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Igor Florez-Sarasa, Ko Noguchi, Wagner Araujo, Ana Garcia-Nogales, Alisdair R Fernie, Jaume Flexas, Miquel Ribas-Carbo
The cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF-PSI) increases ATP/NADPH production in the chloroplast acting as an energy balance mechanism. Higher export of reducing power from the chloroplast in CEF-PSI mutants has been correlated with higher mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount under high light (HL) conditions. However, in vivo measurements of AOX activity are still required to confirm the exact role of AOX on dissipating the excess of reductant power from the chloroplast...
October 19, 2016: Plant Physiology
Zi-Shan Zhang, Mei-Jun Liu, Renate Scheibe, Jennifer Selinski, Li-Tao Zhang, Cheng Yang, Xiang-Long Meng, Hui-Yuan Gao
The mechanism by which the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway contributes to PSII photoprotection is in dispute. The current consensus is that the AOX pathway protects photosystems by dissipating excess reducing equivalents that are exported from chloroplasts through the malate/oxaloacetate (Mal/OAA) shuttle, preventing the over-reduction of chloroplasts. Here, using the aox1a Arabidopsis mutant and nine other C3 and C4 species, an additional model of the AOX pathway in PSII photoprotection is proposed...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Plant
Louise L Christensen, Colin Selman, Jonathan D Blount, Jill G Pilkington, Kathryn A Watt, Josephine M Pemberton, Jane M Reid, Daniel H Nussey
Oxidative stress (OS) is hypothesized to be a key physiological mechanism mediating life-history trade-offs, but evidence from wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation is limited. We tested the hypotheses that increased early life growth rate increases OS, and that increased OS reduces first-winter survival, in wild Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs. We measured growth rate and first-winter survival for four consecutive cohorts, and measured two markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC)) and two markers of antioxidant (AOX) protection (total AOX capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) from blood samples...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Christoph Partes, Can Yildirim, Swen Schuster, Martin Kind, Jan W Bats, Michael Zharnikov, Andreas Terfort
A series of three homologous arene[2,3-d]-oxazole-2-thiols (benzoxazole-2-thiol (BOxSH), naphthaleneoxazole-2-thiol (NOxSH), and anthraceneoxazoline-2-thiol (AOxSH)) were deposited onto Au(111) to obtain surfaces suitable as injection layers for organic electronics. The guiding idea was that the increasingly extended conjugated system would lower the band gap of the films while the introduction of the annellated heteroaromatic ring would provide the opportunity for pseudo-symmetric attachment of the sulfur anchor, what should lower the conformational freedom of the system...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lai Peng, Stephanie Piekos, Grace L Guo, Xiao-Bo Zhong
The expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in liver changes dramatically during postnatal liver maturation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis in liver. However, the role of FXR in regulating ontogeny of phase-I drug metabolizing genes is not clear. Hence, we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify the developmental expression of phase-I genes in both Fxr-null and control (C57BL/6) mouse livers during development. Liver samples of male C57BL/6 and Fxr-null mice at 6 different ages from prenatal to adult were used...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Miriam C Jiménez-Martínez, Efigenia Montalvo-González, Sonia G Sáyago-Ayerdi, Gil Mercado-Mercado, José A Ramírez- de León, Paz-Gamboa Ernestina, Maria A Vivar-Vera
BACKGROUND: The impact of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on the polyphenol (PP) content and antioxidant activity (AOX) of plantain pulp was evaluated. Pressures of 400, 500 and 600 MPa were applied to plantain pulp for 90 and 180 s at room temperature (25 °C). The polyphenoloxidase activity, extractable (EPP) and non-extractable PP (NEPP) contents, flavonoid content and AOX (FRAP, ABTS(•+) ) were evaluated. In addition, PP identification was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Boris Hansel, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Alexina Orsoni, Randa Bittar, Philippe Giral, Ronan Roussel, Michel Marre, Kamel Mohammedi, Eric Bruckert, Martin John Chapman, Anatol Kontush
