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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889183/increase-of-cytotoxicity-during-wastewater-chlorination-impact-factors-and-surrogates
#1
Ye Du, Qian-Yuan Wu, Yun Lu, Hong-Ying Hu, Yang Yang, Rui Liu, Feng Liu
Toxic and harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were formed during wastewater chlorination. It was recently suggested that cytotoxicity to mammalian cells reflects risks posed by chlorinated wastewater. Here, ATP assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Chlorination significantly increased cytotoxicity of treated wastewater. Factors affecting cytotoxicity formation during wastewater chlorination were investigated. Quenching with sodium thiosulfate and ascorbic acid decreased the formed cytotoxicity, while ammonium kept the cytotoxicity stable...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852950/photoperiod-affects-the-phenotype-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-mutants
#2
Pierre Pétriacq, Linda De Bont, Lucie Genestout, Jingfang Hao, Constance Laureau, Igor Florez-Sarasa, Touami Rzigui, Guillaume Queval, Françoise Gilard, Caroline Mauve, Florence Guérard, Marlène Lamothe-Sibold, Jessica Marion, Chantal Fresneau, Spencer Craig Brown, Antoine Danon, Anja Krieger-Liszkay, Richard Berthomé, Miquel Ribas-Carbo, Guillaume G B Tcherkez, Gabriel Cornic, Bernard Pineau, Bertrand Gakiere, Rosine De Paepe
Plant mutants for genes encoding subunits of mitochondrial Complex I (CI, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), the first enzyme of the respiratory chain, display various phenotypes depending on growth conditions. Here, we examined the impact of photoperiod, a major environmental factor controlling plant development, on two Arabidopsis thaliana CI mutants: a new insertion mutant interrupted in both ndufs8.1 and ndufs8.2 genes encoding the NDUFS8 subunit, and the previously characterized ndufs4 CI mutant. In long day (LD) condition, both ndufs8...
November 16, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836555/municipal-landfill-leachate-characteristics-and-feasibility-of-retrofitting-existing-treatment-systems-with-deammonification-a-full-scale-survey
#3
Ehsan Mohammad-Pajooh, Dirk Weichgrebe, Graham Cuff
Leachate characteristics, applied technologies and energy demand for leachate treatment were investigated through survey in different states of Germany. Based on statistical analysis of leachate quality data from 2010 to 2015, almost half of the contaminants in raw leachate satisfy direct discharge limits. Decrease in leachate pollution index of current landfills is mainly related to reduction in concentrations of certain heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg) and organics (biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX))...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830987/alternative-oxidase-and-plant-stress-tolerance
#4
Bedabrata Saha, Gennadii Borovskii, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is one of the terminal oxidases of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. AOX acts as a means to relax the highly coupled and tensed electron transport process in mitochondria thus providing and maintaining the much needed metabolic homeostasis by directly reducing oxygen to water. In the process AOX also act as facilitator for signalling molecules conveying the metabolic status of mitochondria to the nucleus and thus able to influence nuclear gene expression. Since AOX indirectly, is able to control the synthesis of important signalling molecules like hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, nitric oxide, thus it is also helping in stress signalling...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816999/heterologous-expression-of-the-crassostrea-gigas-pacific-oyster-alternative-oxidase-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Aaron Robertson, Kyle Schaltz, Karina Neimanis, James F Staples, Allison E McDonald
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a terminal oxidase within the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) present in many organisms where it functions in the electron transport system (ETS). AOX directly accepts electrons from ubiquinol and is therefore capable of bypassing ETS Complexes III and IV. The human genome does not contain a gene coding for AOX, so AOX expression has been suggested as a gene therapy for a range of human mitochondrial diseases caused by genetic mutations that render Complex III and/or IV dysfunctional...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815362/mitochondrial-function-and-maize-kernel-development-requires-dek2-a-pentatricopeptide-repeat-protein-involved-in-nad1-mrna-splicing
#6
Weiwei Qi, Yang Yang, Xuzhen Feng, Mingliang Zhang, Rentao Song
In flowering plants, many respiration related proteins are encoded by mitochondrial genome and the splicing of mitochondrion-encoded mRNA involves a complex collaboration with nuclear-encoded proteins. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins have been implicated in these RNA-protein interactions. Maize defective kernel 2 (dek2) is a classic mutant with small kernels and delayed development. Through positional cloning and allelic confirmation we found Dek2 encodes a novel P-type PPR protein that targets mitochondria...
November 4, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776780/the-plastid-terminal-oxidase-is-a-key-factor-balancing-the-redox-state-of-thylakoid-membrane
#7
D Wang, A Fu
Mitochondria possess oxygen-consuming respiratory electron transfer chains (RETCs), and the oxygen-evolving photosynthetic electron transfer chain (PETC) resides in chloroplasts. Evolutionarily mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from ancient α-proteobacteria and cyanobacteria, respectively. However, cyanobacteria harbor both RETC and PETC on their thylakoid membranes. It is proposed that chloroplasts could possess a RETC on the thylakoid membrane, in addition to PETC. Identification of a plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) in the chloroplast from the Arabidopsis variegation mutant immutans (im) demonstrated the presence of a RETC in chloroplasts, and the PTOX is the committed oxidase...
