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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222137/benefits-of-probiotics-in-preterm-neonates-in-low-income-and-medium-income-countries-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#1
Girish Deshpande, Gayatri Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVE: Although there is an overall reduction in underfive mortality rate, the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rate has been very slow. Over the last 20 years, preterm births have steadily increased in low-income and medium-income countries (LMICs) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, particularly in LMICs. Based on systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many neonatal units in high-income countries have adopted probiotics as standard of care for preterm neonates...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219789/oberlin-transfer-compared-with-nerve-grafting-for-improving-early-supination-in-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy
#2
Kate W C Chang, Thomas J Wilson, Miriana Popadich, Susan H Brown, Kevin C Chung, Lynda J S Yang
OBJECTIVE The use of nerve transfers versus nerve grafting for neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) remains controversial. In adult brachial plexus injury, transfer of an ulnar fascicle to the biceps branch of the musculocutaneous nerve (Oberlin transfer) is reportedly superior to nerve grafting for restoration of elbow flexion. In pediatric patients with NBPP, recovery of elbow flexion and forearm supination is an indicator of resolved NBPP. Currently, limited evidence exists of outcomes for flexion and supination when comparing nerve transfer and nerve grafting for NBPP...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218832/necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-the-setting-of-milk-allergy-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#3
Soichi Narumoto, Seisuke Sakamoto, Hajime Uchida, Kengo Sasaki, Takanobu Shigeta, Akinari Fukuda, Shunsuke Nosaka, Rie Irie, Takako Yoshioka, Mureo Kasahara
NEC is an idiopathic intestinal mucosal injury that may progress to transmural bowel necrosis without mesenteric ischemia. NEC usually affects 7- to 10-day-old neonates following enteral feeding. A 10-month-old girl with no history of laparotomy underwent LDLT for acute liver failure. After starting enteral feeding on postoperative day 5, she developed abdominal distention. Diffuse PVG and PI were detected by radiologic modalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed patchy necrosis of the intestine without perforation...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218435/educational-review-measurement-of-gfr-in-special-populations
#4
Guido Filler, Misan Lee
IMPORTANCE: Changes in kidney function are typically followed by the sequential estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Formulae for eGFR work well on a population basis, but there are well-known conditions where they do not work. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature on special populations in the pediatric age range and provide recommendations on how to estimate GFR in these populations. FINDINGS: The reliability of creatinine depends on muscle mass, while cystatin C (not widely available) is limited by inflammation and changes in protein catabolism...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218095/effect-of-repeated-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposure-on-the-learning-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-at-juvenile-and-adult-age
#5
Xiaoli Liang, Yi Zhang, Chao Zhang, Chunchun Tang, Yi Wang, Juanjuan Ren, Xi Chen, Yu Zhang, Zhaoqiong Zhu
Currently sevoflurane is the volatile anesthetic most wildly used in pediatric surgery. Whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane brings about a long-lasting adverse impact even at juvenile and adult age, attracts extensive concerns. However, to date the consensus has not been reached and how exposure to sevoflurane in early life affects long-term ability of learning and memory is not fully elucidated. To obtain further insight into this issue, 32 neonatal SD rats were assigned into control group (group C, n=16) and sevoflurane group (group SEV, n=16)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217961/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-pediatrics-tetanus-the-experience-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia
#6
Henok Tadele
Background: Tetanus is an acute vaccine preventable illness manifested by neuromuscular dysfunction due to a potent exotoxin, tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is a common health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess clinical profile and outcome of Pediatrics tetanus in a referral hospital, South Ethiopia. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of medical records of 24 Pediatric tetanus patients who were admitted from July 2014 to June 2016 to the Pediatrics Department of Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa-Ethiopia...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215810/pediatric-deaths-attributed-to-complex-chronic-conditions-over-10-years-in-korea-evidence-for-the-need-to-provide-pediatric-palliative-care
#7
Min Sun Kim, Nam Gu Lim, Hyun Joo Kim, Chohee Kim, Jin Yong Lee
