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pediatric , neonate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677057/newborn-resuscitation-skills-in-health-care-providers-at-a-zambian-tertiary-center-and-comparison-to-world-health-organization-standards
#1
Sara C Mistry, Richard Lin, Hazel Mumphansha, Laura C Kettley, Janaki A Pearson, Sonia Akrimi, David J Mayne, Wonder Hangoma, M Dylan Bould
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a leading cause of early neonatal death. In 2013, 32% of neonatal deaths in Zambia were attributable to birth asphyxia and trauma. Basic, timely interventions are key to improving outcomes. However, data from the World Health Organization suggest that resuscitation is often not initiated, or is conducted suboptimally. Currently, there are little data on the quality of newborn resuscitation in the context of a tertiary center in a lower-middle income country...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670871/echocardiographic-evaluation-of-ventricular-function-for-the-neonatologist-and-pediatric-intensivist
#2
REVIEW
Cécile Tissot, Yogen Singh, Nicole Sekarski
In the neonatal and pediatric intensive care setting, bedside cardiac ultrasound is often used to assess ventricular dimensions and function. Depending upon the underlying disease process, it is necessary to be able to evaluate the systolic and diastolic function of left and or right ventricles. The systolic function of left ventricle is mostly assessed qualitatively on visual inspection "eye-balling" and quantitatively by measuring circumferential fraction shortening or calculating the ejection fraction by Simpson's planimetry...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670869/pathogenetic-and-prognostic-factors-for-neonatal-gastric-perforation-personal-experience-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
Chiara Iacusso, Alessandro Boscarelli, Fabio Fusaro, Pietro Bagolan, Francesco Morini
Introduction: Neonatal gastric perforation (NGP) is a rare entity. Our aim was to report our experience and review the recent literature to characterize NGP, describe associated factors, and define prognostic factors. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of all consecutive patients with NGP treated between June 2009 and December 2017 in a third level pediatric hospital. In addition, a systematic review of Medline and Scopus database was performed using a defined strategy...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668548/clinical-course-of-homozygous-hemoglobin-constant-spring-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Patcharee Komvilaisak, Arunee Jetsrisuparb, Goonnapa Fucharoen, Ratana Komwilaisak, Junya Jirapradittha, Pakaphan Kiatchoosakun
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring is an alpha-globin gene variant due to a mutation of the stop codon resulting in the elongation of the encoded polypeptide from 141 to 172 amino acid residues. Patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring are usually mildly anemic. METHODS: We retrospectively describe clinical manifestations, diagnosis, laboratory investigations, treatment, and associated findings in pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring followed-up at Srinagarind Hospital...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668026/nicu-graduates-the-role-of-the-allied-health-team-in-follow-up
#5
Jane L Orton, Joy E Olsen, Katherine Ong, Rochelle Lester, Alicia J Spittle
Infants who graduate from the neonatal intensive care unit, including those infants born preterm and/or with brain injury, are at increased risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. The developmental allied health team, consisting of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, is crucial in early evaluation of gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and language development. Surveillance of neurodevelopment in the first year of life is essential to ensure early detection of specific developmental delays and impairments, and to ensure timely referral for early intervention...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668025/general-movements-a-behavioral-biomarker-of-later-motor-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-nicu-graduates
#6
Colleen Peyton, Christa Einspieler
Infants who have graduated from a neonatal intensive care unit require close follow-up because they have a greater chance of experiencing later motor and cognitive difficulties; however, these difficulties are often challenging to identify at an early age. The General Movement Assessment is a low-cost and highly reliable tool that can indicate abnormal neurological development in young high-risk infants, but it has not yet been widely implemented in the United States. In this review, we discuss the literature about the use of the General Movement Assessment in high-risk infants and how to implement the tool in a clinical setting...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668024/nutrition-considerations-after-nicu-discharge
#7
Taylor Peters, Cecelia Pompeii-Wolfe
