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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109052/the-use-of-methadone-to-facilitate-opioid-weaning-in-pediatric-critical-care-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Leslie A Dervan, Beryl Yaghmai, Robert Scott Watson, Fredric M Wolf
BACKGROUND: Continuous opioid infusion therapy is commonly utilized in the pediatric intensive care setting to treat pain and facilitate tolerance of invasive therapies. Transitioning to methadone is one common strategy for weaning from continuous opioid infusions, but in practice this transition can be challenging, and many children still experience iatrogenic withdrawal. AIM: We reviewed the literature to evaluate the best available evidence to guide methadone therapy in this setting, and to summarize associated adverse events...
January 20, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108103/respiratory-support-for-very-low-birth-weight-infants-receiving-dexamethasone
#2
Yamini V Virkud, Christoph P Hornik, Daniel K Benjamin, Matthew M Laughon, Reese H Clark, Rachel G Greenberg, P Brian Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess how neonatal intensive care units followed the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for use of dexamethasone in preterm infants by evaluating respiratory support at the time of dexamethasone administration. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational study of infants discharged from one of 290 neonatal intensive care units from 2003 to 2010. The cohort included very low birth weight (<1500 g birth weight) infants born at ≤32 weeks gestational age...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105526/first-versus-second-year-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-in-chronic-lung-disease-2005-2015
#3
Daniel Y Wang, Abby Li, Bosco Paes, Ian Mitchell, Krista L Lanctôt
: Children aged <2 years with chronic lung disease (CLD) have a 10-fold higher risk for respiratory syncytial virus-positive hospitalization (RSVH) compared to healthy term infants. Based on the updated position statements, we compared respiratory-related illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSVH risks in CLD children who received palivizumab during the first year (FY) versus second year (SY) of life in the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). Demographic data were collected at enrolment and RIH events recorded monthly from 2005 to 2015...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102534/evacuation-performance-evaluation-tool
#4
Sharon Farra, Elaine T Miller, Matthew Gneuhs, Nathan Timm, Gengxin Li, Ashley Simon, Whittney Brady
OBJECTIVE: Hospitals conduct evacuation exercises to improve performance during emergency events. An essential aspect in this process is the creation of reliable and valid evaluation tools. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implications of a disaster evacuation performance tool that measures one portion of the very complex process of evacuation. DESIGN: Through the application of the Delphi technique and DeVellis's framework, disaster and neonatal experts provided input in developing this performance evaluation tool...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099464/laparoscopically-assisted-anorectal-pull-through-versus-posterior-sagittal-anorectoplasty-for-high-and-intermediate-anorectal-malformations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Yijiang Han, Zhaobo Xia, Shikun Guo, Xiangbo Yu, Zhongrong Li
OBJECTIVE: Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are one of the commonest anomalies in neonates. Both laparoscopically assisted anorectal pull-through (LAARP) and posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) can be used for the treatment of ARMs. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare these two approaches in terms of intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched from 2000 to August 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099429/vitamin-d-insufficiency-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#6
Danielle W Lowe, Bruce W Hollis, Carol L Wagner, Thomas Bass, David A Kaufman, Michael J Horgan, Laurence M Givelichian, Koravangatta Sankaran, Jerome Y Yager, Lakshmi D Katikaneni, Don Wiest, Dorothea Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties, and deficiency is associated with worse stroke outcomes. Little is known about effects of hypoxia-ischemia or hypothermia treatment on vitamin D status in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We hypothesized vitamin D metabolism would be dysregulated in neonatal HIE altering specific cytokines involved in Th17 activation, which might be mitigated by hypothermia. METHODS: We analyzed short term relationships between 25(OH) and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and cytokines related to Th17 function in serum samples from a multicenter randomized controlled trial of hypothermia 33(0)C for 48h after HIE birth versus normothermia in 50 infants with moderate to severe HIE...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099428/biomarkers-of-adiposity-are-elevated-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants-at-1-2-and-3-years-of-age
