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Naoki Takaoka, Seigo Sanoh, Katsuhiro Okuda, Yaichiro Kotake, Go Sugahara, Ami Yanagi, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno, Yoshitaka Tayama, Kazumi Sugihara, Shigeyuki Kitamura, Mami Kurosaki, Mineko Terao, Enrico Garattini, Shigeru Ohta
As aldehyde oxidase (AOX) plays an emerging role in drug metabolism, understanding its significance for drug-drug interactions (DDI) is important. Therefore, we tested 10 compounds for species-specific and substrate-dependent differences in the inhibitory effect of AOX activity using genetically engineered HEK293 cells over-expressing human AOX1, mouse AOX1 or mouse AOX3. The IC50 values of 10 potential inhibitors of the three AOX enzymes were determined using phthalazine and O6 -benzylguanine as substrates...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jennifer Selinski, Renate Scheibe, David A Day, James Whelan
The alternative pathway of mitochondrial electron transport, which terminates in the alternative oxidase (AOX), uncouples oxidation of substrate from mitochondrial ATP production, yet plant performance is improved under adverse growth conditions. AOX is regulated at different levels. Identification of regulatory transcription factors shows that Arabidopsis thaliana AOX1a is under strong transcriptional suppression. At the protein level, the primary structure is not optimised for activity. Maximal activity requires the presence of various metabolites, such as tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates that act in an isoform-specific manner...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Aleksandra Maria Staszak, Witold Nowak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Mitochondrial responses under drought within Brassica genus are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis of three cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) cultivars with varying drought tolerance. Diverse quantitative changes (decreases in abundance mostly) in the mitochondrial proteome were assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Respiratory (e.g., complex II, IV (CII, CIV) and ATP synthase subunits), transporter (including diverse porin isoforms) and matrix multifunctional proteins (e...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A De Los Ríos, B Echavarri-Erasun, M-H Dévier, K Le Menach, H Budzinski, M Ortiz-Zarragoitia, A Orbea, J A Juanes, M P Cajaraville
The present study analysed potential adverse effects of discontinuous sources of contamination, namely the discharge of a combined sewer overflow (CSO) and of runoff in an urban area, the Bay of Santander (North Iberian Peninsula). Water samples and caged mussels were used to analyse concentrations of contaminants and biological responses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were transplanted to a marina receiving runoff from a petrol station and to a CSO discharge site. Samples were collected in synchrony with heavy rains along 62days...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Le Wang, Leilei Ma, Yunfei Lin, Xing Liu, Ling Xiao, Yiting Zhang, Ye Xu, Hu Zhou, Guoyu Pan
Methotrexate (MTX) is the gold standard drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and it is frequently combined with leflunomide (LEF) to enhance its clinical efficacy. However, this combination can exacerbate liver toxicity, and the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. We investigated whether LEF affects the pharmacokinetics of MTX and its primary toxic metabolite, 7-hydroxyl methotrexate (7OH MTX), in mice. LEF significantly increased the plasma concentration (AUC) of MTX and 7OH MTX (2...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Anahí Martínez-Cárdenas, Cipriano Chávez-Cabrera, Jazmín M Vasquez-Bahena, Luis B Flores-Cotera
BACKGROUND: Growth conditions that bring about stress on Phaffia rhodozyma cells encourage the synthesis of astaxanthin, an antioxidant carotenoid, which protects cells against oxidative damage. Using P. rhodozyma cultures performed with and without copper limitation, we examined the kinetics of astaxanthin synthesis along with the expression of asy, the key astaxanthin synthesis gene, as well as aox, which encodes an alternative oxidase protein. RESULTS: Copper deficiency had a detrimental effect on the rates of oxygen consumption and ethanol reassimilation at the diauxic shift...
April 3, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Abhaypratap Vishwakarma, Aprajita Kumari, Luis A J Mur, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is an integral part of the mitochondrial electron transport and can prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production under non-stressed, normoxic conditions. Here we assessed the roles of AOX by imposing stress under normoxia in comparison to hypoxic conditions using AOX over expressing (AOX OE) and anti-sense (AOX AS) transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and roots. Under normoxic conditions stress was induced with the defence elicitor flagellin (flg22). AOX OE reduced NO production whilst this was increased in AOX AS...
March 28, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wenqiang Lai, Qiao Zeng, Juan Tang, Maosheng Zhang, Dianping Tang
The authors describe a colorimetric immunoassay for the model nalyte aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). It is based on the just-in-time generation of an MnO2 nanocatalyst. Unlike previously developed immunoassay, the chromogenic reaction relies on the just-in-time formation of an oxidase mimic without the aid of the substrate. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ) is converted into manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) which acts as an oxidase mimic that catalyzes the oxidation 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by oxygen to give a blue colored product...