2016: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771605/biodegradability-of-dbp-precursors-after-drinking-water-ozonation
#8
Glen Andrew de Vera, Jurg Keller, Wolfgang Gernjak, Howard Weinberg, Maria José Farré
Ozonation is known to generate biodegradable organic matter, which is typically reduced by biological filtration to avoid bacterial regrowth in distribution systems. Post-chlorination generates halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) but little is known about the biodegradability of their precursors. This study determined the effect of ozonation and biofiltration conditions, specifically ozone exposure and empty bed contact time (EBCT), on the control of DBP formation potentials in drinking water. Ozone exposure was varied through addition of H2O2 during ozonation at 1 mgO3/mgDOC followed by biological filtration using either activated carbon (BAC) or anthracite...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768735/wild-carrot-differentiation-in-europe-and-selection-at-dcaox1-gene
#9
Tânia Nobre, Manuela Oliveira, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
By definition, the domestication process leads to an overall reduction of crop genetic diversity. This lead to the current search of genomic regions in wild crop relatives (CWR), an important task for modern carrot breeding. Nowadays massive sequencing possibilities can allow for discovery of novel genetic resources in wild populations, but this quest could be aided by the use of a surrogate gene (to first identify and prioritize novel wild populations for increased sequencing effort). Alternative oxidase (AOX) gene family seems to be linked to all kinds of abiotic and biotic stress reactions in various organisms and thus have the potential to be used in the identification of CWR hotspots of environment-adapted diversity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760881/impaired-cyclic-electron-flow-around-photosystem-i-disturbs-high-light-respiratory-metabolism
#10
Igor Florez-Sarasa, Ko Noguchi, Wagner L Araújo, Ana Garcia-Nogales, Alisdair R Fernie, Jaume Flexas, Miquel Ribas-Carbo
The cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF-PSI) increases ATP/NADPH production in the chloroplast, acting as an energy balance mechanism. Higher export of reducing power from the chloroplast in CEF-PSI mutants has been correlated with higher mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount under high-light (HL) conditions. However, in vivo measurements of AOX activity are still required to confirm the exact role of AOX in dissipating the excess of reductant power from the chloroplast...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746301/contribution-of-the-alternative-respiratory-pathway-to-psii-photoprotection-in-c3-and-c4-plants
#11
Zi-Shan Zhang, Mei-Jun Liu, Renate Scheibe, Jennifer Selinski, Li-Tao Zhang, Cheng Yang, Xiang-Long Meng, Hui-Yuan Gao
The mechanism by which the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway contributes to PSII photoprotection is in dispute. The current consensus is that the AOX pathway protects photosystems by dissipating excess reducing equivalents that are exported from chloroplasts through the malate/oxaloacetate (Mal/OAA) shuttle, preventing the over-reduction of chloroplasts. Here, using the aox1a Arabidopsis mutant and nine other C3 and C4 species, an additional model of the AOX pathway in PSII photoprotection is proposed...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733545/marker-dependent-associations-among-oxidative-stress-growth-and-survival-during-early-life-in-a-wild-mammal
#12
Louise L Christensen, Colin Selman, Jonathan D Blount, Jill G Pilkington, Kathryn A Watt, Josephine M Pemberton, Jane M Reid, Daniel H Nussey
Oxidative stress (OS) is hypothesized to be a key physiological mechanism mediating life-history trade-offs, but evidence from wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation is limited. We tested the hypotheses that increased early life growth rate increases OS, and that increased OS reduces first-winter survival, in wild Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs. We measured growth rate and first-winter survival for four consecutive cohorts, and measured two markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC)) and two markers of antioxidant (AOX) protection (total AOX capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) from blood samples...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728975/self-assembled-monolayers-of-pseudo-c2v-symmetric-low-band-gap-areneoxazolethiolates-on-gold-surfaces
#13
Christoph Partes, Can Yildirim, Swen Schuster, Martin Kind, Jan W Bats, Michael Zharnikov, Andreas Terfort
A series of three homologous arene[2,3-d]-oxazole-2-thiols (benzoxazole-2-thiol (BOxSH), naphthaleneoxazole-2-thiol (NOxSH), and anthraceneoxazoline-2-thiol (AOxSH)) were deposited onto Au(111) to obtain surfaces suitable as injection layers for organic electronics. The guiding idea was that the increasingly extended conjugated system would lower the band gap of the films while the introduction of the annellated heteroaromatic ring would provide the opportunity for pseudo-symmetric attachment of the sulfur anchor, what should lower the conformational freedom of the system...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709014/role-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-in-establishment-of-ontogeny-of-phase-i-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-genes-in-mouse-liver
#14
Lai Peng, Stephanie Piekos, Grace L Guo, Xiao-Bo Zhong
The expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in liver changes dramatically during postnatal liver maturation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis in liver. However, the role of FXR in regulating ontogeny of phase-I drug metabolizing genes is not clear. Hence, we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify the developmental expression of phase-I genes in both Fxr-null and control (C57BL/6) mouse livers during development. Liver samples of male C57BL/6 and Fxr-null mice at 6 different ages from prenatal to adult were used...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701748/effect-of-high-hydrostatic-pressure-on-the-polyphenols-and-antioxidant-activity-of-plantain-pulp-musa-paradisiaca-aab
