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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427089/editor-s-highlight-exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#1
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
February 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424712/a-functional-approach-towards-understanding-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-an-endomycorrhizal-symbiosis
#2
Louis Mercy, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Amaia Nogales, Areg Poghosyan, Carolin Schneider, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called "second green revolution" by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384519/kefir-alleviates-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-mycobiota-targeted-and-untargeted-community-analysis-with-correlation-of-biomarkers
#3
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Hyunsook Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Jung-Whan Chon, Hong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382032/production-of-chimeric-acidic-%C3%AE-amylase-by-the-recombinant-pichia-pastoris-and-its-applications
#4
Deepak Parashar, Tulasi Satyanarayana
Recombinant chimeric α-amylase (Ba-Gt-amy) has been produced extracellularly in Pichia pastoris under AOX promoter. Clones of P. pastoris with multiple gene copies have been generated by multiple transformations and post-transformational vector amplification, which led to 10.7-fold enhancement in α-amylase titre as compared to a clone with a copy of the gene. The recombinant P. pastoris integrated eight copies of Ba-Gt-amy in the genome of P. pastoris, as revealed by real time PCR data analysis. Heterologous protein expression as well as mRNA level of Ba-Gt-amy was higher in multi-copy clone than that with single copy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373537/structure-metabolism-relationships-in-human-aox-chemical-insights-from-a-large-database-of-aza-aromatic-and-amide-compounds
#5
Susan Lepri, Martina Ceccarelli, Nicolò Milani, Sara Tortorella, Andrea Cucco, Aurora Valeri, Laura Goracci, Andreas Brink, Gabriele Cruciani
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a metabolic enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of aldehyde and aza-aromatic compounds and the hydrolysis of amides, moieties frequently shared by the majority of drugs. Despite its key role in human metabolism, to date only fragmentary information about the chemical features responsible for AOX susceptibility are reported and only "very local" structure-metabolism relationships based on a small number of similar compounds have been developed. This study reports a more comprehensive coverage of the chemical space of structures with a high risk of AOX phase I metabolism in humans...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364801/sulfated-lentinan-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leads-to-programmed-cell-death-of-tobacco-by-2-cells
#6
Jie Wang, Yaofeng Wang, Lili Shen, Yumei Qian, Jinguang Yang, Fenglong Wang
Sulphated lentinan (sLTN) is known to act as a resistance inducer by causing programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. Using tobacco BY-2 cell model, morphological and biochemical studies revealed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to sLNT induced PCD. Cell viability, and HO/PI fluorescence imaging and TUNEL assays confirmed a typical cell death process caused by sLNT...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338762/redox-and-reactive-oxygen-species-network-in-acclimation-for-salinity-tolerance-in-sugar-beet
#7
M Sazzad Hossain, Abdelaleim Ismail ElSayed, Marten Moore, Karl-Josef Dietz
Fine-tuned and coordinated regulation of transport, metabolism and redox homeostasis allows plants to acclimate to osmotic and ionic stress caused by high salinity. Sugar beet is a highly salt tolerant crop plant and is therefore an interesting model to study sodium chloride (NaCl) acclimation in crops. Sugar beet plants were subjected to a final level of 300 mM NaCl for up to 14 d in hydroponics. Plants acclimated to NaCl stress by maintaining its growth rate and adjusting its cellular redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328295/electrochemical-treatment-of-tannery-wastewater-raw-coagulated-and-pretreated-by-aops
#8
Jeremi H Naumczyk, Małgorzata A Kucharska
