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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620034/structural-insights-into-the-alternative-oxidases-are-all-oxidases-made-equal
#1
REVIEW
Benjamin May, Luke Young, Anthony L Moore
The alternative oxidases (AOXs) are ubiquinol-oxidoreductases that are members of the diiron carboxylate superfamily. They are not only ubiquitously distributed within the plant kingdom but also found in increasing numbers within the fungal, protist, animal and prokaryotic kingdoms. Although functions of AOXs are highly diverse in general, they tend to play key roles in thermogenesis, stress tolerance (through the management of radical oxygen species) and the maintenance of mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596420/analysis-of-post-translational-activation-of-alternative-oxidase-isoforms
#2
Jennifer Selinski, Andreas Hartmann, Adrian Kordes, Gabriele Deckers-Hebestreit, James Whelan, Renate Scheibe
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in plants is a non-proton-motive ubiquinol oxidase that is activated by redox mechanisms and 2-oxo acids. A comparative analysis of AOX isoenzymes AOX1A, AOX1C, and AOX1D from Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that cysteine residues, CysI and CysII, are both involved in 2-oxo acid activation, with AOX1A activity being more increased by 2-oxo acids than that of AOX1C and AOX1D. Substitution of cysteine in AOX1A by glutamate mimiked its activation by pyruvate or glyoxylate, but not in AOX1C and AOX1D...
June 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594709/effect-of-oxidative-stress-on-racial-differences-in-vascular-function-at-rest-and-during-hand-grip-exercise
#3
Rebecca M Kappus, Kanokwan Bunsawat, Michael D Brown, Shane A Phillips, Jacob M Haus, Tracy Baynard, Bo Fernhall
OBJECTIVES: African-Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with whites, possibly due to elevated oxidative stress and subsequent vascular dysfunction. It is unclear the contribution of aging on oxidative stress and vascular function in a racially diverse cohort. METHODS: Ninety-three young and older African-American and white participants received antioxidant (AOX) or placebo supplementation in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Measures of endothelial function (reactive hyperemia, flow-mediated dilation), exercise blood flow, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and AOX activity were measured following supplementation...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592278/effects-of-oil-quality-and-antioxidant-supplementation-on-sow-performance-milk-composition-and-oxidative-status-in-serum-and-placenta
#4
Guoqi Su, Junmei Zhao, Guangbo Luo, Yue Xuan, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, De Wu, Jun He, Lianqiang Che
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of oil quality and antioxidant (AOX) supplementation on sow performance, milk composition and oxidative status. METHODS: A total of 80 PIC (PIC breeding, 3 ~ 5 parities) sows with similar body condition were allocated to four groups (n = 20), receiving diets including fresh corn oil, oxidized corn oil, fresh corn oil plus AOX and oxidized corn oil plus AOX, respectively, from d 85 of gestation to d 21 of lactation...
June 7, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554642/chemical-rules-on-the-assessment-of-antioxidant-potential-in-food-and-food-additives-aimed-at-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Rafael Franco, Eva Martínez-Pinilla
Antioxidants (aOXs) enlarge the useful life of products consumed by humans. Life requires oxidation of glucose/fatty acids and, therefore, "antioxidant" becomes an oxymoron when trying to define benefits in organisms living in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. According to basic physico-chemical principles, the in vivo aOX potential of food supplements is negligible when compared with the main aOX molecules in the animal Kingdom: glucose and fatty acids. Thus, the aOX assumption to improve life-quality is misleading as oxidative stress and exacerbation occur when oxidant foods (e...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526768/direct-comparison-of-the-enzymatic-characteristics-and-superoxide-production-of-the-four-aldehyde-oxidase-enzymes-present-in-mouse
#6
Gokhan Kucukgoze, Mineko Terao, Enrico Garattini, Silke Leimkuhler
Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdoflavoenzymes with an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of heterocyclic compounds and aliphatic as well as aromatic aldehydes. The enzymes use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and produce reduced oxygen species during turnover. Four different enzymes, mAOX1, mAOX3, mAOX4 and mAOX2, which are the products of distinct genes, are present in the mouse. A direct and simultaneous comparison of the enzymatic properties and characteristics of the four enzymes has never been performed...
