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glycine-betaine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212821/cloning-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-betaine-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-glycine-betaine-in-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#1
María F Delgado-Gaytán, Jesús A Rosas-Rodríguez, Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia, Ciria G Figueroa-Soto, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto
The enzyme betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine (GB), a very efficient osmolyte accumulated during osmotic stress. In this study, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA for the BADH from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvBADH). The cDNA was 1882 bp long, with a complete open reading frame of 1524 bp, encoding 507 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 54.15 kDa and a pI of 5.4. The predicted LvBADH amino acid sequence shares a high degree of identity with marine invertebrate BADHs...
February 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207877/selective-inhibition-of-aggregation-fibrillation-of-bovine-serum-albumin-by-osmolytes-mechanistic-and-energetics-insights
#2
Moumita Dasgupta, Nand Kishore
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is an important transport protein of the blood and its aggregation/fibrillation would adversely affect its transport ability leading to metabolic disorder. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of fibrillation/aggregation of BSA and design of suitable inhibitor molecules for stabilizing its native conformation, are of utmost importance. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the effect of osmolytes (proline, hydroxyproline, glycine betaine, sarcosine and sorbitol) on heat induced aggregation/fibrillation of BSA at physiological pH (pH 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193207/a-novel-point-mutation-in-rpob-improves-osmotolerance-and-succinic-acid-production-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Mengyong Xiao, Xinna Zhu, Hongtao Xu, Jinlei Tang, Ru Liu, Changhao Bi, Feiyu Fan, Xueli Zhang
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli suffer from osmotic stress during succinic acid (SA) production, which reduces the performance of this microbial factory. RESULTS: Here, we report that a point mutation leading to a single amino acid change (D654Y) within the β-subunit of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RpoB) significantly improved the osmotolerance of E. coli. Importation of the D654Y mutation of RpoB into the parental strain, Suc-T110, increased cell growth and SA production by more than 40% compared to that of the control under high glucose osmolality...
February 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134762/nmr-based-metabolic-profiling-of-field-grown-leaves-from-sugar-beet-plants-harbouring-different-levels-of-resistance-to-cercospora-leaf-spot-disease
#4
Yasuyo Sekiyama, Kazuyuki Okazaki, Jun Kikuchi, Seishi Ikeda
Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) is one of the most serious leaf diseases for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) worldwide. The breeding of sugar beet cultivars with both high CLS resistance and high yield is a major challenge for breeders. In this study, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiling of field-grown leaves for a subset of sugar beet genotypes harbouring different levels of CLS resistance. Leaves were collected from 12 sugar beet genotypes at four time points: seedling, early growth, root enlargement, and disease development stages...
January 26, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128955/phytochemical-characterization-of-low-molecular-weight-constituents-from-marshmallow-roots-althaea-officinalis-and-inhibiting-effects-of-the-aqueous-extract-on-human-hyaluronidase-1
#5
Jandirk Sendker, Ines Böker, Isabelle Lengers, Simone Brandt, Joachim Jose, Timo Stark, Thomas Hofmann, Careen Fink, Heba Abdel-Aziz, Andreas Hensel
Extract RE was obtained from the roots of Althaea officinalis in a yield of 8.1%, related to the dried plant material, by extraction with MeOH-H2O (1:1), followed by precipitation with EtOH to remove high molecular weight constituents. Phytochemical investigation of RE revealed the presence of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acid amides 1-5, 8% glycine betaine 6, about 9% total amino acids with proline as the main compound, and about 61% mono- and oligomeric carbohydrates with sucrose as the main compound. Further fractionation revealed the presence of a hypolaetin diglycoside (12) and four hypolaetin glycosides (7-9 and 11) with O-sulfocarbohydrate moieties; additionally, 4'-O-methylisoscutellarein-8-O-β-d-(3″-O-sulfo)glucuronopyranoside (10) and the diglycosylated coumarin haploperoside D (13) were identified...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128303/analysis-of-carotenogenic-genes-promoters-and-wrky-transcription-factors-in-response-to-salt-stress-in-dunaliella-bardawil
#6
Ming-Hua Liang, Jian-Guo Jiang
The unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil is a highly salt-tolerant organism, capable of accumulating glycerol, glycine betaine and β-carotene under salt stress, and has been considered as an excellent model organism to investigate the molecular mechanisms of salt stress responses. In this study, several carotenogenic genes (DbCRTISO, DbZISO, DbLycE and DbChyB), DbBADH genes involved in glycine betaine synthesis and genes encoding probable WRKY transcription factors from D. bardawil were isolated, and promoters of DbCRTISO and DbChyB were cloned...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119187/effect-of-mammalian-kidney-osmolytes-on-the-folding-pathway-of-sheep-serum-albumin