#7
Andrea F Duncan, Joshua A Frankfurt, Roy J Heyne, Charles R Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Preterm, very-low-birth-weight (PT-VLBW) neonates are at-risk for metabolic syndrome later in life. At 1-3yrs, they exhibit excessive weight-for-length z-scores (Wt-LZ) and elevated systolic blood pressures (SBP). Serum adipokines are biomarkers of adiposity, but expression in PT-VLBW infants is unclear. We examined the correlation between serum adipokine levels, anthropometric measures and SBP in PT-VLBW neonates at follow-up. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of PT-VLBW infants at 1, 2 and 3yrs of age (40/cohort)...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099425/genetic-ablation-of-bach1-gene-enhances-recovery-from-hyperoxic-lung-injury-in-newborn-mice-via-transient-upregulation-of-inflammatory-genes
#8
Masato Ito, Nobuhiko Nagano, Yukio Arai, Ryo Ogawa, Shingo Kobayashi, Yukiko Motojima, Hayato Go, Masanori Tamura, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Phyllis A Dennery, Fumihiko Namba
BACKGROUND: BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. The effects of Bach1 disruption on hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice have not been determined. We aimed to investigate the role of Bach1 in the newborns exposed to hyperoxia. METHODS: Bach1(-/-) and WT newborn mice were exposed to 21% or 95% oxygen for 4 days and were then allowed to recover in room air. Lung histology was assessed and lung Bach1, HO-1, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA levels were evaluated using RT-PCR...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099423/high-dose-erythropoietin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-receiving-hypothermia
#9
Adam Frymoyer, Sandra E Juul, An N Massaro, Theo K Bammler, Yvonne W Wu
BACKGROUND: High-dose erythropoietin (Epo) is a promising neuroprotective treatment in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving hypothermia. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics and dose-exposure relationships of high-dose Epo in this population to inform future dosing strategies. METHODS: We performed a population pharmacokinetic analysis of 47 neonates with HIE treated with hypothermia who received up to 6 doses of Epo in two previous clinical trials...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099421/estimation-of-adult-and-neonatal-rbc-lifespans-in-anemic-neonates-using-rbcs-labeled-at-several-discrete-biotin-densities
#10
Denison J Kuruvilla, John A Widness, Demet Nalbant, Robert L Schmidt, Donald M Mock, Guohua An, Peter Veng-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. METHODS: RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099234/electrographic-seizures-in-children-and-neonates-undergoing-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#11
Jainn-Jim Lin, Brenda L Banwell, Robert A Berg, Dennis J Dlugos, Rebecca N Ichord, Todd J Kilbaugh, Roxanne E Kirsch, Matthew P Kirschen, Daniel J Licht, Shavonne L Massey, Maryam Y Naim, Natalie E Rintoul, Alexis A Topjian, Nicholas S Abend
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for electrographic seizures in neonates and children requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. DESIGN: Prospective quality improvement project. SETTING: Quaternary care pediatric institution. PATIENTS: Consistent with American Clinical Neurophysiology Society electroencephalographic monitoring recommendations, neonates and children requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support underwent clinically indicated electroencephalographic monitoring...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098429/natural-history-of-nonimmune-mediated-thrombocytopenia-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-pediatric-open-heart-surgery
#12
Shannon Tew, Manuel L Fontes, Nathaniel H Greene, Miklos D Kertai, George Ofori-Amanfo, Robert D B Jaquiss, Andrew J Lodge, Warwick A Ames, Hercilia Mayumi Homi, Kelly A Machovec, Edmund H Jooste
OBJECTIVE: Thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common following pediatric cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, the relationship between postoperative nadir platelet counts and AKI has not been investigated in the pediatric population. Our objective was to investigate this relationship and examine independent predictors of AKI. DESIGN: After IRB approval, we performed a retrospective review of the institution's medical records and database...
