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glycine-betaine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326168/cyclic-di-adenosine-monophosphate-c-di-amp-is-required-for-osmotic-regulation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-but-dispensable-for-viability-in-anaerobic-conditions
#1
Merve S Zeden, Christopher F Schuster, Lisa Bowman, Qiyun Zhong, Huw D Williams, Angelika Gründling
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered signaling molecule important for the survival of Firmicutes, a large bacterial group that includes notable pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. However, the exact role of this molecule has not been identified. dacA, the S. aureus gene encoding the diadenylate cyclase enzyme required for c-di-AMP production, cannot be deleted when bacterial cells are grown in rich medium, indicating that c-di-AMP is required for growth in this condition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306799/purine-salvage-in-plants
#2
REVIEW
Hiroshi Ashihara, Claudio Stasolla, Tatsuhito Fujimura, Alan Crozier
Purine bases and nucleosides are produced by turnover of nucleotides and nucleic acids as well as from some cellular metabolic pathways. Adenosine released from the S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle is linked to many methyltransferase reactions, such as the biosynthesis of caffeine and glycine betaine. Adenine is produced by the methionine cycles, which is related to other biosynthesis pathways, such those for the production of ethylene, nicotianamine and polyamines. These purine compounds are recycled for nucleotide biosynthesis by so-called "salvage pathways"...
January 4, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297198/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-salt-stress-responsive-betaine-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-in-lycium-ruthenicum-murr
#3
Yongliang Liu, Yanli Song, Shaohua Zeng, Barunava Patra, Ling Yuan, Ying Wang
As compatible solute, glycine betaine (GB) plays a significant role in salinity tolerance in GB accumulating plants. Solanaceous crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) are salt sensitive and naturally GB non-accumulators. In Solanaceae, only the Lycium genus was recorded as halophytes in China, and several Lycium species have been reported as GB accumulators. The last biosynthetic step of GB is catalyzed by aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activities...
January 3, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279818/differential-levels-of-metabolites-and-enzymes-related-to-aroma-formation-in-aromatic-indica-rice-varieties-comparison-with-non-aromatic-varieties
#4
Puja Ghosh, Aryadeep Roychoudhury
Accounting for aroma production in different aromatic indica rice varieties based on variations in the levels of concerned metabolites and enzymes is poorly explored. The present investigation was, therefore, focused on unraveling the differential levels of metabolites and activities of enzymes related to aroma formation in eleven indigenous aromatic rice varieties, as compared with four non-aromatic varieties. The levels of metabolites such as proline (Pro) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and the activity of related enzymes such as proline dehydrogenase (PDH), Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) were comparatively higher in the aromatic varieties, with Kalonunia and Tulaipanji registering the highest Pro, Kalonunia the highest P5C content, Gobindobhog with the highest PDH activity, Gobindobhog and Tulaipanji with the highest P5CS, and Pusa Basmati-1 with the highest OAT activity...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276506/escherichia-coli-o157-h7-converts-plant-derived-choline-to-glycine-betaine-for-osmoprotection-during-pre-and-post-harvest-colonization-of-injured-lettuce-leaves
#5
Russell A Scott, Roger Thilmony, Leslie A Harden, Yaguang Zhou, Maria T Brandl
Plant injury is inherent to the production and processing of fruit and vegetables. The opportunistic colonization of damaged plant tissue by human enteric pathogens may contribute to the occurrence of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to produce. Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) responds to physicochemical stresses in cut lettuce and lettuce lysates by upregulation of several stress response pathways. We investigated the tolerance of EcO157 to osmotic stress imposed by the leakage of osmolytes from injured lettuce leaf tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216827/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-brevibacterium-strains-insights-into-key-genetic-determinants-involved-in-adaptation-to-the-cheese-habitat
#6
Nguyen-Phuong Pham, Séverine Layec, Eric Dugat-Bony, Marie Vidal, Françoise Irlinger, Christophe Monnet
BACKGROUND: Brevibacterium strains are widely used for the manufacturing of surface-ripened cheeses, contributing to the breakdown of lipids and proteins and producing volatile sulfur compounds and red-orange pigments. The objective of the present study was to perform comparative genomic analyses in order to better understand the mechanisms involved in their ability to grow on the cheese surface and the differences between the strains. RESULTS: The genomes of 23 Brevibacterium strains, including twelve strains isolated from cheeses, were compared for their gene repertoire involved in salt tolerance, iron acquisition, bacteriocin production and the ability to use the energy compounds present in cheeses...