Preterm infants are at high nutrition risk during neonatal intensive care and well after discharge. Nutrition care should be individualized and provided by a multidisciplinary team including a dietitian. Breast milk, the gold standard for feeding, may not meet the increased needs of preterm infants and may require fortification or supplementation. Decisions regarding formula choice and calorie concentration can also be challenging and require individualization based on growth, intake, and individual need. Developmental milestones should be considered during the initation of complementary food...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668022/follow-up-care-for-high-risk-preterm-infants
#8
Stephannie M B Voller
Preterm infants continue to have complex medical and developmental issues after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Over the past few decades there has been an increase in preterm births and a decrease in preterm mortality. Many infants are referred to follow-up clinics that specialize in neurodevelopmental assessment. Often, a community pediatrician or family practitioner provides both the medical management and observes developmental milestones of the high-risk neonate. Intense medical management, early identification of delay, and referral for developmental services may improve preterm infant outcomes...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667952/useful-pharmacodynamic-endpoints-in-children-selection-measurement-and-next-steps
#9
REVIEW
Lauren E Kelly, Yashwant Sinha, Charlotte I S Barker, Joseph F Standing, Martin Offringa
Pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoints are essential for establishing the benefit-to-risk ratio for therapeutic interventions in children and neonates. This article discusses the selection of an appropriate measure of response, the PD endpoint, which is a critical methodological step in designing pediatric efficacy and safety studies. We provide an overview of existing guidance on the choice of PD endpoints in pediatric clinical research. We identified several considerations relevant to the selection and measurement of PD endpoints in pediatric clinical trials, including the use of biomarkers, modeling, compliance, scoring systems, and validated measurement tools...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660358/a-table-mounted-cardiopulmonary-bypass-system-for-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#10
Ana Claudia B A Costa, Darren R Parham, Justin E Ashley, Khanh H Nguyen
Systemic inflammatory response and hemodilution are prominent factors associated with cardiopulmonary bypass and result in increased morbidity and mortality in children. Miniaturized systems have evolved in order to decrease such effects and restrict use of blood products, especially in the neonatal population. We have developed a table mounted cardiopulmonary bypass system that allows closer proximity of the system to the patient with consequent decrease in priming volumes, hemodilution, its associated effects and contributes to the development into an ideally bloodless surgical approach...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658947/pulmonary-sequestration-associated-with-congenital-pulmonary-airway-malformation
#11
Zahira A De León-Ureña, Stanislaw Sadowinski-Pine, Lourdes Jamaica-Balderas, Jaime Penchyna-Grub
Introduction: Congenital pulmonary malformations are a rare cause of neonatal morbidity. Some of them have a common origin, which allows the identification of combined lesions. Its diagnosis can be made prenatally by ultrasound, with the limitation that this study is performed in specialized centers and depends on the expertise of the operator. The association of pulmonary sequestration and congenital malformation of the airway has been described in approximately 40-60 cases since its first description in 1949...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643892/association-of-in-hospital-outcome-of-acute-kidney-injury-aki-with-etiology-among-newborns-at-a-tertiary-care-unit
#12
Muhammad Asghar Ali, Abdur Rehman, Ejaz Ahmed
Objective: To determine association of in-hospital outcome of AKI with etiology in newborns at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Pediatric Neonatology, The Children's Hospital and Institute of the Child Health, Multan by using non-probability purposive sampling technique from June 2016 to June 2017. A total of 101 newborns diagnosed with acute kidney injury were registered. Etiological factors were assessed and these patients were followed till discharge to monitor in-hospital outcomes...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643628/pediatric-critical-incidents-reported-over-15-years-at-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-of-a-developing-country
#13
Shemila Abbasi, Fauzia Anis Khan, Sobia Khan
Background and Aims: The role of critical incident (CI) reporting is well established in improving patient safety but only a limited number of available reports relate to pediatric incidents. Our aim was to analyze the reported CIs specific to pediatric patients in our database and to reevaluate the value of this program in addressing issues in pediatric anesthesia practice. Material and Methods: Incidents related to pediatric population from neonatal period till the age of 12 years were selected...