#7
Mohammad Aasif Dar, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
Recently, we had published that urea-induced denaturation curves of optical properties of sheep serum albumin (SSA) are biphasic with a stable intermediate that has characteristics of molten globule (MG) state. In this study, we have extended the work by carrying out urea- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturations of SSA in the presence of naturally occurring mammalian kidney osmolytes, namely, sorbitol, myo-inositol and glycine betaine. We have observed that all these osmolytes (i) transform this biphasic transition into a co-operative, two-state transition and (ii) increase the stability of the protein in terms of midpoint of denaturation (Cm) and Gibbs free energy change in the absence of both denaturants (ΔGD(0))...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110268/metabolic-and-physiological-adjustment-of-suaeda-maritima-to-combined-salinity-and-hypoxia
#8
Jan H Behr, Alain Bouchereau, Solenne Berardocco, Charlotte E Seal, Timothy J Flowers, Christian Zörb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Suaeda maritima is a halophyte commonly found on coastal wetlands in the intertidal zone. Due to its habitat S. maritima has evolved tolerance to high salt concentrations and hypoxic conditions in the soil caused by periodic flooding. In the present work, the adaptive mechanisms of S. maritima to salinity combined with hypoxia were investigated on a physiological and metabolic level. METHODS: To compare the adaptive mechanisms to deficient, optimal and stressful salt concentrations, S...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104923/unique-heating-curves-generated-by-radiofrequency-electric-field-interactions-with-semi-aqueous-solutions
#9
Nadia C Lara, Asad A Haider, Lon J Wilson, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
Aqueous and nanoparticle-based solutions have been reported to heat when exposed to an alternating radiofrequency (RF) electric-field. Although the theoretical models have been developed to accurately model such a behavior given the solution composition as well as the geometrical constraints of the sample holder, these models have not been investigated across a wide-range of solutions where the dielectric properties differ, especially with regard to the real permittivity. In this work, we investigate the RF heating properties of non-aqueous solutions composed of ethanol, propylene glycol, and glycine betaine with and without varying amounts of NaCl and LiCl...
January 2, 2017: Applied Physics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102497/regulated-partitioning-of-fixed-carbon-14-c-sodium-na-potassium-k-and-glycine-betaine-determined-salinity-stress-tolerance-of-gamma-irradiated-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp
#10
Pankaj Kumar, Vasundhara Sharma, Chobhe Kapil Atmaram, Bhupinder Singh
Soil salinity is a major constraint that limits legume productivity. Pigeonpea is a salt sensitive crop. Seed gamma irradiation at a very low dose (2.5 Gy) is known to enhance seedling establishment, plant growth and yield of cereals and other crops. The present study conducted using two genetically diverse varieties of pigeonpea viz., Pusa-991 and Pusa-992 aimed at establishing the role of pre-sowing seed gamma irradiation at 0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy on plant growth, seed yield and seed quality under salt stress at 0, 80 and 100 mM NaCl (soil solution EC equivalent 1...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#11
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087883/defining-genetic-and-chemical-diversity-in-wheat-grain-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy-of-polar-metabolites
#12
Peter R Shewry, Delia I Corol, Huw D Jones, Michael H Beale, Jane L Ward
SCOPE: The application of high throughput 1H-NMR of unpurified extracts to determine to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. METHODS AND RESULTS: milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2O:CD3OD containing 0.05% d4- trimethylsilylpropionate (TSP). 1H-NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300 °K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062279/nitric-oxide-induced-synthesis-of-hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-osmotic-stress-in-wheat-seedlings-through-sustaining-antioxidant-enzymes-osmolyte-accumulation-and-cysteine-homeostasis
#13
M Nasir Khan, M Mobin, Zahid Khorshid Abbas, Manzer H Siddiqui
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been shown to act as signaling molecules in various physiological processes, play significant roles in plant cellular processes, and also mediate responses to both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The present investigation was carried out to test the effect of exogenous NO on endogenous synthesis of H2S in osmotic-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. The results show that application of NO to wheat seedlings, suffered from PEG8000-induced osmotic stress, considerably enhanced the activities of H2S-synthesizing enzymes l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and d-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD) leading to enhanced level of endogenous H2S content...