December 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159878/arsenobetaine-an-ecophysiologically-important-organoarsenical-confers-cytoprotection-against-osmotic-stress-and-growth-temperature-extremes
#7
Tamara Hoffmann, Bianca Warmbold, Sander H J Smits, Britta Tschapek, Stefanie Ronzheimer, Abdallah Bashir, Chiliang Chen, Anne Rolbetzki, Marco Pittelkow, Mohamed Jebbar, Andreas Seubert, Lutz Schmitt, Erhard Bremer
Arsenic, a highly cytotoxic and cancerogenic metalloid, is brought into the biosphere through geochemical sources and anthropogenic activities. A global biogeochemical arsenic biotransformation cycle exists in which inorganic arsenic species are transformed into organoarsenicals, which are subsequently mineralized again into inorganic arsenic compounds. Microorganisms contribute to this biotransformation process greatly and one of the organoarsenicals synthesized and degraded in this cycle is arsenobetaine...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158630/consequences-of-copper-treatment-on-pigeon-pea-photosynthesis-osmolytes-and-antioxidants-defense
#8
Poonam Sharma, Geetika Sirhindi, Anil Kumar Singh, Harpreet Kaur, Ruqia Mushtaq
An attempt was made to explore the effect of copper sulphate treatment on growth, photosynthesis, osmolytes and antioxidants in 15 days old seedlings of C. cajan (Pigeonpea). C. cajan seedlings were grown in 0, 1, 5 and 10 mM concentrations of copper sulphate in petriplates lined with Whatman filter paper for 15 days. Root length and shoot length was decreased in a dose dependent manner with highest decrease of 82.80 and 45.92% in 10 mM Cu stress. Photosynthetic efficiency (qP, qN and Y) was decreased in a dose dependent manner whereas NPQ was increased in 1 and 5 mM and decreased in 10 mM Cu...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127003/recombinant-alpha-fetoprotein-receptor-binding-domain-co-expression-with-polyglutamate-tags-facilitates-in-vivo-folding-in-e-coli
#9
Murad Mollaev, Neonila Gorokhovets, Elena Nikolskaya, Maria Faustova, Arthur Zabolotsky, Maria Sokol, Oksana Tereshenko, Olga Zhunina, Vitaliy Shvets, Evgeniy Severin, Nikita Yabbarov
A wide range of methods are known to increase the prokaryotic intracellular recombinant proteins solubility, for instance, growth at low temperature, supplementation of culture media with "chemical chaperones" (proline, glycine-betaine, and trehalose), co-expression with chaperones or highly soluble fusion partners. As an alternative, we have introduced the polyglutamate tag, which, as it has been shown, increased the protein solubility and facilitated folding. In this study we evaluated the minimal quantity of high density negatively charged EEEEVE amino acid repeats (pGlu) necessary to switch the recombinant receptor-binding domain of human alpha-fetoprotein (rbdAFP) expression almost entirely from the inclusion bodies to the soluble cytoplasmic fraction in E...