#15
Miriam C Jiménez-Martínez, Efigenia Montalvo-González, Sonia G Sáyago-Ayerdi, Gilberto Mercado-Mercado, José A Ramírez-de León, Ernestina Paz-Gamboa, Maria A Vivar-Vera
BACKGROUND: The impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the polyphenol (PP) content and antioxidant activity (AOX) of plantain pulp was evaluated. Pressures of 400, 500 and 600 MPa were applied to plantain pulp for 90 and 180 s at room temperature (25 °C). Polyphenoloxidase activity, extractable (EPP) and non-extractable PP (NEPP) contents, flavonoid content and AOX (FRAP, ABTS(•+) ) were evaluated. In addition, PP identification was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678434/lifestyle-intervention-enhances-high-density-lipoprotein-function-among-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-only-at-normal-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-plasma-levels
#16
Boris Hansel, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Alexina Orsoni, Randa Bittar, Philippe Giral, Ronan Roussel, Michel Marre, Kamel Mohammedi, Eric Bruckert, Martin John Chapman, Anatol Kontush
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with altered lipoprotein metabolism and impairment in the functionality of small, dense high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles secondary to compositional alterations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of a lifestyle program to improve the composition and antioxidative function (AOX) of small dense HDL3c in MetS. METHODS: Patients with MetS (n = 33) not taking lipid-lowering drugs were recruited to follow a 12-week educational program to reduce caloric intake and to increase physical activity...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667687/succinate-dehydrogenase-supports-metabolic-repurposing-of-mitochondria-to-drive-inflammatory-macrophages
#17
Evanna L Mills, Beth Kelly, Angela Logan, Ana S H Costa, Mukund Varma, Clare E Bryant, Panagiotis Tourlomousis, J Henry M Däbritz, Eyal Gottlieb, Isabel Latorre, Sinéad C Corr, Gavin McManus, Dylan Ryan, Howard T Jacobs, Marten Szibor, Ramnik J Xavier, Thomas Braun, Christian Frezza, Michael P Murphy, Luke A O'Neill
Activated macrophages undergo metabolic reprogramming, which drives their pro-inflammatory phenotype, but the mechanistic basis for this remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages shift from producing ATP by oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis while also increasing succinate levels. We show that increased mitochondrial oxidation of succinate via succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and an elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential combine to drive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
October 6, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648606/origin-of-stereoselectivity-and-substrate-ligand-recognition-in-an-fad-dependent-r-selective-amine-oxidase
#18
Shogo Nakano, Kazuyuki Yasukawa, Takaki Tokiwa, Takeshi Ishikawa, Erika Ishitsubo, Naoya Matsuo, Sohei Ito, Hiroaki Tokiwa, Yasuhisa Asano
Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of amine oxidases (AOx) will help to extend their reactivity by rational design and their application to deracemization of various amine compounds. To date, several studies have been performed on S-selective AOx, but relatively few have focused on R-selective AOx. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism of pkAOx, an R-selective AOx that we designed by introducing the Y228L and R283G mutations into d-amino acid oxidase from pig kidney. Four crystal structures of the substrate-bound protein and first-principles calculations based on the correlated fragment molecular orbital (FMO) indicated that two aromatic residues, Tyr224 and Phe242, form stable π-π stacking interaction with substrates...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579773/alternative-oxidase-respiration-maintains-both-mitochondrial-and-chloroplast-function-during-drought
#19
Keshav Dahal, Greg C Vanlerberghe
The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) terminates at cytochrome (cyt) oxidase or alternative oxidase (AOX). In Nicotiana tabacum leaves, mitochondrial respiration in the light (RL ) declined with increasing drought severity but then increased under extreme drought, despite a steep decline in maximal cyt oxidase activity. This increased RL was absent in AOX knockdown lines, while AOX overexpression lines showed enhanced RL relative to the wild-type (WT). Cyt oxidase activity under extreme drought was higher in overexpressors and lower in knockdowns, compared with the WT, providing evidence that AOX acted to maintain cyt pathway function...
August 31, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563303/alternative-oxidase-gene-family-in-hypericum-perforatum-l-characterization-and-expression-at-the-post-germinative-phase
#20
Isabel Velada, Hélia G Cardoso, Carla Ragonezi, Amaia Nogales, Alexandre Ferreira, Vera Valadas, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is encoded in the nuclear genome being involved in plant response upon a diversity of environmental stresses and also in normal plant growth and development. Here we report the characterization of the AOX gene family of Hypericum perforatum L. Two AOX genes were identified, both with a structure of four exons (HpAOX1, acc. KU674355 and HpAOX2, acc. KU674356). High variability was found at the N-terminal region of the protein coincident with the high variability identified at the mitochondrial transit peptide...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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