This study on tannery wastewater treatment showed that indirect electrooxidation by chlorine generated at a Ti/SnO2/PdO2/RuO2 (SPR) anode led to full ammonia removal, and a decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 77.0%. A combined process of coagulation + H2O2/UV + electrooxidation allowed us to achieve a decrease in COD of up to 97.5%. Equations describing the kinetics of the decrease in COD, the relationship between the decrease in COD and current, and the relationship between the current efficiency of COD reduction and the initial concentrations of the reagents were established...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302114/implications-of-evolutionary-engineering-for-growth-and-recombinant-protein-production-in-methanol-based-growth-media-in-the-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#9
Josef W Moser, Roland Prielhofer, Samuel M Gerner, Alexandra B Graf, Iain B H Wilson, Diethard Mattanovich, Martin Dragosits
BACKGROUND: Pichia pastoris is a widely used eukaryotic expression host for recombinant protein production. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) has been applied in a wide range of studies in order to improve strains for biotechnological purposes. In this context, the impact of long-term carbon source adaptation in P. pastoris has not been addressed so far. Thus, we performed a pilot experiment in order to analyze the applicability and potential benefits of ALE towards improved growth and recombinant protein production in P...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277962/oxidative-challenges-of-avian-migration-a-comparative-field-study-on-a-partial-migrant
#10
Cas Eikenaar, Emma Källstig, Martin N Andersson, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Caroline Isaksson
Most avian migrants alternate flight bouts, characterized by high metabolic rates, with stopovers, periods of fuel replenishment through hyperphagia. High-energy metabolism and excessive calorie intake shift the balance between damaging prooxidants and antioxidants toward the former. Hence, migration likely affects the oxidative balance of birds. Migratory flight indeed appears to cause oxidative damage; however, whether migration affects the oxidative state of birds at stopover is unclear. Therefore, we compared total nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (AOX) and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA; a measure of lipid peroxidation) in the plasma of migrant and resident common blackbirds...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263602/aldehyde-oxidase-mediated-metabolism-in-drug-like-molecules-a-combined-computational-and-experimental-study
#11
Yuan Xu, Liang Li, Yulan Wang, Jing Xing, Lei Zhou, Dafang Zhong, Xiaomin Luo, Hualiang Jiang, Kaixian Chen, Mingyue Zheng, Pan Deng, Xiaoyan Chen
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme. However, the current in vitro models for evaluating AOX metabolism are sometimes misleading, and preclinical animal models generally fail to predict human AOX-mediated metabolism. In this study, we report a combined computational and experimental investigation of drug-like molecules that are potential aldehyde oxidase substrates, of which multiple sites of metabolism (SOMs) mediated by AOX and their preferences for the reaction can be unambiguously identified...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254035/aox-contamination-status-and-genotoxicity-of-aox-bearing-pharmaceutical-wastewater
#12
Yawei Xie, Lujun Chen, Rui Liu
Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) are a general indicator for the total amount of compounds containing organically bonded halogens. AOX concentrations and components were investigated along the wastewater treatment process in four large-scale pharmaceutical factories of China, and genotoxicity based on the SOS/umu test was also evaluated. The results showed that AOX concentrations in wastewater of four factories ranged from 4.6 to 619.4mg/L, which were high but greatly different owing to differences in the raw materials and products...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249567/a-reference-gene-set-for-sex-pheromone-biosynthesis-and-degradation-genes-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-based-on-genome-and-transcriptome-digital-gene-expression-analyses
#13
Peng He, Yun-Fei Zhang, Duan-Yang Hong, Jun Wang, Xing-Liang Wang, Ling-Hua Zuo, Xian-Fu Tang, Wei-Ming Xu, Ming He
BACKGROUND: Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide...
