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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017398/an-enzymatic-method-for-the-production-of-6-oxohexanoic-acid-from-6-aminohexanoic-acid-by-an-enzyme-oxidizing-%C3%AF-amino-compounds-from-phialemonium-sp-aiu-274
#1
Miwa Yamada, Mitsuaki Ooe, Tomoko Sasaki, Masao Miyazaki, Kimiyasu Isobe
An enzymatic method for 6-oxohexanoic acid production was developed using 6-aminohexanoic acid and an ω-amino group-oxidizing enzyme (ω-AOX) from Phialemonium sp. AIU 274. 6-Oxohexanoic acid was produced from 6-aminohexanoic acid with 100% yield by incubation with 0.3 U of the ω-AOX and 20 U of catalase at 30 °C for 30 h in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0).
October 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987369/the-regulatory-effects-of-fish-oil-and-chitosan-on-hepatic-lipogenic-signals-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#2
Chen-Yuan Chiu, Tien-Chia Chang, Shing-Hwa Liu, Meng-Tsan Chiang
The present study investigated the regulatory effects of fish oil and chitosan on the signals of hepatic lipid metabolism and the postulated mechanism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Diet supplementation of chitosan and fish oil efficiently suppressed the increased weights in body and livers of high-fat diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan and fish oil significantly decreased the activities of hepatic lipid biosynthesis-related enzymes and efficiently regulated plasma lipoprotein homeostasis. Both chitosan and fish oil significantly ameliorated the alterations in the protein expressions of hepatic lipogenic transcription factors (LXRα and PPARα), and could also significantly regulate the downstream hepatic lipogenic genes (FAS, HMGCR, CYP7A1, FATP, FABP, AOX, and ABCA) expressions in high-fat diet-fed rats...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901910/alternative-oxidase-impacts-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-regulating-intracellular-ros-levels-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#3
Deng-Ke Shi, Jing Zhu, Ze-Hua Sun, Guang Zhang, Rui Liu, Tian-Jun Zhang, Sheng-Li Wang, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
The alternative oxidase (AOX), which forms a branch of the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport pathway, functions to sustain electron flux and alleviate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this article, a homologous AOX gene was identified in Ganoderma lucidum. The coding sequence of the AOX gene in G. lucidum contains 1038 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 39.48 kDa. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the function of AOX in G. lucidum, and two silenced strains (AOXi6 and AOXi21) were obtained, showing significant decreases of approximately 60 and 50 %, respectively, in alternative pathway respiratory efficiency compared to WT...
September 13, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888950/the-two-faces-of-aldehyde-oxidase-oxidative-and-reductive-transformations-of-5-nitroquinoline
#4
Erickson M Paragas, Sara C Humphreys, Joshua Min, Carolyn A Joswig-Jones, Jeffrey P Jones
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the metabolism of some drugs and drug candidates. AOX catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of substrates including several aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds. AOX is also reported to catalyze the reductive metabolism of nitro-compounds, N-oxides, sulfoxides, isoxazoles, isothiazoles, nitrite and hydroxamic acids. These reductive transformations are not well understood and are generally believed to only occur at low oxygen concentrations...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883650/a-novel-and-stress-adaptive-alternative-oxidase-derived-from-alternative-splicing-of-duplicated-exon-in-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#5
Ming Liu, Ximing Guo
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane oxidase that accepts electrons directly from ubiquinol and reduces oxygen to water without involving cytochrome-linked electron transport chain. It is highly conserved in many non-vertebrate taxa and may protect cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress. We identified two AOX mRNAs in eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, CvAOXA and CvAOXB, which differ by 170 bp but encode AOXs of the same size. Sequence analyses indicate that CvAOX has 10 exons with a tandem duplication of exon 10, and 3' alternative splicing using either the first or second exon 10 produces the two variants CvAOXB or CvAOXA, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877584/influence-of-a-modified-atmosphere-on-the-induction-and-activity-of-respiratory-enzymes-in-broccoli-florets-during-the-early-stage-of-postharvest-storage
#6
Hsiao-Wen Wang, Yoshio Makino, Jun Inoue, Kensaku Maejima, Sachiko Funayama-Noguchi, Takeshi Yamada, Ko Noguchi
Modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere storage (hypoxia conditions) extend shelf lives of horticultural products by depressing the O2 uptake rate. We investigated the relationship between atmospheres and alternative oxidase (AOX) to cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities (on the basis of oxygen isotope discrimination) and the relative amounts of two respiratory enzymes, AOX and COX, during the early stage of storage. Broccoli florets, with high O2 uptake rates, were stored under hypoxia and normoxia at 25 °C...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871550/measurement-of-mitochondrial-respiration-in-isolated-protoplasts-cytochrome-and-alternative-pathways
#7
Bobba Sunil, Agepati S Raghavendra
The electron partitioning between COX and AOX pathways of mitochondria and their coordination is necessary to meet the energy demands as well as to maintain optimized redox status in plants under varying environmental conditions. The relative contribution of these two pathways to total respiration is an important measure during a given stress condition. We describe in detail the procedure that allows the measurement of the parameters of COX and AOX pathway of respiration in mesophyll protoplasts using Clark-type O2 electrode...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871549/laser-capture-microdissection-for-amplification-of-alternative-oxidase-aox-genes-in-target-tissues-in-daucus-carota-l