May 19, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515141/glucagon-induced-extracellular-camp-regulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#7
Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Jinye Liang, Weida Li, Chao Zhang, Zhenning Zhang, Bing Luan
Hormonal signals help to maintain glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver during periods of fasting. Glucagon, a pancreas-derived hormone induced by fasting, promotes gluconeogenesis through induction of intracellular cAMP production. Glucagon also stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation but the underlying mechanism is poorly characterized. Here we reported that following the acute induction of gluconeogenic genes Glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) expression through CREB, glucagon triggers a second delayed phase of fatty acid oxidation genes Acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (Aox) and Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) expression via extracellular cAMP...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500267/impaired-mitochondrial-transcription-termination-disrupts-the-stromal-redox-poise-in-chlamydomonas
#8
Andreas Uhmeyer, Matteo Ballottari, Michela Cecchin, Lutz Wobbe
In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the metabolite exchange between chloroplast and mitochondria ensures efficient photosynthesis under saturating light conditions. The C. reinhardtii mutant stm6 is devoid of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) MOC1 and aberrantly expresses the mitochondrial genome, resulting in enhanced photosynthetic hydrogen production and diminished light tolerance. We analyzed the modulation of mitochondrial and chlororespiration during the acclimation of stm6 and the MOC1-complemented strain to excess light...
May 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487309/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-marmoset-aldehyde-oxidase
#9
Shotaro Uehara, Yasuhiro Uno, Eriko Okamoto, Takashi Inoue, Erika Sasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), New world monkeys, are a promising primate model for preclinical drug metabolism studies due to the similarities of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme function to those of humans. Despite an increasing number of drug candidates catalyzed by non-P450 enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes other than P450s have been hardly identified or characterized in marmosets. In this study, we identified aldehyde oxidase (AOX) 1 gene by marmoset genome analysis. AOX1 cDNA was cloned from marmoset livers by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
May 9, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474310/minipig-and-human-metabolism-of-aldehyde-oxidase-substrates-in-vitro-in-vivo-comparisons
#10
David J Wilkinson, Rosalind L Southall, Mingguang Li, Lisa M Wright, Lindsay J Corfield, Thomas A Heeley, Benjamin Bratby, Ranbir Mannu, Sarah L Johnson, Victoria Shaw, Holly L Friett, Louise A Blakeburn, John S Kendrick, Michael B Otteneder
The importance of aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is becoming increasingly recognized in the prediction of human pharmacokinetic parameters from animal data. The objectives of these studies were to ascertain whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation existed in the clearance and metabolic pathways of AOX substrates and to establish whether the minipig represented an appropriate non-rodent model for man in the pre-clinical development of drugs metabolized by AOX. Using the AOX substrates carbazeran, 6-deoxypenciclovir and zaleplon, clearance was estimated from in vitro depletion experiments with minipig and human liver cytosol and microsomes and scaled before comparison with data generated in parallel in vivo studies in minipigs...
July 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459876/alternative-oxidase-aox-constitutes-a-small-family-of-proteins-in-citrus-clementina-and-citrus-sinensis-l-osb
#11
Jacqueline Araújo Castro, Monique Drielle Gomes Ferreira, Raner José Santana Silva, Bruno Silva Andrade, Fabienne Micheli
The alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is present in plants, fungi, protozoa and some invertebrates. It is involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing an alternative route for the transport of electrons, leading to the reduction of oxygen to form water. The present study aimed to characterize the family of AOX genes in mandarin (Citrus clementina) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) at nucleotide and protein levels, including promoter analysis, phylogenetic analysis and C. sinensis gene expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441769/uva-uvb-and-uvc-light-enhances-the-biosynthesis-of-phenolic-antioxidants-in-fresh-cut-carrot-through-a-synergistic-effect-with-wounding
#12
Bernadeth B Surjadinata, Daniel A Jacobo-Velázquez, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos
Previously, we found that phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (AOX) in carrots increased with wounding intensity. It was also reported that UV radiation may trigger the phenylpropanoid metabolism in plant tissues. Here, we determined the combined effect of wounding intensity and UV radiation on phenolic compounds, AOX, and the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity of carrots. Accordingly, phenolic content, AOX, and PAL activity increased in cut carrots with the duration of UVC radiation, whereas whole carrots showed no increase...