March 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237113/assays-to-monitor-pexophagy-in-yeast
#14
W Wang, S Subramani
Pexophagy is a selective autophagy process that degrades damaged and/or superfluous peroxisomes in the yeast vacuole or in mammalian lysosomes. The molecular mechanisms of pexophagy are well studied in yeast. Peroxisomes can be rapidly induced by oleate in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and by oleate or methanol in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. A number of peroxisomal matrix enzymes, such as 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase (thiolase) and alcohol oxidase (AOX), are upregulated correspondingly to meet metabolic demands of the cells...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226194/melatonin-systemically-ameliorates-drought-stress-induced-damage-in-medicago-sativa-plants-by-modulating-nitro-oxidative-homeostasis-and-proline-metabolism
#15
Chrystalla Antoniou, Giannis Chatzimichail, Rafaella Xenofontos, Jan J Pavlou, Evangelia Panagiotou, Anastasis Christou, Vasileios Fotopoulos
Recent reports have uncovered the multifunctional role of melatonin in plant physiological responses under optimal and suboptimal environmental conditions. In this study, we explored whether melatonin pretreatment could provoke priming effects in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants subsequently exposed to prolonged drought stress (7 days), by withholding watering. Results revealed that the rhizospheric application of melatonin (10 μmol L(-1) ) remarkably enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa plants, as evidenced by the observed plant tolerant phenotype, as well as by the higher levels of chlorophyll fluorescence and stomatal conductance, compared with nontreated drought-stressed plants...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193355/a-paper-based-nanomodified-electrochemical-biosensor-for-ethanol-detection-in-beers
#16
Stefano Cinti, Mattia Basso, Danila Moscone, Fabiana Arduini
Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration...
April 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126656/structural-basis-for-the-role-of-mammalian-aldehyde-oxidases-in-the-metabolism-of-drugs-and-xenobiotics
#17
REVIEW
Maria João Romão, Catarina Coelho, Teresa Santos-Silva, Alessandro Foti, Mineko Terao, Enrico Garattini, Silke Leimkühler
Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are molybdo-flavoenzymes characterized by broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes into the corresponding carboxylic acids and hydroxylating various heteroaromatic rings. Mammals are characterized by a complement of species-specific AOX isoenzymes, that varies from one in humans (AOX1) to four in rodents (AOX1, AOX2, AOX3 and AOX4). The physiological function of mammalian AOX isoenzymes is unknown, although human AOX1 is an emerging enzyme in phase-I drug metabolism...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095715/an-overview-of-aldehyde-oxidase-an-enzyme-of-emerging-importance-in-novel-drug-discovery
#18
Mohammad-Reza Rashidi, Somaieh Soltani
Given the rising trend in medicinal chemistry strategy to reduce cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism, aldehyde oxidase (AOX) has recently gained increased attention in drug discovery programs and the number of drug candidates that are metabolized by AOX is steadily growing. Areas covered: Despite the emerging importance of AOX in drug discovery, there are certain major recognized problems associated with AOX-mediated metabolism of drugs. Intra- and inter-species variations in AOX activity, the lack of reliable and predictive animal models using the common experimental animals, and failure in the predictions of in vivo metabolic activity of AOX using traditional in vitro methods are among these issues that are covered in this article...
February 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088750/continuous-minimally-invasive-alcohol-monitoring-using-microneedle-sensor-arrays
#19
A M Vinu Mohan, Joshua Ray Windmiller, Rupesh K Mishra, Joseph Wang
The present work describes an attractive skin-worn microneedle sensing device for the minimally invasive electrochemical monitoring of subcutaneous alcohol. The device consists of an assembly of pyramidal microneedle structures integrated with Pt and Ag wires, each with a microcavity opening. The microneedle aperture was modified by electropolymerizing o-phenylene diamine onto the Pt wire microtransducer, followed by the immobilization of alcohol oxidase (AOx) in an intermediate chitosan layer, along with an outer Nafion layer...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088729/new-insights-into-aox2-transcriptional-regulation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#20
Mariya Ostroukhova, Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Elena Ermilova
A feature of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in plants, some protists and many fungi is the presence of two terminal oxidases, the energy-conserving cytochrome oxidase and another termed alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX branches from the main respiratory chain, directly coupling the oxidation of ubiquinol with reduction of oxygen to water. The AOX genes can be divided into two discrete subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2. Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in stress tolerance of organisms, the role of subfamily AOX2 is largely unknown...
April 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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