drought stress caused a significant decrease in several important physiological and biochemical parameters and grain yield traits, particularly those related to photosynthesis and starch biosynthesis. In contrast, some key indicators related to drought stress were significantly increased, including malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, proline, glycine betaine, abscisic acid content, and peroxidase activity...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Laura Devaux, Dona Sleiman, Maria-Vittoria Mazzuoli, Myriam Gominet, Philippe Lanotte, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Arnaud Firon
Cyclic nucleotides are universally used as secondary messengers to control cellular physiology. Among these signalling molecules, cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a specific bacterial second messenger recognized by host cells during infections and its synthesis is assumed to be necessary for bacterial growth by controlling a conserved and essential cellular function. In this study, we sought to identify the main c-di-AMP dependent pathway in Streptococcus agalactiae, the etiological agent of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Ioannis Vyrides, Efi-Maria Drakou, Stavros Ioannou, Fotoula Michael, Georgia Gatidou, Athanasios S Stasinakis
The bilge water that is stored at the bottom of the ships is saline and greasy wastewater with a high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) fluctuations (2-12 g COD L-1 ). The aim of this study was to examine at a laboratory scale the biodegradation of bilge water using first anaerobic granular sludge followed by aerobic microbial consortium (consisted of 5 strains) and vice versa and then based on this to implement a pilot scale study. Batch results showed that granular sludge and aerobic consortium can remove up to 28% of COD in 13 days and 65% of COD removal in 4 days, respectively...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sabine Zeidler, Josephine Hubloher, Patricia König, Ngoc Dinh Ngu, Anica Scholz, Beate Averhoff, Volker Müller
Mannitol is the major compatible solute, next to glutamate, synthesized by the opportunistic human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii under low water activities. The key enzyme for mannitol biosynthesis, MtlD, was identified. MtlD is highly similar to the bifunctional mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase/phosphatase from Acinetobacter baylyi. After deletion of the mtlD gene from A. baumannii ATCC 19606T cells no longer accumulated mannitol and growth was completely impaired at high salt. Addition of glycine betaine restored growth, demonstrating that mannitol is an important compatible solute in the human pathogen...
March 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Abazar Ghorbani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi, Valli Ollah Ghasemi Omran, Hemmatollah Pirdashti
Nowadays, salinity has become an increasingly serious environmental issue that affects the growth and yield of a majority of plants. In the present work, the influences of Piriformospora indicia on gas exchange, water potential, osmolyte content, Na/K ratio and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under three salinity levels (0, 50, 100 and 150mM NaCl) and three time-course (5, 10 and 15 days after exposure to salt). Results indicated that P. indicia improves growth parameters of tomato under salinity...
March 25, 2018: Plant Biology
Xiulin Wang, Xiaxiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiao Wang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao, Dong Jiang
Drought is the major abiotic stress that decreases plant water status, inhibits photosynthesis, induces oxidative stress, restricts growth and finally lead to the reduction of wheat yield. It has been proven that drought priming during vegetative growth stage could enhance tolerance to drought stress at grain filling in wheat. However, whether drought priming imposed at grain filling in parental plants could induce drought tolerance in the offspring is not known. In this study, drought priming was successively applied in the first, the second and the third generation of wheat to obtain the plants of T1 (primed for one generation), T2 (primed for two generations), T3 (primed for three generations)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mohammad Akbari, Nasser Mahna, Katam Ramesh, Ali Bandehagh, Silvia Mazzuca
Pistachio, one of the important tree nuts, is cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions where salinity is the most common abiotic stress encountered by this tree. However, the mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in this plant are not well understood. In the present study, five 1-year-old pistachio rootstocks (namely Akbari, Badami, Ghazvini, Kale-Ghouchi, and UCB-1) were treated with four saline water regimes (control, 8, 12, and 16 dS m-1 ) for 100 days. At high salinity level, all rootstocks showed decreased relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCHC), and carotenoids in the leaf, while ascorbic acid (AsA) and total soluble proteins (TSP) were reduced in both leaf and root organs...