BACKGROUND: Pediatric palliative care (PPC) is the active total care of children suffering from life-threatening illnesses. Palliative care includes symptom management, psychosocial support, and end-of-life care. Despite significant advances in disease diagnosis and treatment, resources for PPC of children with serious illnesses are limited in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the scale, time trends, disease composition, regional distribution, and unmet needs of children dying from complex chronic conditions (CCCs)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213269/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-malaria-vectored-vaccines-given-with-routine-expanded-program-on-immunization-vaccines-in-gambian-infants-and-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Victorine A Mensah, Sophie Roetynck, Ebrima K Kanteh, Georgina Bowyer, Amy Ndaw, Francis Oko, Carly M Bliss, Ya Jankey Jagne, Riccardo Cortese, Alfredo Nicosia, Rachel Roberts, Flavia D'Alessio, Odile Leroy, Babacar Faye, Beate Kampmann, Badara Cisse, Kalifa Bojang, Stephen Gerry, Nicola K Viebig, Alison M Lawrie, Ed Clarke, Egeruan B Imoukhuede, Katie J Ewer, Adrian V S Hill, Muhammed O Afolabi
Background: Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding multiple epitope string thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP) has shown acceptable safety and promising immunogenicity in African adult and pediatric populations. If licensed, this vaccine could be given to infants receiving routine childhood immunizations. We therefore evaluated responses to ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP when co-administered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212619/zinc-protoporphyrin-to-heme-ratio-and-ferritin-as-measures-of-iron-sufficiency-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Kendell German, Phuong T Vu, Kimberly N Grelli, Christopher Denton, Gina Lee, Sandra E Juul
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate ferritin and zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme (ZnPP/H) ratios as biomarkers of iron status in neonates, determine how specific clinical events affected these measures, and assess how iron status changed during hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of all infants with paired ferritin and ZnPP/H measurements between October 2014 and May 2016. Concordance of these measurements, effects of sepsis, red blood cell transfusion, erythropoietin treatment, and iron supplementation were assessed...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211821/elizabethkingia-in-children-a-comprehensive-review-of-symptomatic-cases-reported-from-1944-2017
#10
Eric J Dziuban, Jessica Franks, Marvin So, Georgina Peacock, David D Blaney
Elizabethkingia species often exhibit extensive antibiotic resistance and result in high morbidity and mortality, yet no systematic reviews exist that thoroughly characterize and quantify concerns for infected infants and children. We performed a review of literature and identified an initial 902 articles; 96 articles reporting 283 pediatric cases met our inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Case reports spanned 28 countries and ranged from 1944 to 2017. Neonatal meningitis remains the most common presentation of this organism in children, along with a range of other clinical manifestations...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211057/neonatal-neutrophils-stimulated-by-group-b-streptococcus-induce-a-proinflammatory-t-helper-cell-bias
#11
Jianguo Lin, Seema Haridas, Stephen J Barenkamp, Larissa Chioquetta Lorenset, Ashley Sang Eun Lee, Benjamin T Schroeder, Guangyong Peng, Joyce M Koenig
BackgroundGroup B Streptococcus (GBS) infection causes inflammatory comorbidities in newborns. While the mechanisms remain unclear, evidence suggests that impaired innate-adaptive immune interactions may be contributory. We hypothesized that GBS-stimulated neonatal neutrophils provide a milieu that may drive proinflammatory T-helper (Th) cell programming.MethodsNeutrophils were stimulated with Type III GBS (COH1); supernatants or intact neutrophils were cocultured with CD4+ T cells or regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211056/krebs-cycle-metabolites-and-preferential-succinate-oxidation-following-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#12
Prateek V Sahni, Jimmy Zhang, Sergey Sosunov, Alexander Galkin, Zoya Niatsetskaya, Anatoly Starkov, Paul S Brookes, Vadim S Ten
BackgroundReverse electron transport (RET) driven by the oxidation of succinate has been proposed as the mechanism of accelerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in post-ischemic mitochondria. However, it remains unclear whether upon reperfusion, mitochondria preferentially oxidase succinate.MethodsNeonatal mice were subjected to Rice-Vannucci model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI) followed by assessment of Krebs cycle metabolites, mitochondrial substrate preference, and H2O2 generation rate in the ischemic brain...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209510/milrinone-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-a-randomized-pilot-trial-study-protocol-review-of-literature-and-survey-of-current-practices
#13
REVIEW
Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Martin Keszler, Haresh Kirpalani, Krisa Van Meurs, Patricia Chess, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Bradley Yoder, Maria V Fraga, Holly Hedrick, Kevin P Lally, Leif Nelin, Michael Cotten, Jonathan Klein, Stephanie Guilford, Ashley Williams, Aasma Chaudhary, Marie Gantz, Jenna Gabrio, Dhuly Chowdhury, Kristin Zaterka-Baxter, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins
Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is commonly associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH associated with CDH (CDH-PH) is frequently resistant to conventional pulmonary vasodilator therapy including inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) possibly due to right and left ventricular dysfunction. Milrinone is an intravenous inotrope and lusitrope with pulmonary vasodilator properties and has been shown anecdotally to improve oxygenation in PH. We developed this pilot study to determine if milrinone infusion would improve oxygenation in neonates ≥36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) with CDH...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206731/enteral-feeding-practices-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease-across-european-picus-a-european-society-of-pediatric-and-neonatal-intensive-care-survey
#14
Lyvonne N Tume, Reinis Balmaks, Eduardo da Cruz, Lynne Latten, Sascha Verbruggen, Frédéric V Valla
OBJECTIVES: To describe enteral feeding practices in pre and postoperative infants with congenital heart disease in European PICUs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional electronic survey. SETTING: European PICUs that admit infants with congenital heart disease pre- and postoperatively. PARTICIPANTS: One senior PICU physician or designated person per unit. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-nine PICUs from 18 European countries responded to the survey...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204302/parainfluenza-3-respiratory-infection-associated-with-pericardial-effusion-in-a-very-low-birthweight-infant
#15
Cristina Aranda Cazón, Luis Arruza Gómez, Gloria Herranz Carrillo, Cristina González Menchén, Zarife Daoud Pérez, José Antonio Martínez-Orgado, José Tomás Ramos Amador
Parainfluenza 3 virus is a frequent cause of respiratory infections in the pediatric population although it is uncommonly diagnosed in neonates, being usually reported as neonatal intensive care unit microepidemics. We report a case of parainfluenza 3 respiratory infection associated with pericardial effusion in a very low birthweight infant.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203386/procalcitonin-the-marker-of-pediatric-bacterial-infection
#16
Mohammad Yousef Memar, Mojtaba Varshochi, Behrooz Shokouhi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Timely recognition of systemic bacterial infections in pediatric care setting is the basis for effective treatment and control. This review provides an overview of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker for the detection of severe, invasive bacterial infection in children. Almost all articles on biochemical property and clinical studies in PubMed and Scopus databases regarding their use in pediatric infections and the use of PCT as a marker of bacterial infections were examined. Various methods and analyzers are currently available for the evaluation of PCT...
December 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203186/direction-of-rotation-in-testicular-torsion-and-identification-of-predictors-of-testicular-salvage
#17
Todd Yecies, Jathin Bandari, Francis Schneck, Glenn Cannon
OBJECTIVES: To identify the rate at which testicular torsion occurs in a lateral direction and identify any predictors of direction of testicular rotation and orchiectomy METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 104 cases of emergent scrotal exploration performed for testicular torsion by 3 pediatric urologists from 2003-2017. Patients with neonatal torsion, negative scrotal exploration, or exploration for presumed intermittent testicular torsion were excluded. Univariable logistic regression was performed to assess if any factors predicted direction of testicular rotation...
December 1, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197153/recommendations-for-future-research-in-relation-to-pediatric-pulmonary-embolism-communication-from-the-ssc-of-the-isth
#18
T T Biss, M Rajpurkar, S Williams, C H van Ommen, A K C Chan, N A Goldenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194174/the-effects-of-endotracheal-suctioning-in-the-pediatric-population-an-integrative-review
#19
Anna C Fisk
BACKGROUND: Critically ill pediatric patients with endotracheal tubes routinely receive endotracheal tube suctioning to clear secretions and ensure tube patency. This common practice can result in adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the research literature on the stressors of endotracheal suctioning and consequent effect on the pediatric patient. METHODS: An integrative review was conducted using the Whittemore and Knafl modified framework for integrative reviews, and article selection was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses flow diagram...
January 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189694/committee-opinion-no-726-hospital-disaster-preparedness-for-obstetricians-and-facilities-providing-maternity-care
#20
(no author information available yet)
Large-scale catastrophic events and infectious disease outbreaks highlight the need for disaster planning at all community levels. Features unique to the obstetric population (including antepartum, intrapartum, postpartum and neonatal care) warrant special consideration in the event of a disaster. Pregnancy increases the risks of untoward outcomes from various infectious diseases. Trauma during pregnancy presents anatomic and physiologic considerations that often can require increased use of resources such as higher rates of cesarean delivery...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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