January 10, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta, Aprajita Kumari, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Alisdair R Fernie, Abir U Igamberdiev
Mitochondria are not only major sites for energy production but also participate in several alternative functions, among these generation of nitric oxide (NO) and its different impacts on this organelle is increasing attention. The inner mitochondrial membrane contains the chain of protein complexes, and electron transfer via oxidation of various organic acids and reducing equivalents leads to generation of proton gradient that results in energy production. Recent evidence suggests that these complexes are sources and targets for NO...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Vajira R Wanniarachchi, Lettee Dametto, Crystal Sweetman, Yuri Shavrukov, David A Day, Colin L D Jenkins, Kathleen L Soole
Plants have a non-energy conserving bypass of the classical mitochondrial cytochrome c pathway, known as the alternative respiratory pathway (AP). This involves type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDs) on both sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane, ubiquinone, and the alternative oxidase (AOX). The AP components have been widely characterised from Arabidopsis, but little is known for monocot species. We have identified all the genes encoding components of the AP in rice and barley and found the key genes which respond to oxidative stress conditions...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria S Yusseppone, Iara Rocchetta, Sebastian E Sabatini, Carlos M Luquet, Maria Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Christoph Held, Doris Abele
Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2 /L), hypoxia (2 mg O2 /L), and normoxia (9 mg O2 /L)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Isabel Velada, Dariusz Grzebelus, Diana Lousa, Cláudio M Soares, Elisete Santos Macedo, Augusto Peixe, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Hélia G Cardoso
Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fei Yang, Ying Huang, Changling Fang, Ying Xue, Luoyan Ai, Jianshe Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Both Cl- and base can affect PMS activation to produce reactive chlorine or oxygen species, but the overall effects of chloride on this emerging PMS/base technology in saline wastewater treatment are unknown. Here effectiveness of PMS/base, PMS/Cl- and PMS/base/Cl- is compared with a gradient concentration of chloride and alkalinity, by probing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). Both PMS/base and PMS/Cl- systems can rapidly degrade MB due to the generation of singlet oxygen and reactive chlorine, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Crystal Sweetman, Kathleen L Soole, Colin L D Jenkins, David A Day
Mitochondria isolated from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) possess substantial alternative oxidase (AOX) activity, even in non-stressed plants, and one or two AOX protein bands were detected immunologically, depending on the organ. Four different AOX isoforms were identified in the chickpea genome: CaAOX1 and CaAOX2A, B and D. CaAOX2A was the most highly expressed form and was strongly expressed in photosynthetic tissues, while CaAOX2D was found in all organs examined. These results are very similar to those of previous studies with soybean and siratro (Kearns et al...
February 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Valentina Filina, Mariya Ostroukhova, Elena Ermilova
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants, some protists and many fungi consists of the ATP-coupling cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway and the cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. The alternative pathway is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in nutrient stress tolerance of plants and protists, the effects of sulfur (S) deprivation, on AOX are largely unknown. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reacts to S limitation conditions with the induced expression of many genes...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Aziz Kinani, Hacène Sa Lhi, Stéphane Bouchonnet, Said Kinani
Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) is an analytical parameter of considerable interest since it allows to evaluate the amount of organohalogen disinfection by-products (OXBPs) present in a water sample. Halogen speciation of AOX into adsorbable organic chlorine, bromine and iodine, respectively AOCl, AOBr and AOI, is extremely important since it has been shown that iodinated and brominated organic by-products tend to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. Chemical speciation of AOX can be performed by combustion-ion chromatography (C-IC)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Maisarah Abdul Mutalib, Asmah Rahmat, Faisal Ali, Fauziah Othman, Rajesh Ramasamy
Background: This study aims to examine various solvent extracts of Cyphomandra betacea (tamarillo) also known as the tree tomato, for their bioactive constituents and antioxidant activity. The study also aims to examine its effect on cancer cell death using two types of cancer cell lines (liver and breast cancer cell). Methods: The first part of the study evaluates the nutritional composition of tamarillo. Then, phytochemical profiling using GC-MS analysis in ethanolic tamarillo extract was conducted...
October 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Catharina Göthberg, Kerstin Gröndahl, Omar Omar, Peter Thomsen, Christer Slotte
BACKGROUND: Data on risk factors and complications after long-term implant treatment is limited. The aims were to evaluate the role of various fixation modes and to analyze complications and risks that affect long-term use of implant-supported partial fixed dental prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty partially edentulous subjects received three Brånemark TiUnite™ implants. Superstructures were attached directly at implant level (IL) or via abutments: machined surface (AM) and an oxidized surface (AOX, TiUnite™)...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Antonia Romero-Munar, Gregory R Cawthray, Francisco Palma, Ricardo Aroca, Elena Baraza, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Hans Lambers, Miquel Ribas-Carbó
Plants exhibit respiratory bypasses (e.g., the alternative oxidase, AOX) and increase the synthesis of carboxylates in their organs (leaves and roots) in response to phosphorus (P) deficiency which increases P uptake capacity. They also show differential expression of high-affinity inorganic phosphorus (Pi) transporters, thus avoiding P toxicity at a high P availability. The association between AOX and carboxylate synthesis was tested in Solanum lycopersicum plants grown at different soil P availability, by using plants grown under P-sufficient and P-limiting conditions, and by applying a short-term (24 h) P-sufficient pulse to plants grown under P limitation...
January 29, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Gökhan Kücükgöze, Silke Leimkühler
Mammalian aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdo-flavoenzymes which are present in many tissues in various mammalian species, including humans and rodents. Different species contain a different number of AOX isoforms. In particular, the reasons why mammals other than humans express a multiplicity of tissue-specific AOX enzymes is unknown. In mouse, the isoforms mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX4 and mAOX2 are present. We previously established a codon-optimized heterologous expression systems for the mAOX1-4 isoforms in Escherichia coli that gives yield to sufficient amounts of active protein for kinetic characterizations and sets the basis in this study for site-directed mutagenesis and structure-function studies...
2018: PloS One
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