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Traumatic brain injury concussion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902865/small-world-properties-changes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Yongxia Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate local and global efficiency changes characterized by small-world properties based on resting-state functional MRI, such as centrality and clustering coefficient, in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients; and to associate these findings with axonal injury as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as with post-concussive symptom (PCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (mean age 35 ± 13 years) with clinically defined MTBI and 45 age-matched healthy controls (mean age 37 ± 10 years) participated in the experiments...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899434/development-of-cgrp-dependent-pain-and-headache-related-behaviours-in-a-rat-model-of-concussion-implications-for-mechanisms-of-post-traumatic-headache
#2
Dara Bree, Dan Levy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic headache (PTH) is one of the most common, debilitating and difficult symptoms to manage after a mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion. However, the mechanisms underlying PTH remain elusive, in part due to the lack of a clinically relevant animal model. Here, we characterized for the first time, headache and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of concussion evoked by a mild closed head injury (mCHI) - the major type of military and civilian related trauma associated with PTH - and tested responses to current and novel headache therapies...
November 29, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893897/imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-and-white-matter-integrity-in-brains-of-active-and-recently-retired-national-football-league-players
#3
Jennifer M Coughlin, Yuchuan Wang, Il Minn, Nicholas Bienko, Emily B Ambinder, Xin Xu, Matthew E Peters, John W Dougherty, Melin Vranesic, Soo Min Koo, Hye-Hyun Ahn, Merton Lee, Chris Cottrell, Haris I Sair, Akira Sawa, Cynthia A Munro, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert F Dannals, Constantine G Lyketsos, Michael Kassiou, Gwenn Smith, Brian Caffo, Susumu Mori, Tomas R Guilarte, Martin G Pomper
Importance: Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the brain's response to injury and neurodegenerative processes. It has been proposed that prolonged microglial activation occurs after single and repeated traumatic brain injury, possibly through sports-related concussive and subconcussive injuries. Limited in vivo brain imaging studies months to years after individuals experience a single moderate to severe traumatic brain injury suggest widespread persistent microglial activation, but there has been little study of persistent glial cell activity in brains of athletes with sports-related traumatic brain injury...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889010/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-concussion
#4
REVIEW
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Amir Garakani, Lawrence S Gross, Marcia K Goin, Janet Pine, Andrew E Slaby, Calvin R Sumner, David A Baron
Over the past decade, concussion has become the most widely discussed injury in contact sports. However, concussions also occur in several other settings, such as non-contact sports, elderly individuals, young children, military personnel, and victims of domestic violence. Concussion is frequently undiagnosed as a cause of psychiatric morbidity, especially when the patient has no history of loss of consciousness or direct head trauma. Almost all of the extant literature focuses on traumatic brain injury and assumes that concussion is merely a mild form of traumatic brain injury, which has resulted in a lack of understanding about what concussion is, and how to diagnose, monitor, and treat its varied neuropsychiatric symptoms...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886529/autobiographical-and-episodic-memory-deficits-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Jeffrey D Wammes, Tyler J Good, Myra A Fernandes
Those who have suffered a concussion, otherwise known as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), often complain of lingering memory problems. However, there is little evidence in the behavioral literature reliably demonstrating memory deficits. Thus, in the present study, cognitive profiles including measures of general executive functioning and processing speed, as well as episodic and semantic memory were collected in younger and older adult participants with or without a remote (>1year prior to testing) mTBI...