January 18, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#13
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094094/sira-p-development-and-testing
#14
Kristina L Foster, Lacey D Bergerhofer, Janis B Smith, Michele M Fix, Adrienne Olney, Ashley Sherman
OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of a new skin risk assessment scale called Skin Injury Risk Assessment and Prevention (SIRA+P) and to establish initial reliability and validity of the scale among patients ranging in age from birth, including pre-term, to adulthood, regardless of age or acuity of illness. STUDY DESIGN: The single-site study was a retrospective chart review to evaluate the measurement properties of SIRA+P. Charts of 385 patients of all ages and in all units (including the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units) of a free-standing children's hospital were included...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093117/the-biological-prosthesis-is-a-viable-option-for-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-in-pediatric-high-risk-defects
#15
Osnat Zmora, Shannon L Castle, Stephanie Papillon, James E Stein
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore the indications for and outcome of biological prostheses to repair high risk abdominal wall defects in children. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all cases of abdominal wall reconstruction in a single institution between 2007 and 2015. Demographic and clinical variables, technique and complications were described and compared between prosthesis types. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients underwent abdominal wall reconstruction using a biological prosthesis including 17 neonates...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092724/the-pediatric-rome-iv-criteria-what-s-new
#16
Ilan J N Koppen, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Marc A Benninga
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children of all ages and comprise of a wide range of conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be attributed to structural or biochemical abnormalities. FGIDs are diagnosed according to the symptom-based Rome criteria. Areas covered: In 2016, the revised pediatric Rome IV criteria were published, these revised criteria are discussed in this review article. For the youngest age group (neonates/toddlers), the criteria for infant colic have undergone the most notable revisions...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092280/challenges-and-opportunities-to-enhance-global-drug-development-in-neonates
#17
Alexandra M Smith, Jonathan M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study reviews the history of neonatal drug development, recent legislative efforts designed to facilitate the study of therapeutic agents in neonates, and future steps necessary to advance drug development. RECENT FINDINGS: Although many federal regulations have been introduced over the past 15 years to encourage pediatric and neonatal drug development, the majority of medications that are used in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in neonates...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092064/critical-congenital-heart-disease-newborn-screening-implementation-lessons-learned
#18
Monica R McClain, John S Hokanson, Regina Grazel, Kim Naarden Van Braun, Lorraine F Garg, Michelle R Morris, Kathleen Moline, Keri Urquhart, Amy Nance, Harper Randall, Marci K Sontag
Introduction The purpose of this article is to present the collective experiences of six federally-funded critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) newborn screening implementation projects to assist federal and state policy makers and public health to implement CCHD screening. Methods A qualitative assessment and summary from six demonstration project grantees and other state representatives involved in the implementation of CCHD screening programs are presented in the following areas: legislation, provider and family education, screening algorithms and interpretation, data collection and quality improvement, telemedicine, home and rural births, and neonatal intensive care unit populations...
January 16, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091777/ultrasonography-for-endotracheal-tube-position-in-infants-and-children
#19
REVIEW
Pooja Jaeel, Mansi Sheth, Jimmy Nguyen
: Ultrasonography (US) has been shown to be effective for verifying endotracheal tube (ETT) position in adults but has been less studied in infants and children. We review the literature regarding US for ETT positioning in the pediatric population. A literature search was conducted using the Ovid and MEDLINE databases with search terms regarding US relating to ETT intubation and positioning in infants and children. Most studies in neonates and infants used the midsagittal suprasternal view...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091756/-recommendation-on-temperature-management-after-cardiopulmonary-arrest-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-childhood-beyond-the-neonatal-period-statement-of-the-german-society-for-neonatology-and-pediatric-intensive-care-medicine%C3%A2-gnpi-and-the-scientific-working
#20
S Brenner, C Eich, G Rellensmann, M U Schuhmann, T Nicolai, F Hoffmann
The available data on the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in different patient groups are heterogeneous. Although the benefits have been proven for some collectives, recommendations for the use of hypothermia treatment in other groups are based on less robust data and conclusions by analogy. This article gives a review of the current evidence of temperature management in all age groups and based on this state of knowledge, recommends active temperature management with the primary aim of strict normothermia (36-36...
January 13, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
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