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glycine-betaine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127003/recombinant-alpha-fetoprotein-receptor-binding-domain-co-expression-with-polyglutamate-tags-facilitates-in-vivo-folding-in-e-coli
#1
Murad Mollaev, Neonila Gorokhovets, Elena Nikolskaya, Maria Faustova, Arthur Zabolotsky, Maria Sokol, Oksana Tereshenko, Olga Zhunina, Vitaliy Shvets, Evgeniy Severin, Nikita Yabbarov
A wide range of methods are known to increase the prokaryotic intracellular recombinant proteins solubility, for instance, growth at low temperature, supplementation of culture media with "chemical chaperones" (proline, glycine-betaine, and trehalose), co-expression with chaperones or highly soluble fusion partners. As an alternative, we have introduced the polyglutamate tag, which, as it has been shown, increased the protein solubility and facilitated folding. In this study we evaluated the minimal quantity of high density negatively charged EEEEVE amino acid repeats (pGlu) necessary to switch the recombinant receptor-binding domain of human alpha-fetoprotein (rbdAFP) expression almost entirely from the inclusion bodies to the soluble cytoplasmic fraction in E...
November 7, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110324/cnta-oxygenase-substrate-profile-comparison-and-oxygen-dependency-of-tma-production-in-providencia-rettgeri
#2
Gints Kalnins, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Dace Hartmane, Solveiga Grinberga, Kaspars Tars
CntA oxygenase is a Rieske 2S-2Fe cluster-containing protein that has been previously described as able to produce trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, gamma-butyrobetaine, glycine betaine, and in one case, choline. TMA found in humans is exclusively of bacterial origin, and its metabolite, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), has been associated with atherosclerosis and heart and renal failure. We isolated four different Rieske oxygenases and determined that there are no significant differences in their substrate panels...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104571/identification-of-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline-as-a-compatible-solute-and-its-biosynthesis-and-molecular-characterization-in-halobacillus-halophilus
#3
Kyung Hyun Kim, Baolei Jia, Che Ok Jeon
Halobacillus halophilus, a moderately halophilic bacterium, accumulates a variety of compatible solutes including glycine betaine, glutamate, glutamine, proline, and ectoine to cope with osmotic stress. Non-targeted analysis of intracellular organic compounds using (1)H-NMR showed that a large amount of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp), which has not been reported as a compatible solute in H. halophilus, was accumulated in response to high NaCl salinity, suggesting that Hyp may be an important compatible solute in H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062391/metabolic-comparison-of-dorsal-versus-ventral-cells-directly-in-the-live-8-cell-frog-embryo-by-microprobe-single-cell-ce-esi-ms
#4
Rosemary M Onjiko, David O Plotnick, Sally A Moody, Peter Nemes
Single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) empowers the characterization of metabolomic changes as cells differentiate to different tissues during early embryogenesis. Using whole-cell dissection and capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization (CE-ESI) MS, we recently uncovered metabolic cell-to-cell differences in the 8- and 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), raising the question whether metabolic cell heterogeneity is also detectable across the dorsal-ventral axis of the 8-cell embryo...
September 14, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050878/stable-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-under-water-deficit-field-conditions-by-a-stress-tolerant-alfalfa-microsymbiont-and-its-complete-genome-sequence
#5
Cintia Jozefkowicz, Silvina Brambilla, Romina Frare, Margarita Stritzler, Carlos Piccinetti, Mariana Puente, Carolina Andrea Berini, Pedro Reyes Pérez, Gabriela Soto, Nicolás Ayub
We here characterized the stress-tolerant alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. B401-treated plants showed high nitrogen fixation rates under humid and semiarid environments. The production of glycine betaine in isolated bacteroids positively correlated with low precipitation levels, suggesting that this compound acts as a critical osmoprotectant under field conditions. Genome analysis revealed that strain B401 contains alternative pathways for the biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine and its precursors...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038482/selective-binding-of-choline-by-a-phosphate-coordination-based-triple-helicate-featuring-an-aromatic-box
#6
Chuandong Jia, Wei Zuo, Dong Yang, Yanming Chen, Liping Cao, Radu Custelcean, Jiří Hostaš, Pavel Hobza, Robert Glaser, Yao-Yu Wang, Xiao-Juan Yang, Biao Wu
In nature, proteins have evolved sophisticated cavities tailored for capturing target guests selectively among competitors of similar size, shape, and charge. The fundamental principles guiding the molecular recognition, such as self-assembly and complementarity, have inspired the development of biomimetic receptors. In the current work, we report a self-assembled triple anion helicate (host 2) featuring a cavity resembling that of the choline-binding protein ChoX, as revealed by crystal and density functional theory (DFT)-optimized structures, which binds choline in a unique dual-site-binding mode...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035772/effect-of-lignite-on-alleviation-of-salt-toxicity-in-soybean-glycine-max-l-plants
#7
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Neda Nikpour-Rashidabad
Salt toxicity of agricultural land is a natural phenomenon which is due to agricultural irrigation. This toxicity is harmful to crop productivity via increasing oxidative stress products. In a factorial controlled trial, four levels of lignite-enriched soil (soil lignite content: none, 50, 75 and 100 g kg(-1)) were exposed to three levels of soil salinity (0, 5 and 10 dS m(-1) NaCl). Then reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities (peroxidase, catalase and super oxide dismutase), proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugars and soluble protein contents of soybean plants were compared across different lignite concentration and saline toxicity...
