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Isabel Velada, Dariusz Grzebelus, Diana Lousa, Cláudio M Soares, Elisete Santos Macedo, Augusto Peixe, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Hélia G Cardoso
Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fei Yang, Ying Huang, Changling Fang, Ying Xue, Luoyan Ai, Jianshe Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Both Cl- and base can affect PMS activation to produce reactive chlorine or oxygen species, but the overall effects of chloride on this emerging PMS/base technology in saline wastewater treatment are unknown. Here effectiveness of PMS/base, PMS/Cl- and PMS/base/Cl- is compared with a gradient concentration of chloride and alkalinity, by probing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). Both PMS/base and PMS/Cl- systems can rapidly degrade MB due to the generation of singlet oxygen and reactive chlorine, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Crystal Sweetman, Kathleen L Soole, Colin L D Jenkins, David A Day
Mitochondria isolated from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) possess substantial alternative oxidase (AOX) activity, even in non-stressed plants, and one or two AOX protein bands were detected immunologically, depending on the organ. Four different AOX isoforms were identified in the chickpea genome: CaAOX1 and CaAOX2A, B and D. CaAOX2A was the most highly expressed form and was strongly expressed in photosynthetic tissues, while CaAOX2D was found in all organs examined. These results are very similar to those of previous studies with soybean and siratro (Kearns et al...
February 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Valentina Filina, Mariya Ostroukhova, Elena Ermilova
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in plants, some protists and many fungi consists of the ATP-coupling cyanide-sensitive cytochrome pathway and the cyanide-resistant alternative respiratory pathway. The alternative pathway is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in nutrient stress tolerance of plants and protists, the effects of sulfur (S) deprivation, on AOX are largely unknown. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reacts to S limitation conditions with the induced expression of many genes...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Aziz Kinani, Hacène Sa Lhi, Stéphane Bouchonnet, Said Kinani
Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) is an analytical parameter of considerable interest since it allows to evaluate the amount of organohalogen disinfection by-products (OXBPs) present in a water sample. Halogen speciation of AOX into adsorbable organic chlorine, bromine and iodine, respectively AOCl, AOBr and AOI, is extremely important since it has been shown that iodinated and brominated organic by-products tend to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. Chemical speciation of AOX can be performed by combustion-ion chromatography (C-IC)...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Maisarah Abdul Mutalib, Asmah Rahmat, Faisal Ali, Fauziah Othman, Rajesh Ramasamy
Background: This study aims to examine various solvent extracts of Cyphomandra betacea (tamarillo) also known as the tree tomato, for their bioactive constituents and antioxidant activity. The study also aims to examine its effect on cancer cell death using two types of cancer cell lines (liver and breast cancer cell). Methods: The first part of the study evaluates the nutritional composition of tamarillo. Then, phytochemical profiling using GC-MS analysis in ethanolic tamarillo extract was conducted...
October 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Catharina Göthberg, Kerstin Gröndahl, Omar Omar, Peter Thomsen, Christer Slotte
BACKGROUND: Data on risk factors and complications after long-term implant treatment is limited. The aims were to evaluate the role of various fixation modes and to analyze complications and risks that affect long-term use of implant-supported partial fixed dental prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty partially edentulous subjects received three Brånemark TiUnite™ implants. Superstructures were attached directly at implant level (IL) or via abutments: machined surface (AM) and an oxidized surface (AOX, TiUnite™)...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Antonia Romero-Munar, Gregory R Cawthray, Francisco Palma, Ricardo Aroca, Elena Baraza, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Hans Lambers, Miquel Ribas-Carbó
Plants exhibit respiratory bypasses (e.g., the alternative oxidase, AOX) and increase the synthesis of carboxylates in their organs (leaves and roots) in response to phosphorus (P) deficiency which increases P uptake capacity. They also show differential expression of high-affinity inorganic phosphorus (Pi) transporters, thus avoiding P toxicity at a high P availability. The association between AOX and carboxylate synthesis was tested in Solanum lycopersicum plants grown at different soil P availability, by using plants grown under P-sufficient and P-limiting conditions, and by applying a short-term (24 h) P-sufficient pulse to plants grown under P limitation...