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with altered lipoprotein metabolism and impairment in the functionality of small, dense high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles secondary to compositional alterations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of a lifestyle program to improve the composition and antioxidative function (AOX) of small dense HDL3c in MetS. METHODS: Patients with MetS (n = 33) not taking lipid-lowering drugs were recruited to follow a 12-week educational program to reduce caloric intake and to increase physical activity...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Evanna L Mills, Beth Kelly, Angela Logan, Ana S H Costa, Mukund Varma, Clare E Bryant, Panagiotis Tourlomousis, J Henry M Däbritz, Eyal Gottlieb, Isabel Latorre, Sinéad C Corr, Gavin McManus, Dylan Ryan, Howard T Jacobs, Marten Szibor, Ramnik J Xavier, Thomas Braun, Christian Frezza, Michael P Murphy, Luke A O'Neill
Activated macrophages undergo metabolic reprogramming, which drives their pro-inflammatory phenotype, but the mechanistic basis for this remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages shift from producing ATP by oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis while also increasing succinate levels. We show that increased mitochondrial oxidation of succinate via succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and an elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential combine to drive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Shogo Nakano, Kazuyuki Yasukawa, Takaki Tokiwa, Takeshi Ishikawa, Erika Ishitsubo, Naoya Matsuo, Sohei Ito, Hiroaki Tokiwa, Yasuhisa Asano
Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of amine oxidases (AOx) will help to extend their reactivity by rational design and their application to deracemization of various amine compounds. To date, several studies have been performed on S-selective AOx, but relatively few have focused on R-selective AOx. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism of pkAOx, an R-selective AOx that we designed by introducing the Y228L and R283G mutations into d-amino acid oxidase from pig kidney. Four crystal structures of the substrate-bound protein and first-principles calculations based on the correlated fragment molecular orbital (FMO) indicated that two aromatic residues, Tyr224 and Phe242, form stable π-π stacking interaction with substrates...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Keshav Dahal, Greg C Vanlerberghe
The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) terminates at cytochrome (cyt) oxidase or alternative oxidase (AOX). In Nicotiana tabacum leaves, mitochondrial respiration in the light (RL ) declined with increasing drought severity but then increased under extreme drought, despite a steep decline in maximal cyt oxidase activity. This increased RL was absent in AOX knockdown lines, while AOX overexpression lines showed enhanced RL relative to the wild-type (WT). Cyt oxidase activity under extreme drought was higher in overexpressors and lower in knockdowns, compared with the WT, providing evidence that AOX acted to maintain cyt pathway function...
August 31, 2016: New Phytologist
Isabel Velada, Hélia G Cardoso, Carla Ragonezi, Amaia Nogales, Alexandre Ferreira, Vera Valadas, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is encoded in the nuclear genome being involved in plant response upon a diversity of environmental stresses and also in normal plant growth and development. Here we report the characterization of the AOX gene family of Hypericum perforatum L. Two AOX genes were identified, both with a structure of four exons (HpAOX1, acc. KU674355 and HpAOX2, acc. KU674356). High variability was found at the N-terminal region of the protein coincident with the high variability identified at the mitochondrial transit peptide...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Janet Vonck, David N Parcej, Deryck J Mills
The first step in methanol metabolism in methylotrophic yeasts, the oxidation of methanol and higher alcohols with molecular oxygen to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, is catalysed by alcohol oxidase (AOX), a 600-kDa homo-octamer containing eight FAD cofactors. When these yeasts are grown with methanol as the carbon source, AOX forms large crystalline arrays in peroxisomes. We determined the structure of AOX by cryo-electron microscopy at a resolution of 3.4 Å. All residues of the 662-amino acid polypeptide as well as the FAD are well resolved...
2016: PloS One
Mineko Terao, Maria Monica Barzago, Mami Kurosaki, Maddalena Fratelli, Marco Bolis, Andrea Borsotti, Paolo Bigini, Edoardo Micotti, Mirjana Carli, Roberto William Invernizzi, Renzo Bagnati, Alice Passoni, Roberta Pastorelli, Laura Brunelli, Ivan Toschi, Valentina Cesari, Seigo Sanoh, Enrico Garattini
Aldehyde-oxidase-4 (AOX4) is one of the mouse aldehyde oxidase isoenzymes and its physiological function is unknown. The major source of AOX4 is the Harderian-gland, where the enzyme is characterized by daily rhythmic fluctuations. Deletion of the Aox4 gene causes perturbations in the expression of the circadian-rhythms gene pathway, as indicated by transcriptomic analysis. AOX4 inactivation alters the diurnal oscillations in the expression of master clock-genes. Similar effects are observed in other organs devoid of AOX4, such as white adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus indicating a systemic action...