January 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035596/biosynthesis-and-uptake-of-glycine-betaine-as-cold-stress-response-to-low-temperature-in-fish-pathogen-vibrio-anguillarum
#14
Yue Ma, Qiyao Wang, Xiating Gao, Yuanxing Zhang
Fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a mesophile bacterium, is usually found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide that pose a constant stress to local organism by its fluctuation in salinity as well as notable temperature change. Though V. anguillarum is able to proliferate while maintain its pathogenicity under low temperature (5-18°C), so far, coldadaption molecular mechanism of the bacteria is unknown. In this study, V. anguillarum was found possessing a putative glycine betaine synthesis system, which is encoded by betABI and synthesizes glycine betaine from its precursor choline...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007169/uptake-and-transformation-of-arsenic-during-the-reproductive-life-stage-of-agaricus-bisporus-and-agaricus-campestris
#15
Michelle M Nearing, Iris Koch, Kenneth J Reimer
Fruiting bodies from the Agaricus genus have been found to contain non-toxic arsenobetaine (AB) as a major compound. It is unknown whether AB is formed during the vegetative or reproductive life stages of the fungus, or by the surrounding microbial community, but AB's structural similarity to glycine betaine has led to the hypothesis that AB may be adventitiously accumulated as an osmolyte. To investigate the potential formation of AB during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus species, growth substrate and fungi were collected during the commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus and analyzed for arsenic speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994018/a-conserved-abc-transport-system-regulated-by-the-general-stress-response-pathways-of-alpha-and-gammaproteobacteria
#16
Julien Herrou, Jonathan W Willett, Daniel M Czyż, Gyorgy Babnigg, Youngchang Kim, Sean Crosson
: Brucella abortus σ(E1) is an EcfG-family sigma factor that regulates transcription of dozens of genes in response to diverse stress conditions, and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a mouse model. A putative ATP-binding cassette transporter operon, bab1_0223-bab1_0226, is among the most highly activated gene sets in the σ(E1) regulon. The proteins encoded by this operon resemble quaternary ammonium compatible solute importers, but are most similar in sequence to the broadly conserved YehZYXW system, which remains largely uncharacterized...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942568/data-on-the-role-of-accessible-surface-area-on-osmolytes-induced-protein-stabilization
#17
Safikur Rahman, Syed Ausaf Ali, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
This paper describes data related to the research article "Testing the dependence of stabilizing effect of osmolytes on the fractional increase in the accessible surface area on thermal and chemical denaturations of proteins" [1]. Heat- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturation of three disulfide free proteins (bovine cytochrome c (b-cyt-c), myoglobin (Mb) and barstar) in the presence of different concentrations of methylamines (sarcosine, glycine-betaine (GB) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)) was monitored by [ϴ]222, the mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm at pH 7...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920296/a-sulfur-oxygenase-from-the-haloalkaliphilic-bacterium-thioalkalivibrio-paradoxus-with-atypically-low-reductase-activity
#18
Patrick Rühl, Uwe Pöll, Johannes Braun, Andreas Klingl, Arnulf Kletzin
: Sequence comparisons showed that the sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) of the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus Arh 1 (TpSOR) is branching deeply within dendrograms of these proteins (29 to 34% identity). A synthetic gene encoding TpSOR expressed in Escherichia coli resulted in a protein 14.7 ± 0.9 nm in diameter and an apparent molecular mass of 556 kDa. Sulfite and thiosulfate were formed from elemental sulfur in a temperature range of 10 to 98°C (optimum temperature ≈ 80°C) and a pH range of 6 to 11...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915144/antioxidant-enzyme-and-osmotic-adjustment-changes-in-bean-seedlings-as-affected-by-biochar-under-salt-stress
#19
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Shahram Torabian
Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass)...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768285/aspects-of-weak-interactions-between-folate-and-glycine-betaine
#20
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Gabriella P Rimmer, Pratul K Agarwal, Elizabeth E Howell
Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium toward the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor-pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value)...
November 15, 2016: Biochemistry
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