November 22, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880054/elucidating-the-role-of-compression-waves-and-impact-duration-for-generating-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#6
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Michael Phillips, Ryan C Turner, Aric F Logsdon, Kelly E Smith, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, Jonathan D Regele
BACKGROUND: In total, 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the US leading to acute functional deficits, but the underlying histopathologic changes that occur are relatively unknown. In order to improve understanding of acute injury mechanisms, appropriately designed pre-clinical models must be utilized. METHODS: The clinical relevance of compression wave injury models revolves around the ability to produce consistent histopathologic deficits. Mild traumatic brain injuries activate similar neuroinflammatory cascades, cell death markers and increases in amyloid precursor protein in both humans and rodents...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861473/-direct-cost-of-primary-care-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-adults-by-grd-in-third-level-of-care
#7
Rodolfo Barragán-Hervella, Álvaro Montiel-Jarquín, Iván Limón-Serrano, Víctor Escobedo-Sosa, Jorge Loría-Castellanos
OBJECTIVE: To describe the direct cost of primary health care for patients with mild traumatic head injury in a third level medical facility. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in 219 patients with mild traumatic brain injury (GRD 090 S06.0 ICD-10 including uncomplicated concussion without complication and increased comorbidity). LOCATION: A medical unit of tertiary care in the State of Puebla, Mexico. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Direct costs were taken from ACDO...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858189/ambulatory-or-inpatient-management-of-mild-tbi-in-children-a-post-concussion-analysis
#8
Danielle S Wendling-Keim, Adriana König, Hans-Georg Dietz, Markus Lehner
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remain a challenge since initial signs and symptoms do not always indicate the severity of the trauma. Therefore, guidelines regarding the decision upon imaging methods and ambulatory or hospitalized treatment are needed. The goal of our study was to investigate if the standard that was allied from the PECARN rules and is applied in this study can ensure that patients with clinically important brain injury are recognized and leads to outcomes with a low complication rate, a high patient satisfaction and minimal post-concussion syndrome incidence...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856122/evaluation-of-a-follow-up-program-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-schoolchildren
#9
R Nowacki, N van Eldik, M Eikens, R Roijen, N Haga, D Schott, T Simons-Sporken, M Wennekes
INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury is a common condition in childhood. Although classified as mild, post-concussive symptoms may persist and interfere with daily activities. Because no established guidelines exist with respect to follow-up medical care for these children, there may be a delay in receiving appropriate care. We developed a follow up program to screen for persistent symptoms and if necessary, refer patients for further medical assistance. METHODS: From July 2010 until December 2013, eligible children aged 4-18 years who presented after sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury were included...
November 2, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855264/acute-effects-of-near-infrared-light-therapy-on-brain-state-in-healthy-subjects-as-quantified-by-qeeg-measures
#10
Fred Grover, Jon Weston, Michael Weston
OBJECTIVE: Recent investigation suggests that near infrared (NIR) light may improve symptoms from mild traumatic brain injury. In addition, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) has shown measures correlating with concussion: P300, reaction time, and amplitude. The objective of this study was to determine whether NIR light treatment has an acute effect on brain state in healthy patients as measured by EEG. METHODS: A total of 31 healthy volunteers, between the ages of 14 and 65, underwent qEEG event-related response tests before and after a 20-min NIR light head treatment...
November 17, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#11
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843436/lifetime-multiple-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-are-associated-with-cognitive-and-mood-symptoms-in-young-healthy-college-students
#12
Kyle C Vynorius, Alyssa M Paquin, Daniel R Seichepine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, also known as concussion) has been associated with a range of long-term mood and cognitive deficits, including executive dysfunction. Previous research in athletes suggests that cognitive and mood problems are associated with a history of repetitive mTBI. However, to date, no studies have examined the impact of a lifetime accumulation of repetitive mTBIs on cognition, particularly executive functioning, and mood in a sample of young adults who were not athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842519/administration-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-depression-associated-with-deep-brain-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-post-traumatic-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-study
#13
Miles G Cunningham, Golnaz Yadollahikhales, Gordana Vitaliano, Craig van Horne
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be effective for parkinsonian symptoms poorly responsive to medications. DBS is typically well-tolerated, as are the maintenance battery changes. Here we describe an adverse event during a battery replacement procedure that caused rapid onset of severe depression. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 58-year-old woman who was in a serious motor vehicle accident and sustained a concussion with loss of consciousness...