2016: Scientific Reports
Xiang Luo, Rong Huang, Hongru Sun, Yupeng Liu, Haoran Bi, Jing Li, Hongyuan Yu, Jiamei Sun, Shangqun Lin, Binbin Cui, Yashuang Zhao
The relationship between the DNA methylation status of the CpG islands of multiple genes in blood leukocytes in CRC susceptibility and prognosis, as well as possible interactions with dietary factors on CRC risk are unclear. We carried out a case-control study including 421 CRC patients and 506 controls to examine the associations between six genes (AOX-1, RARB2, RERG, ADAMTS9, IRF4, and FOXE-1), multiple CpG site methylation (MCSM) and susceptibility to CRC. High-level MCSM (MCSM-H) was defined as methylation of greater than or equal to 2 of 5 candidate genes (except for RARB2); low-level MCSM (MCSM-L) was when 1 candidate gene was methylated; non-MCSM was when none of the candidate genes were methylated...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Karkovska, Oleh Smutok, Mykhailo Gonchar
D-lactate is a natural component of many fermented foods like yogurts, sour milk, cheeses, and pickles vegetable products. D-lactate in high concentrations is toxic for children and people with short bowel syndrome and provokes encephalopathy. These facts convincingly demonstrate a need for effective tools for the D-lactate removal from some food products. The main idea of investigation is focused on application of recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha "tr6," overproducing D-lactate: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (EC 1...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ana Andjelković, Kia K Kemppainen, Howard T Jacobs
Culture of Drosophila expressing the steroid-dependent GeneSwitch transcriptional activator under the control of the ubiquitous α-tubulin promoter was found to produce extensive pupal lethality, as well as a range of dysmorphic adult phenotypes, in the presence of high concentrations of the inducing drug RU486. Prominent among these was cleft thorax, seen previously in flies bearing mutant alleles of the nuclear receptor Ultraspiracle and many other mutants, as well as notched wings, leg malformations, and bristle abnormalities...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Tania Nobre, M Doroteia Campos, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Incorrectly or simply not annotated data is largely increasing in most public databases, undoubtedly caused by the rise in sequence data and the more recent boom of genomic projects. Molecular biologists and bioinformaticists should join efforts to tackle this issue. Practical challenges have been experienced when studying the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene family, and hence the motivation for the present work. Commonly used databases were screened for their capacity to distinguish AOX from the plastid terminal oxidase (also called plastoquinol terminal oxidase; PTOX) and we put forward a simple approach, based on amino acids signatures, that unequivocally distinguishes these gene families...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiao-ming Shu, Can-can Xu, Rui Liu, Yuan Zhao, Lü-jun Chen
Nanoscale Ni/Fe was applied to biologically treated effluent of chemical dyestuff wastewater. The removal rates of absorbable organic halogens (AOX) and chroma were investigated at different Ni loadings (0-5%), initial wastewater pH (4.1-10.0), Ni/Fe dosage (1-5 g x L(-1)) and reaction time (0.5-96 h). The results showed that the removal rates of AOX and chroma firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of the Ni loading, while continuously increased with the decrease of the initial wastewater pH and the increase of Ni/Fe dosage...
February 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Igor Florez-Sarasa, Miquel Ribas-Carbo, Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Kevin Schwahn, Zoran Nikoloski, Alisdair R Fernie, Jaume Flexas
The mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) has been suggested to act as a sink for excess reducing power generated in the chloroplast under high-light (HL) stress and thus may reduce photoinhibition. The aim of this study was to compare different species to investigate the in vivo regulation and role of AOP under HL stress. The in vivo activities of AOP (νalt ) and the cytochrome oxidase pathway, chlorophyll fluorescence, metabolite profiles, alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount were determined in leaves of five C3 species under growth light and after HL treatment...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Igor Florez-Sarasa, María José Clemente-Moreno, Haytem Mhadhbi, Jaume Flexas, Alisdair R Fernie, Miquel Ribas-Carbó
Salt respiration is defined as the increase of respiration under early salt stress. However, the response of respiration varies depending on the degree of salt tolerance and salt stress. It has been hypothesized that the activity of the alternative pathway may increase preventing over-reduction of the ubiquinone pool in response to salinity, which in turn can increase respiration. Three genotypes of Medicago truncatula are reputed as differently responsive to salinity: TN1.11, A17 and TN6.18. We used the oxygen-isotope fractionation technique to study the in vivo respiratory activities of the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) and the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) in leaves and roots of these genotypes treated with severe salt stress (300 mM) during 1 and 3 days...
June 15, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
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