November 7, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110324/cnta-oxygenase-substrate-profile-comparison-and-oxygen-dependency-of-tma-production-in-providencia-rettgeri
#10
Gints Kalnins, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Dace Hartmane, Solveiga Grinberga, Kaspars Tars
CntA oxygenase is a Rieske 2S-2Fe cluster-containing protein that has been previously described as able to produce trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, gamma-butyrobetaine, glycine betaine, and in one case, choline. TMA found in humans is exclusively of bacterial origin, and its metabolite, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), has been associated with atherosclerosis and heart and renal failure. We isolated four different Rieske oxygenases and determined that there are no significant differences in their substrate panels...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104571/identification-of-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline-as-a-compatible-solute-and-its-biosynthesis-and-molecular-characterization-in-halobacillus-halophilus
#11
Kyung Hyun Kim, Baolei Jia, Che Ok Jeon
Halobacillus halophilus, a moderately halophilic bacterium, accumulates a variety of compatible solutes including glycine betaine, glutamate, glutamine, proline, and ectoine to cope with osmotic stress. Non-targeted analysis of intracellular organic compounds using (1)H-NMR showed that a large amount of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp), which has not been reported as a compatible solute in H. halophilus, was accumulated in response to high NaCl salinity, suggesting that Hyp may be an important compatible solute in H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062391/metabolic-comparison-of-dorsal-versus-ventral-cells-directly-in-the-live-8-cell-frog-embryo-by-microprobe-single-cell-ce-esi-ms
#12
Rosemary M Onjiko, David O Plotnick, Sally A Moody, Peter Nemes
Single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) empowers the characterization of metabolomic changes as cells differentiate to different tissues during early embryogenesis. Using whole-cell dissection and capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization (CE-ESI) MS, we recently uncovered metabolic cell-to-cell differences in the 8- and 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), raising the question whether metabolic cell heterogeneity is also detectable across the dorsal-ventral axis of the 8-cell embryo...
September 14, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050878/stable-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-under-water-deficit-field-conditions-by-a-stress-tolerant-alfalfa-microsymbiont-and-its-complete-genome-sequence
#13
Cintia Jozefkowicz, Silvina Brambilla, Romina Frare, Margarita Stritzler, Carlos Piccinetti, Mariana Puente, Carolina Andrea Berini, Pedro Reyes Pérez, Gabriela Soto, Nicolás Ayub
We here characterized the stress-tolerant alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. B401-treated plants showed high nitrogen fixation rates under humid and semiarid environments. The production of glycine betaine in isolated bacteroids positively correlated with low precipitation levels, suggesting that this compound acts as a critical osmoprotectant under field conditions. Genome analysis revealed that strain B401 contains alternative pathways for the biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine and its precursors...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038482/selective-binding-of-choline-by-a-phosphate-coordination-based-triple-helicate-featuring-an-aromatic-box
#14
Chuandong Jia, Wei Zuo, Dong Yang, Yanming Chen, Liping Cao, Radu Custelcean, Jiří Hostaš, Pavel Hobza, Robert Glaser, Yao-Yu Wang, Xiao-Juan Yang, Biao Wu
In nature, proteins have evolved sophisticated cavities tailored for capturing target guests selectively among competitors of similar size, shape, and charge. The fundamental principles guiding the molecular recognition, such as self-assembly and complementarity, have inspired the development of biomimetic receptors. In the current work, we report a self-assembled triple anion helicate (host 2) featuring a cavity resembling that of the choline-binding protein ChoX, as revealed by crystal and density functional theory (DFT)-optimized structures, which binds choline in a unique dual-site-binding mode...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035772/effect-of-lignite-on-alleviation-of-salt-toxicity-in-soybean-glycine-max-l-plants
#15
Salar Farhangi-Abriz, Neda Nikpour-Rashidabad
Salt toxicity of agricultural land is a natural phenomenon which is due to agricultural irrigation. This toxicity is harmful to crop productivity via increasing oxidative stress products. In a factorial controlled trial, four levels of lignite-enriched soil (soil lignite content: none, 50, 75 and 100 g kg(-1)) were exposed to three levels of soil salinity (0, 5 and 10 dS m(-1) NaCl). Then reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities (peroxidase, catalase and super oxide dismutase), proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugars and soluble protein contents of soybean plants were compared across different lignite concentration and saline toxicity...