October 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030186/counteraction-of-the-deleterious-effects-of-urea-on-structure-and-stability-of-mammalian-kidney-proteins-by-osmolytes
#8
Mohammad Aasif Dar, Wahiduzzaman, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
Owing to the urine concentrating mechanism of kidney cells, urea concentration is very high (3.0-5.0M) in mammalian kidneys which may denature many kidney proteins. Methylamines are known to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins at 2:1 molar ratio of urea to methylamines. It is known that mammalian kidney cells also contain stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol and sorbitol). A question arises: Do these non-methylmine osmolytes have ability to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on kidney proteins? To answer this question, we took two kidney proteins, namely, sheep serum albumin and Human carbonic anhydrase II...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029877/substitutions-of-s101-decrease-proton-and-hydride-transfers-in-the-oxidation-of-betaine-aldehyde-by-choline-oxidase
#9
Giovanni Gadda, Hongling Yuan
Choline oxidase oxidizes choline to glycine betaine, with two flavin-mediated reactions to convert the alcohol substrate to the carbon acid product. Proton abstraction from choline or hydrated betaine aldehyde in the wild-type enzyme occurs in the mixing time of the stopped-flow spectrophotometer, thereby precluding a mechanistic investigation. Mutagenesis of S101 rendered the proton transfer reaction amenable to study. Here, we have investigated the aldehyde oxidation reaction catalyzed by the mutant enzymes using steady-state and rapid kinetics with betaine aldehyde...
October 10, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020453/small-angle-neutron-scattering-studies-of-r67-dihydrofolate-reductase-a-tetrameric-protein-with-intrinsically-disordered-n-termini
#10
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Pratul Agarwal, Christopher Stanley, Elizabeth E Howell
R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a homotetramer with a single active site pore and no sequence or structural homology with chromosomal DHFRs. The R67 enzyme provides resistance to trimethoprim, an active site-directed inhibitor of Escherichia coli DHFR. Sixteen to twenty N-terminal amino acids are intrinsically disordered in the R67 dimer crystal structure. Chymotrypsin cleavage of 16 N-terminal residues results in an active enzyme with a decreased stability. The space sampled by the disordered N-termini of R67 DHFR was investigated using small angle neutron scattering...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951040/antioxidant-gene-expression-and-metabolic-responses-of-earthworms-eisenia-fetida-after-exposure-to-various-concentrations-of-hexabromocyclododecane
#11
Yajuan Shi, Xiangbo Xu, Juan Chen, Ruoyu Liang, Xiaoqi Zheng, Yajing Shi, Yurong Wang
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a ubiquitous suspected contaminant, is one of the world's most prominent brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to HBCD. The expression of selected antioxidant enzyme genes was measured, and the metabolic responses were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant stress reaction and the metabolic reactions of earthworms to HBCD. A significant up-regulation (p < 0...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942848/stationary-phase-dependent-accumulation-of-ectoine-is-an-efficient-adaptation-strategy-in-vibrio-anguillarum-against-cold-stress
#12
Yue Ma, Qiyao Wang, Wensheng Xu, Xiaohong Liu, Xiating Gao, Yuanxing Zhang
The capability of cold-adaptation is a prerequisite of microorganisms that survive in an environment with frequent fluctuations in temperature. As a global causative agent of vibriosis in marine fish farming, Vibrio anguillarum can efficiently grow and proliferate under cold-stress conditions, which is 15°C lower than the optimal growth temperatures (25-30°C). Our data showed that V. anguillarum was able to synthesize ectoine de novo and that ectoine was essential for its growth under cold stress. Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mutants lacking ectABC and proVWX (ectoine synthesis and transporter system genes, respectively), we confirmed that accumulation of this compatible solute occurs strictly at low temperatures and that the expression of ectA and proV is highly activated in the stationary growth phase...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922384/effects-of-salinity-and-drought-on-growth-ionic-relations-compatible-solutes-and-activation-of-antioxidant-systems-in-oleander-nerium-oleander-l
#13
Dinesh Kumar, Mohamad Al Hassan, Miguel A Naranjo, Veena Agrawal, Monica Boscaiu, Oscar Vicente
Nerium oleander is an ornamental species of high aesthetic value, grown in arid and semi-arid regions because of its drought tolerance, which is also considered as relatively resistant to salt; yet the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying oleander's stress tolerance remain largely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, one-year-old oleander seedlings were exposed to 15 and 30 days of treatment with increasing salt concentrations, up to 800 mM NaCl, and to complete withholding of irrigation; growth parameters and biochemical markers characteristic of conserved stress-response pathways were then determined in stressed and control plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917144/silicon-improves-seed-germination-and-alleviates-drought-stress-in-lentil-crops-by-regulating-osmolytes-hydrolytic-enzymes-and-antioxidant-defense-system
#14
Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Silicon (Si) has been widely reported to have beneficial effect on mitigating drought stress in plants. However, the effect of Si on seed germination under drought conditions is still poorly understood. This research was carried out to ascertain the role of Si to abate polyethylene glycol-6000 mediated drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of lentil. Results showed that drought stress significantly decreased the seed germination traits and increased the concentration of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars), reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion) and lipid peroxides in lentil seedlings...