#8
Carla Ragonezi, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Laser microdissection provides a useful method for isolating specific cell types from complex biological samples for downstream applications. In contrast to the texture of mammalian cells, most plant tissues exhibit a cell organization with hard, cellulose-containing cell walls, large vacuoles, and air spaces, thus complicating tissue preparation and extraction of macromolecules such as DNA. In this study, we report a method that allows tissue-specific gene amplification. An improved perception of genetic identity of the entire plant can contribute to improved functional marker strategies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871548/studying-individual-plant-aox-gene-functionality-in-early-growth-regulation-a-new-approach
#9
Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Vinod Kumar Patil
AOX1 and AOX2 genes are thought to play different physiological roles. Whereas AOX1 is typically expected to associate to stress and growth responses, AOX2 was more often found to be linked to development and housekeeping functions. However, this view is questioned by several adverse observations. For example, co-regulated expression for DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a genes was recently reported during growth induction in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Early expression peaks for both genes during the lag phase of growth coincided with a critical time point for biomass prediction, a result achieved by applying calorespirometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871547/a-step-by-step-protocol-for-classifying-aox-proteins-in-flowering-plants
#10
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
The potential of alternative oxidase (AOX) genes to develop functional markers for plant breeding programs has been emphasized. In this sense, it is essential to have a reliable classification system, which could aid in the selection of candidate AOX genes from different species. In the case of angiosperms AOX, a robust classification system is required because this enzyme is encoded by variable gene numbers (1-6 genes) with variable AOX subfamilies and subtypes. Thus, in this protocol, we present a detailed guideline to application of a classification scheme of AOX based on specific amino acids and phylogeny...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871546/a-driving-bioinformatics-approach-to-explore-co-regulation-of-aox-gene-family-members-during-growth-and-development
#11
José Hélio Costa, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
The alternative oxidase (AOX) gene family is a hot candidate for functional marker development that could help plant breeding on yield stability through more robust plants based on multi-stress tolerance. However, there is missing knowledge on the interplay between gene family members that might interfere with the efficiency of marker development. It is common view that AOX1 and AOX2 have different physiological roles. Nevertheless, both family member groups act in terms of molecular-biochemical function as "typical" alternative oxidases and co-regulation of AOX1 and AOX2 had been reported...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871543/respiration-traits-as-novel-markers-for-plant-robustness-under-the-threat-of-climate-change-a-protocol-for-validation
#12
Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Respiration traits allow calculating temperature-dependent carbon use efficiency and prediction of growth rates. This protocol aims (1) to enable validation of respiration traits as non-DNA biomarkers for breeding on robust plants in support of sustainable and healthy plant production; (2) to provide an efficient, novel way to identify and predict functionality of DNA-based markers (genes, polymorphisms, edited genes, transgenes, genomes, and hologenomes), and (3) to directly help farmers select robust material appropriate for a specified region...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871541/procedures-of-mitochondria-purification-and-gene-expression-to-study-alternative-respiratory-and-uncoupling-pathways-in-fruits
#13
Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira, Luis Miguel Mazorra Morales, Gláucia Michelle Cosme Silva, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Diederson Bortolino Santana, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Marcos Goes Oliveira, José Hélio Costa
We describe detailed procedures to get intact and well-coupled mitochondria from a variety of fruit species such as papaya (Carica papaya), guava (Psidium guajava), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) as well as the protocols to assess the capacities of AOX and UCP pathways in intact fruit mitochondria. The procedures presented here were tested for the species mentioned above; their use with other types of fruits must be tested for yield of intact and active mitochondria. This is possible from individual adjustments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858715/effects-of-chloride-on-pms-based-pollutant-degradation-a-substantial-discrepancy-between-dyes-and-their-common-decomposition-intermediate-phthalic-acid
#14
Ying Huang, Zhaohui Wang, Qingze Liu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Zhijun Yuan, Jianshe Liu
A considerable effort has been devoted to elucidating the roles of chloride in oxidative degradation and chlorination of dyes. However, few investigations are available on kinetic analysis and transformation pathways of secondary degradation byproducts of dyes in saline wastewater treatment. Here the impact of chlorine on the degradation rate of phthalic acid, a typical dye degradation intermediate, by the Co(2+)/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) process was examined. Degradation efficiency, intermediate products, AOX (adsorbable organic halogen) formation and mineralization were considered...