October 12, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030186/counteraction-of-the-deleterious-effects-of-urea-on-structure-and-stability-of-mammalian-kidney-proteins-by-osmolytes
#16
Mohammad Aasif Dar, Wahiduzzaman, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
Owing to the urine concentrating mechanism of kidney cells, urea concentration is very high (3.0-5.0M) in mammalian kidneys which may denature many kidney proteins. Methylamines are known to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins at 2:1 molar ratio of urea to methylamines. It is known that mammalian kidney cells also contain stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol and sorbitol). A question arises: Do these non-methylmine osmolytes have ability to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on kidney proteins? To answer this question, we took two kidney proteins, namely, sheep serum albumin and Human carbonic anhydrase II...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029877/substitutions-of-s101-decrease-proton-and-hydride-transfers-in-the-oxidation-of-betaine-aldehyde-by-choline-oxidase
#17
Giovanni Gadda, Hongling Yuan
Choline oxidase oxidizes choline to glycine betaine, with two flavin-mediated reactions to convert the alcohol substrate to the carbon acid product. Proton abstraction from choline or hydrated betaine aldehyde in the wild-type enzyme occurs in the mixing time of the stopped-flow spectrophotometer, thereby precluding a mechanistic investigation. Mutagenesis of S101 rendered the proton transfer reaction amenable to study. Here, we have investigated the aldehyde oxidation reaction catalyzed by the mutant enzymes using steady-state and rapid kinetics with betaine aldehyde...
October 10, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020453/small-angle-neutron-scattering-studies-of-r67-dihydrofolate-reductase-a-tetrameric-protein-with-intrinsically-disordered-n-termini
#18
Purva P Bhojane, Michael R Duff, Khushboo Bafna, Pratul Agarwal, Christopher Stanley, Elizabeth E Howell
R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a homotetramer with a single active site pore and no sequence or structural homology with chromosomal DHFRs. The R67 enzyme provides resistance to trimethoprim, an active site-directed inhibitor of Escherichia coli DHFR. Sixteen to twenty N-terminal amino acids are intrinsically disordered in the R67 dimer crystal structure. Chymotrypsin cleavage of 16 N-terminal residues results in an active enzyme with a decreased stability. The space sampled by the disordered N-termini of R67 DHFR was investigated using small angle neutron scattering...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951040/antioxidant-gene-expression-and-metabolic-responses-of-earthworms-eisenia-fetida-after-exposure-to-various-concentrations-of-hexabromocyclododecane
#19
Yajuan Shi, Xiangbo Xu, Juan Chen, Ruoyu Liang, Xiaoqi Zheng, Yajing Shi, Yurong Wang
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), a ubiquitous suspected contaminant, is one of the world's most prominent brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In the present study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to HBCD. The expression of selected antioxidant enzyme genes was measured, and the metabolic responses were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify the molecular mechanism of the antioxidant stress reaction and the metabolic reactions of earthworms to HBCD. A significant up-regulation (p < 0...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942848/stationary-phase-dependent-accumulation-of-ectoine-is-an-efficient-adaptation-strategy-in-vibrio-anguillarum-against-cold-stress
#20
Yue Ma, Qiyao Wang, Wensheng Xu, Xiaohong Liu, Xiating Gao, Yuanxing Zhang
The capability of cold-adaptation is a prerequisite of microorganisms that survive in an environment with frequent fluctuations in temperature. As a global causative agent of vibriosis in marine fish farming, Vibrio anguillarum can efficiently grow and proliferate under cold-stress conditions, which is 15°C lower than the optimal growth temperatures (25-30°C). Our data showed that V. anguillarum was able to synthesize ectoine de novo and that ectoine was essential for its growth under cold stress. Using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mutants lacking ectABC and proVWX (ectoine synthesis and transporter system genes, respectively), we confirmed that accumulation of this compatible solute occurs strictly at low temperatures and that the expression of ectA and proV is highly activated in the stationary growth phase...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
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