April 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427089/editor-s-highlight-exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#13
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
February 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424712/a-functional-approach-towards-understanding-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-an-endomycorrhizal-symbiosis
#14
Louis Mercy, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Amaia Nogales, Areg Poghosyan, Carolin Schneider, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called "second green revolution" by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384519/kefir-alleviates-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-mycobiota-targeted-and-untargeted-community-analysis-with-correlation-of-biomarkers
#15
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Hyunsook Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Jung-Whan Chon, Hong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed...
June 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382032/production-of-chimeric-acidic-%C3%AE-amylase-by-the-recombinant-pichia-pastoris-and-its-applications
#16
Deepak Parashar, Tulasi Satyanarayana
Recombinant chimeric α-amylase (Ba-Gt-amy) has been produced extracellularly in Pichia pastoris under AOX promoter. Clones of P. pastoris with multiple gene copies have been generated by multiple transformations and post-transformational vector amplification, which led to 10.7-fold enhancement in α-amylase titre as compared to a clone with a copy of the gene. The recombinant P. pastoris integrated eight copies of Ba-Gt-amy in the genome of P. pastoris, as revealed by real time PCR data analysis. Heterologous protein expression as well as mRNA level of Ba-Gt-amy was higher in multi-copy clone than that with single copy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373537/structure-metabolism-relationships-in-human-aox-chemical-insights-from-a-large-database-of-aza-aromatic-and-amide-compounds
#17
Susan Lepri, Martina Ceccarelli, Nicolò Milani, Sara Tortorella, Andrea Cucco, Aurora Valeri, Laura Goracci, Andreas Brink, Gabriele Cruciani
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a metabolic enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of aldehyde and aza-aromatic compounds and the hydrolysis of amides, moieties frequently shared by the majority of drugs. Despite its key role in human metabolism, to date only fragmentary information about the chemical features responsible for AOX susceptibility are reported and only "very local" structure-metabolism relationships based on a small number of similar compounds have been developed. This study reports a more comprehensive coverage of the chemical space of structures with a high risk of AOX phase I metabolism in humans...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364801/sulfated-lentinan-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leads-to-programmed-cell-death-of-tobacco-by-2-cells
#18
Jie Wang, Yaofeng Wang, Lili Shen, Yumei Qian, Jinguang Yang, Fenglong Wang
Sulphated lentinan (sLTN) is known to act as a resistance inducer by causing programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. Using tobacco BY-2 cell model, morphological and biochemical studies revealed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to sLNT induced PCD. Cell viability, and HO/PI fluorescence imaging and TUNEL assays confirmed a typical cell death process caused by sLNT...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338762/redox-and-reactive-oxygen-species-network-in-acclimation-for-salinity-tolerance-in-sugar-beet
#19
M Sazzad Hossain, Abdelaleim Ismail ElSayed, Marten Moore, Karl-Josef Dietz
Fine-tuned and coordinated regulation of transport, metabolism and redox homeostasis allows plants to acclimate to osmotic and ionic stress caused by high salinity. Sugar beet is a highly salt tolerant crop plant and is therefore an interesting model to study sodium chloride (NaCl) acclimation in crops. Sugar beet plants were subjected to a final level of 300 mM NaCl for up to 14 d in hydroponics. Plants acclimated to NaCl stress by maintaining its growth rate and adjusting its cellular redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328295/electrochemical-treatment-of-tannery-wastewater-raw-coagulated-and-pretreated-by-aops
#20
Jeremi H Naumczyk, Małgorzata A Kucharska
This study on tannery wastewater treatment showed that indirect electrooxidation by chlorine generated at a Ti/SnO2/PdO2/RuO2 (SPR) anode led to full ammonia removal, and a decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 77.0%. A combined process of coagulation + H2O2/UV + electrooxidation allowed us to achieve a decrease in COD of up to 97.5%. Equations describing the kinetics of the decrease in COD, the relationship between the decrease in COD and current, and the relationship between the current efficiency of COD reduction and the initial concentrations of the reagents were established...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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