January 29, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Gökhan Kücükgöze, Silke Leimkühler
Mammalian aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdo-flavoenzymes which are present in many tissues in various mammalian species, including humans and rodents. Different species contain a different number of AOX isoforms. In particular, the reasons why mammals other than humans express a multiplicity of tissue-specific AOX enzymes is unknown. In mouse, the isoforms mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX4 and mAOX2 are present. We previously established a codon-optimized heterologous expression systems for the mAOX1-4 isoforms in Escherichia coli that gives yield to sufficient amounts of active protein for kinetic characterizations and sets the basis in this study for site-directed mutagenesis and structure-function studies...
2018: PloS One
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Nancy Apenova, Hui Peng, Markus Hecker, Markus Brinkmann
Previous research has characterized the important role of aldehyde oxidases (AOX) in biotransformation of N-heterocyclic therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants in mammals. Research pertaining to AOX activity in non-mammalian vertebrates, however, is scarce, despite its biological role as a potentially important metabolic pathway for xenobiotics. One of the limiting factors of research on AOX is that available photometric methods are relatively insensitive, limited in throughput, and prone to cross-reactivity from other enzymes...
January 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Hiroyuki Uchida, Bunzou Mikami, Aiko Yamane-Tanabe, Anna Ito, Kouzou Hirano, Masaya Oki
Hetero-trimeric aldehyde oxidases of bacterial origin, which use O2 to catalyse the oxidation of various aldehydes but not those of aromatic N-heterocycles, belong to the xanthine oxidase family. In the present study, the crystal structure of a recombinant aldehyde oxidase from Methylobacillus sp. KY4400 (Mb-AOX) was determined at 2.5 Å resolution. The structures of its subunits resemble those of the corresponding subunits or domains of other structurally characterised enzymes belonging to the family, and include a [4Fe-4S] cluster in the medium subunit like that found in Escherichia coli periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase (EP-AOR)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Ya-Wei Xie, Lu-Jun Chen, Rui Liu, Jin-Ping Tian
The parameter AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) indicates the total amount of organic halogens in an environment. Seawater and surface sediment samples from 12 sample sites in the Hangzhou Bay (HZB), China, were analyzed for AOX to investigate its contamination status. In this study, the AOX concentration ranged from 140.6 ± 45.6 μg/L to 716.1 ± 62.3 μg/L in seawater of the HZB, and from 11.3 ± 2.4 mg/kg to 112.7 ± 7.2 mg/kg in the sediment. Ocean currents, fluvial currents and the Yangtze River exerted profound influences on the distribution of AOX in the HZB...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yue Liu, Xiaoyun Zhou, Wenbo Liu, Xiaohui Xiong, Chuyang Lv, Xiang Zhou, Weiguo Miao
HpaXm produced by the cotton leaf blight bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum is a novel harpin elicitor of the induced hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. We investigated whether fragments of HpaXm, compared with fragments of Hpa1Xoo, are sufficient for HR or plant growth promotion (PGP) elicitation using four synthetic peptides (HpaXm35-51, HpaXm10-39, Hpa1Xoo36-52 and Hpa1Xoo10-40). We also heated the fragments to determine the heat tolerance of the functional fragments. HpaXm35-51 and Hpa1Xoo36-52 induced hypersensitive response (HR)...