August 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814769/genome-wide-association-studies-for-female-fertility-traits-in-chinese-and-nordic-holsteins
#15
Aoxing Liu, Yachun Wang, Goutam Sahana, Qin Zhang, Lin Liu, Mogens Sandø Lund, Guosheng Su
Reduced female fertility could cause considerable economic loss and has become a worldwide problem in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins using various strategies. First, single-trait association analyses were performed for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins. Second, the SNPs with P-value < 0.005 discovered in Chinese Holsteins were validated in Nordic Holsteins...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791446/key-role-of-alternative-oxidase-in-lovastatin-solid-state-fermentation
#16
Ailed Pérez-Sánchez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice, Javier Barrios-González
Lovastatin is a commercially important secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus, either by solid-state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. In a previous work, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in idiophase positively regulates lovastatin biosynthetic genes. In addition, it has been found that lovastatin-specific production decreases with aeration in solid-state fermentation (SSF). To study this phenomenon, we determined ROS accumulation during lovastatin SSF, under high and low aeration conditions...
August 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772255/salt-responsive-physiological-photosynthetic-and-biochemical-attributes-at-early-seedling-stage-for-screening-soybean-genotypes
#17
D B Shelke, M Pandey, G C Nikalje, B N Zaware, P Suprasanna, T D Nikam
Salt stress affects all the stages of plant growth however seed germination and early seedling growth phases are more sensitive and can be used for screening of crop germplasm. In this study, we aimed to find the most effective indicators of salt tolerance for screening ten genotypes of soybean (SL-295, Gujosoya-2, PS-1042, PK-1029, ADT-1, RKS-18, KDS-344, MAUS-47, Bragg and PK-416). The principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in the formation of three different clusters, salt sensitive (SL-295, Gujosoya-2, PS-1042 and ADT-1), salt tolerant (MAUS-47, Bragg and PK-416) and moderately tolerant/sensitive (RKS-18, PK-1029 and KDS-344) suggesting that there was considerable genetic variability for salt tolerance in the soybean genotypes...
July 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763641/degradation-of-natural-organic-matter-by-uv-chlorine-oxidation-molecular-decomposition-formation-of-oxidation-byproducts-and-cytotoxicity
#18
Wen-Long Wang, Xue Zhang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Ye Du, Hong-Ying Hu
The degradation of natural organic matters (NOMs) by the combination of UV and chlorine (UV/chlorine) was investigated in this study. UV/chlorine oxidation can effectively degrade NOMs, with the degradation of chromophores (∼80%) and fluorophores (76.4-80.8%) being more efficient than that of DOC (15.1-18.6%). This effect was attributed to the chromophores and fluorophores (double bonds, aromatic groups and phenolic groups) being preferentially degraded by UV/chlorine oxidation, particularly reactive groups with high electron donating capacity...
July 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750088/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-causes-enhanced-radical-oxygen-species-production-by-human-aldehyde-oxidase
#19
Alessandro Foti, Frank Dorendorf, Silke Leimkühler
Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdo-flavoenzymes characterized by broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids and hydroxylating various heteroaromatic rings. The enzymes use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and produce reduced oxygen species during turnover. The physiological function of mammalian AOX isoenzymes is still unclear, however, human AOX (hAOX1) is an emerging enzyme in phase-I drug metabolism. Indeed, the number of xenobiotics acting as hAOX1 substrates is increasing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718023/two-year-survey-of-specific-hospital-wastewater-treatment-and-its-impact-on-pharmaceutical-discharges
#20
Laure Wiest, Teofana Chonova, Alexandre Bergé, Robert Baudot, Frédérique Bessueille-Barbier, Linda Ayouni-Derouiche, Emmanuelle Vulliet
It is well known that pharmaceuticals are not completely removed by conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Hospital effluents are of major concern, as they present high concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds. Despite this, these specific effluents are usually co-treated with domestic wastewaters. Separate treatment has been recommended. However, there is a lack of information concerning the efficiency of separate hospital wastewater treatment by activated sludge, especially on the removal of pharmaceuticals...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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