March 12, 2018: Protoplasma
Jaime Sagredo-Beltrán, Yumiko De La Cruz-Rodríguez, Miguel Alvarado-Rodríguez, Julio Vega-Arreguín, Raúl Rodríguez-Guerra, Alejandro Alvarado-Gutiérrez, Saúl Fraire-Velázquez
Bacillus halotolerans strain MS50-18A, isolated from saline soil, possesses antifungal activity toward root rot causal phytopathogens and has friendly interactions with the chili pepper plant. The draft genome sequence is 4.06 Mb in length and contains 4,215 genes. Genes related to glycine/betaine uptake and bacilysin biosynthesis are present, supporting its saline stress tolerance and antifungal activity.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Jamie A Meadows, Graham G Willsey, Matthew J Wargo
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can metabolize carnitine and O-acylcarnitines, which are abundant in host muscle and other tissues. Acylcarnitines are metabolized to carnitine and a fatty acid. The liberated carnitine and its catabolic product, glycine betaine, can be used as osmoprotectants, to induce the secreted phospholipase C PlcH, and as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. P. aeruginosa is incapable of de novo synthesis of carnitine and acylcarnitines, therefore they must be imported from an exogenous source...
April 2018: Microbiology
María J León, Tamara Hoffmann, Cristina Sánchez-Porro, Johann Heider, Antonio Ventosa, Erhard Bremer
Members of the genus Spiribacter are found worldwide and are abundant in ecosystems possessing intermediate salinities between seawater and saturated salt concentrations. Spiribacter salinus M19-40 is the type species of this genus and its first cultivated representative. In the habitats of S. salinus M19-40, high salinity is a key determinant for growth and we therefore focused on the cellular adjustment strategy to this persistent environmental challenge. We coupled these experimental studies to the in silico mining of the genome sequence of this moderate halophile with respect to systems allowing this bacterium to control its potassium and sodium pools, and its ability to import and synthesize compatible solutes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Petronia Carillo
Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jamie A Meadows, Matthew J Wargo
The common environmental bacterium and opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes diverse metabolic pathways and associated regulatory networks allowing it to thrive in these different environments. In an effort to understand P. aeruginosa metabolism and detection of host-derived compounds, we previously identified CdhR and GbdR as members of the AraC transcription factor family that regulate catabolism of the quaternary amine compounds carnitine and glycine betaine, respectively. In this study, our goal was to further characterize regulation of carnitine catabolism by the transcription factor CdhR...
January 2018: MSphere
Laura Czech, Erhard Bremer
The cellular adjustment of Bacteria and Archaea to high-salinity habitats is well studied and has generally been classified into one of two strategies. These are to accumulate high levels either of ions (the "salt-in" strategy) or of physiologically compliant organic osmolytes, the compatible solutes (the "salt-out" strategy). Halophilic protists are ecophysiological important inhabitants of salt-stressed ecosystems because they are not only very abundant but also represent the majority of eukaryotic lineages in nature...
February 2018: PLoS Biology
Leonardo A Piazza, Daniela López, Mariana P Silva, Marisa J López Rivilli, Mónica G Tourn, Juan J Cantero, Ana L Scopel
The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll...
March 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ciria G Figueroa-Soto, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto
For many years, glycine betaine (GB) has been widely studied as an osmolyte in plants and bacteria. In animal cells, GB is an osmolyte mainly in the kidneys, but in humans many studies have shown its role as a methyl donor in homocysteine metabolism in the liver. GB is also a protein stabilizer, and thus, it became known as an osmoprotector. In many organisms GB is synthesized from choline and can also be obtained from some foods. Over the last twenty years GB has gone from being considered simply as an osmolyte to being known as a cytoprotector involved in cell metabolism and as a chemical chaperone...
April 2018: Biochimie
Lea Weinisch, Steffen Kühner, Robin Roth, Maria Grimm, Tamara Roth, Daili J A Netz, Antonio J Pierik, Sabine Filker
Hypersaline environments pose major challenges to their microbial residents. Microorganisms have to cope with increased osmotic pressure and low water activity and therefore require specific adaptation mechanisms. Although mechanisms have already been thoroughly investigated in the green alga Dunaliella salina and some halophilic yeasts, strategies for osmoadaptation in other protistan groups (especially heterotrophs) are neither as well known nor as deeply investigated as for their prokaryotic counterpart...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
Merve S Zeden, Christopher F Schuster, Lisa Bowman, Qiyun Zhong, Huw D Williams, Angelika Gründling
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered signaling molecule important for the survival of Firmicutes, a large bacterial group that includes notable pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus However, the exact role of this molecule has not been identified. dacA , the S. aureus gene encoding the diadenylate cyclase enzyme required for c-di-AMP production, cannot be deleted when bacterial cells are grown in rich medium, indicating that c-di-AMP is required for growth in this condition...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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