2018: PloS One
Keshav Dahal, Greg C Vanlerberghe
The non-energy conserving alternative oxidase (AOX) respiration of plant mitochondria is known to interact with chloroplast photosynthesis. This may have consequences for growth, particularly under sub-optimal conditions when energy imbalances can impede photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the metabolism and growth of wild-type (WT) Nicotiana tabacum with that of AOX knockdown and overexpression lines during a prolonged steady-state mild to moderate water deficit. Under moderate water deficit, AOX amount was an important determinant of the rate of both mitochondrial respiration in the light and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) at the growth irradiance...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Victor Manuel Zamora-Gasga, Alicia Paulina Cárdenas-Castro, Efigenia Montalvo-González, María Guadalupe Flavia Loarca-Piña, Vázquez-Landaverde Pedro Alberto, Juscelino Tovar, Sonia Guadalupe Sáyago-Ayerdi
The indigestible fraction (IF) isolated from three lunch menus: Modified Mexican Lunch (MM-L), Traditional Mexican Lunch (TM-L) and Alternative Mexican Lunch (AM-L), was studied in terms of antioxidant capacity (AOX) and metabolites produced through fermentation by human intestinal microbiota. IFs were isolated after withstanding in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and total soluble polyphenols (TSP), condensed tannins (CT), hydrolysable polyphenols (HP) and AOX (DPPH, FRAP) were evaluated. AOX, pH and bacterial metabolites profile changes were also monitored during in vitro colonic fermentation...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Gabriele Cruciani, Nicolò Milani, Paolo Benedetti, Susan Lepri, Lucia Cesarini, Massimo Baroni, Francesca Spyrakis, Sara Tortorella, Edoardo Mosconi, Laura Goracci
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a molibdo-flavoenzyme that raised great interest in recent years, since its contribution in xenobiotics metabolism has not always been identified before clinical trials, with consequent negative effects on the fate of new potential drugs. The fundamental role of AOX in metabolizing xenobiotics is also due to the attempt of medicinal chemists to stabilize candidates toward cytochrome P450 activity, which increases the risk for new compounds to be susceptible to AOX nucleophile attack...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Cristiano Soares, Simão Branco-Neves, Alexandra de Sousa, Manuel Azenha, Ana Cunha, Ruth Pereira, Fernanda Fidalgo
This work was designed to assess the potential role of silicon dioxide nanomaterial (nano-SiO2) in enhancing barley's tolerance to nickel oxide nanomaterial (nano-NiO). For this purpose, plants were grown for 14days under nano-NiO (120mgkg-1) single and co-exposure with nano-SiO2 (3mgkg-1). The exposure of barley to nano-NiO caused a significant decrease in growth-related parameters and induced a negative response on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, upon nano-SiO2 co-exposure, the inhibitory effects of nano-NiO were partially reduced, with lower reductions in fresh and dry biomass, and with the recovery of the photosynthesis-related parameters...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jennifer Selinski, Andreas Hartmann, Gabriele Deckers-Hebestreit, David A Day, James Whelan, Renate Scheibe
The cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-proton-pumping ubiquinol oxidase that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water and is post-translationally regulated by redox mechanisms and 2-oxo acids. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses five AOX isoforms (AOX1A-D and AOX2). AOX1D expression is increased in aox1a knock-out mutants from A. thaliana (especially after restriction of the cytochrome c pathway), but cannot compensate for the lack of AOX1A, suggesting a difference in regulation of these isoforms...
December 5, 2017: Plant Physiology
Zhongxiao Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Kaiyun Wang, LIli Jiang, Dong Wang
Lentinan (LNT), a complex polysaccharide with a β-(1→3)-linked backbone of D-glucose residues, has been reported to inhibit plant diseases. Our objective was to explore the efficacy and mechanism of action of LNT used as a seed dressing to control sharp eyespot of wheat. Seed dressing promoted wheat growth. At control germination rates of 50%, 8 g LNT/100 kg seeds of the Jimai 22, Shannong 23, and Luyuan 502 cultivars significantly increased seed germination to 54%, 52%, and 51%, respectively. Seven days after emergence, the heights and root activity of wheat treated with LNT were significantly greater than those of controls...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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