November 15, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836507/use-of-a-multi-level-mixed-methods-approach-to-study-the-effectiveness-of-a-primary-care-progressive-return-to-activity-protocol-after-acute-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-concussion-in-the-military
#14
Emma Gregory, Therese A West, Wesley R Cole, Jason M Bailie, Karen L McCulloch, Mark L Ettenhofer, Amy Cecchini, Felicia M Qashu
The large number of U.S. service members diagnosed with concussion/mild traumatic brain injury each year underscores the necessity for clear and effective clinical guidance for managing concussion. Relevant research continues to emerge supporting a gradual return to pre-injury activity levels without aggravating symptoms; however, available guidance does not provide detailed standards for this return to activity process. To fill this gap, the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center released a recommendation for primary care providers detailing a step-wise return to unrestricted activity during the acute phase of concussion...
November 8, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829969/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-athletes-involved-with-high-impact-sports
#15
Cyrus Safinia, Eric M Bershad, H Brent Clark, Karen SantaCruz, Naila Alakbarova, Jose I Suarez, Afshin A Divani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease occurring most commonly in athletes and is caused by repeated concussive or subconcussive blows to the head. The main purpose of this review is to evaluate the published literature on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in athletes participating in high-impact sports. In particular, we highlight the significance of concussive and subconcussive impacts in multiple sports, elucidate the differences between clinical/pathological features of CTE and related neurodegenerative diseases, and provide an explanation for the variation in clinical presentation between athletes of different sports...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828885/discharge-instructions-for-concussion-are-we-meeting-the-patient-needs
#16
Karen Bergman, Susan Louis
Education to improve symptom management is an agreed-upon strategy to reduce the impact of symptoms on the quality of life for persons with mild traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether current discharge education practices are deemed adequate by persons treated and released from the emergency department with concussion. A review of current literature identified a need for patient education improvements in emergency departments. Strategies for improving information retention in the mild traumatic brain injury patient population for effective symptom management are identified...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824798/educating-parents-on-sports-related-concussions
#17
Ian Macdonald, Roxanne Hauber
PURPOSE: Approximately 30 million children and adolescents in the United States participate in various forms of organized sports, and incidents of traumatic brain injuries in emergency departments have increased to 62% from 2001 to 2009. Knowledge, information, and preventive interventions appear to have been well disseminated among athletic personnel at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels. Research regarding parents' perceptions and knowledge of sports-related concussions (SRCs) however is lacking...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813685/physical-activity-and-intermittent-postconcussion-symptoms-after-a-period-of-symptom-limited-physical-and-cognitive-rest
#18
Quinton Sawyer, Brian Vesci, Tamara C Valovich McLeod
: Reference: Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):304-307. Clinical Question After concussion and a period of symptom-limited physical and cognitive rest, do athletes who experience intermittent symptoms return to asymptomatic condition more quickly with physical activity than with prolonged physical rest? DATA SOURCES: One investigator performed an individual search for each research question using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805468/vision-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-concussion
#19
Cinthi Pillai, John W Gittinger
Traumatic brain injury results from an acute impact to the head causing brain dysfunction. Concussion is a form of mild traumatic brain injury. There are significant short- and long-term sequelae of concussion, and early diagnosis and management are key to recovery. Visual system symptoms and signs are common following concussion and have been shown to be a useful feature of concussion testing. Neuro-ophthalmic findings include abnormalities in the pupillary light reflex, accommodation, convergence, extraocular motility, steroacuity, as well as pursuit and saccades...
November 2, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792852/cognitive-rest-and-graduated-return-to-usual-activities-versus-usual-care-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-emergency-department-discharge-instructions
#20
Catherine E Varner, Shelley McLeod, Negine Nahiddi, Rosamond E Lougheed, Taylor E Dear, Bjug Borgundvaag
INTRODUCTION: It is estimated 15-25% of patients with a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) diagnosed in the emergency department (ED) will develop post-concussive syndrome (PCS). The objective of this study was to determine if patients randomized to graduated return to usual activity discharge instructions had a decrease in their Post-Concussion Symptom Score (PCSS) 2 weeks after MTBI compared to patients who received usual care MTBI discharge instructions. METHODS: This was a pragmatic, randomized trial of adult (18-64 years) patients of an academic ED (annual census 60,000) diagnosed with MTBI occurring within 24 hours of ED visit...
October 28, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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