January 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642737/sudden-unexpected-death-in-neonates-a-clinico-pathological-study
#14
Jeanette A Reyes, Gino R Somers, David A Chiasson
Clinico-pathological studies that focus on sudden unexpected death (SUD) in the neonatal period are rare. The objective of this study was to elucidate the frequency and pathological spectrum of anatomical causes of death (CODs), found in the setting of sudden unexpected death in neonates (SUD-N), and to correlate the COD with premortem circumstantial information. We conducted a detailed review of all autopsy reports on SUD-N cases at our institution from 1997 to 2015. Analyzed clinical data included obstetrical history, postpartum/neonatal medical course, and circumstances surrounding death...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629991/failed-vacuum-and-the-long-term-hematological-morbidity-of-the-offspring
#15
Salvatore A Mastrolia, Tamar Wainstock, Eyal Sheiner, Daniella Landau, Asnat Walfisch
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of failed vacuum delivery leading to an emergency cesarean delivery on the long-term pediatric hematological morbidity of the offspring. STUDY DESIGN: In this population-based cohort study, the risk of long-term hematological morbidity (up to the age of 18 y) was evaluated in children born following successful vacuum vaginal delivery, as compared with that of children born following a failed procedure leading to an emergent cesarean delivery...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628207/inguinal-hernia-in-preterms-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-optimal-timing-of-herniorrhaphy-and-necessity-of-contralateral-exploration-in-unilateral-presentation
#16
Joong Kee Youn, Hyun-Young Kim, Yeon-Ju Huh, Ji-Won Han, Soo-Hong Kim, Chaeyoun Oh, Ah Hae Jo, Kwi-Won Park, Sung-Eun Jung
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the optimal timing of IH repair in preterms and the need for routine contralateral exploration. METHODS: Medical records of 3690 pediatric patients who underwent unilateral IH repair between January 1998 and December 2009 were reviewed. We assessed medical record review and telephone interviews. In total, 1990 patients were enrolled in the study. Early, early-delayed, and late repair were defined as herniorrhaphy performed within 7 days of diagnosis, later than 7 days of diagnosis, and after discharge from the NICU, respectively...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627422/predictors-of-failure-in-infant-mandibular-distraction-osteogenesis
#17
Jeffrey A Hammoudeh, Artur Fahradyan, Colin Brady, Michaela Tsuha, Beina Azadgoli, Sally Ward, Mark M Urata
PURPOSE: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) has been shown to be successful in treating upper airway obstruction caused by micrognathia in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate of MDO and possible predictors of failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of all neonates and infants who underwent MDO from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Procedural failure was defined as patient death or the need for tracheostomy postoperatively...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620706/furosemide-response-predicts-acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery-in-infants-and-neonates
#18
Santiago Borasino, Kevin M Wall, Jack H Crawford, Kristal M Hock, David C Cleveland, Fazlur Rahman, Kimberly D Martin, Jeffrey A Alten
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac surgery-induced acute kidney injury occurs frequently in neonates and infants and is associated with postoperative morbidity/mortality; early identification of cardiac surgery-induced acute kidney injury may be crucial to mitigate postoperative morbidity. We sought to determine if hourly or 6-hour cumulative urine output after furosemide in the first 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass could predict development of cardiac surgery-induced acute kidney injury and other deleterious outcomes...
April 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616201/cannulation-for-neonatal-and-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-cardiac-support
#19
REVIEW
Chris Harvey
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased over recent years providing respiratory and cardiac support. Optimal cannula placement is essential for successful patient outcomes. Multiple cannulation strategies may be employed depending on the age/weight of the patient and their underlying condition. This article discusses cannulation technique focusing on the cannulation of pediatric and neonatal patients for cardiac support on ECMO.
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615154/structured-educational-intervention-leads-to-better-infant-positioning-in-the-nicu
#20
Saadieh Masri, Perla Ibrahim, Daniel Badin, Samar Khalil, Lama Charafeddine
PURPOSE: The purpose is to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention in improving infant positioning because positioning may interfere with neuromotor development. METHODS: A quality improvement (QI) project was initiated to increase knowledge and improve the compliance of nurses and physicians in infant positioning using the Infant Positioning Assessment Tool (IPAT). The project was part of Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP) training...
March 1, 2018: Neonatal Network: NN
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