September 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900731/selenium-mitigates-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-plants-by-modulating-chlorophyll-fluorescence-osmolyte-accumulation-and-antioxidant-system
#15
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L(-1)) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 μM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888960/complete-genome-sequence-of-endophyte-bacillus-flexus-klbmp-4941-reveals-its-plant-growth-promotion-mechanism-and-genetic-basis-for-salt-tolerance
#16
Tian-Tian Wang, Peng Ding, Pan Chen, Ke Xing, Juan-Luan Bai, Wen Wan, Ji-Hong Jiang, Sheng Qin
Bacillus flexus KLBMP 4941 is a halotolerant endophyte isolated from the halophyte Limonium sinense. This strain can improve host seedling growth under salt stress conditions. We here report the complete genome information of endophyte KLBMP 4941. It has a circular chromosome and two plasmids for a total genome 4,104,242 bp in size with a G+C content of 38.09%. Genes related to plant growth promotion (PGP), such as those associated with nitrogen fixation, siderophore, spermidine, and acetoin synthesis were found in the KLBMP 4941 genome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881317/modulation-of-antioxidative-defense-expression-and-osmolyte-content-by-co-application-of-24-epibrassinolide-and-salicylic-acid-in-pb-exposed-indian-mustard-plants
#17
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Shagun Bali, Saroj Arora, Anket Sharma, Ravdeep Kaur, Renu Bhardwaj
The study focuses on potential of combined pre-soaking treatment of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) and Salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating Pb phytotoxicity in Brassica juncea L. plants. The seeds after treatment with combination of both the hormones were sown in mixture of soil, sand and manure (3:1:1) and were exposed to Pb concentrations (0.25mM, 0.50mM and 0.75mM). After 30 days of growth, the plants were harvested and processed, for quantification of various metabolites. It was found that pre-sowing of seeds in combination of EBL and SA, mitigated the adverse effects of metal stress by modulating antioxidative defense response and enhanced osmolyte contents...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873565/the-betaine-profile-of-cereal-flours-unveils-new-and-uncommon-betaines
#18
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Giovanna Ferrari, Domenico Castaldo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
We report the LC-ESI-MS/MS determination of betaines in commercial flours of cereals and pseudocereals most utilized in human nutrition. Results showed that glycine betaine, trigonelline, proline betaine, N(ε)-trimethyllysine were metabolites common to all examined flours, whereas an uncommon betaine, valine betaine, and glutamine betaine were present only in flours of barley, rye, oat, durum wheat, winter wheat, Triticum dicoccum and Triticum monococcum. Valine betaine and glutamine betaine, the latter never reported before in plants and animals, are not evenly distributed in the Poaceae family, but their presence or absence in flours depends on the subfamily to which the plant belongs...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791946/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-gbdr-gene-is-transcribed-from-a-%C3%AF-54-dependent-promoter-under-the-control-of-ntrc-cbrb-ihf-and-beti
#19
Diego Germán Sánchez, Emiliano David Primo, María Teresa Damiani, Angela Teresita Lisa
Pseudomonasaeruginosa uses choline as a source of carbon and nitrogen, and also for the synthesis of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant under stress conditions such as drought and salinity. The transcription factor GbdR is the specific regulator of choline metabolism and it belongs to the Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Despite the link between choline catabolism and bacterial pathogenicity, gbdR regulation has not been explored in detail. In the present work, we describe how gbdR transcription can be initiated from a σ54-dependent promoter...
August 9, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741209/pb-induced-changes-in-roots-of-two-cultivated-rice-cultivars-grown-in-lead-contaminated-soil-mediated-by-smoke
#20
Nazneen Akhtar, Sehresh Khan, Ijaz Malook, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Jamil
Nowadays, public concerns regarding deleterious effect of lead (Pb) is on rise due to its abundance and toxic effect on plants and other living organisms. In plants, it has no noticeable biological importance but can cause various morphological, physiological, and biochemical malfunctions. To evaluate the remediating potential of plant-derived smoke (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), a pot culture experiment was designed to investigate the physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and antioxidant parameters of roots in lead (0 (control), 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm)-contaminated soil...
September 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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