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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424712/a-functional-approach-towards-understanding-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-an-endomycorrhizal-symbiosis
#1
Louis Mercy, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Amaia Nogales, Areg Poghosyan, Carolin Schneider, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called "second green revolution" by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421120/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-on-quercus-acuta-thunb-fagaceae-extract-active-constituents-serum-uric-acid-suppression-and-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity
#2
In-Soo Yoon, Dae-Hun Park, Min-Suk Bae, Deuk-Sil Oh, Nan-Hui Kwon, Jung-Eun Kim, Chul-Yung Choi, Seung-Sik Cho
Quercus acuta Thunb. (Fagaceae) (QA) is cultivated as a dietary and ornamental plant in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. It has been widely used as the main ingredient of acorn tofu, a traditional food in China and South Korea. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of an ethyl acetate extract of QA leaf (QALE) and identify its active phytochemicals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC) systems...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420789/structural-and-stereoelectronic-insights-into-oxygenase-catalyzed-formation-of-ethylene-from-2-oxoglutarate
#3
Zhihong Zhang, Tristan J Smart, Hwanho Choi, Florence Hardy, Christopher T Lohans, Martine I Abboud, Melodie S W Richardson, Robert S Paton, Michael A McDonough, Christopher J Schofield
Ethylene is important in industry and biological signaling. In plants, ethylene is produced by oxidation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, as catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Bacteria catalyze ethylene production, but via the four-electron oxidation of 2-oxoglutarate to give ethylene in an arginine-dependent reaction. Crystallographic and biochemical studies on the Pseudomonas syringae ethylene-forming enzyme reveal a branched mechanism. In one branch, an apparently typical 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase reaction to give succinate, carbon dioxide, and sometimes pyrroline-5-carboxylate occurs...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418069/genetic-control-of-plasticity-of-oil-yield-for-combined-abiotic-stresses-using-a-joint-approach-of-crop-modeling-and-genome-wide-association
#4
Brigitte Mangin, Pierre Casadebaig, Eléna Cadic, Nicolas Blanchet, Marie-Claude Boniface, Sébastien Carrère, Jérôme Gouzy, Ludovic Legrand, Baptiste Mayjonade, Nicolas Pouilly, Thierry André, Marie Coque, Joël Piquemal, Marion Laporte, Patrick Vincourt, Stéphane Muños, Nicolas B Langlade
Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting and managing climate change effects on wild plants and crops. Here, we combined crop modeling and quantitative genetics to study the genetic control of oil yield plasticity for multiple abiotic stresses in sunflower. First we developed stress indicators to characterize 14 environments for three abiotic stresses (cold, drought and nitrogen) using the SUNFLO crop model and phenotypic variations of three commercial varieties. The computed plant stress indicators better explain yield variation than descriptors at the climatic or crop levels...
April 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417591/effective-mosquito-and-arbovirus-surveillance-using-metabarcoding
#5
J Batovska, S E Lynch, N O I Cogan, K Brown, J M Darbro, E A Kho, M J Blacket
Effective vector and arbovirus surveillance requires timely and accurate screening techniques that can be easily upscaled. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a high-throughput technology that has the potential to modernise vector surveillance. When combined with DNA barcoding, it is termed 'metabarcoding'. The aim of our study was to establish a metabarcoding protocol to characterise pools of mosquitoes and screen them for virus. Pools contained 100 morphologically identified individuals, including one Ross River virus (RRV) infected mosquito, with three species present at different proportions: 1, 5, 94%...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414919/functional-characterization-of-an-n-terminally-truncated-mitochondrial-porin-expressed-in-i-neurospora-crassa-i
#6
Sabbir Rahman Shuvo, Uliana Kovaltchouk, Abdullah Zubaer, Ayush Kumar, William A T Summers, Lynda J Donald, George Hausner, Deborah A Court
Mitochondrial porin, which forms voltage-dependent anion-selective channels (VDAC) in the outer membrane, can be folded into a 19 β-stranded barrel. The N-terminus of the protein is external to the barrel, and contains α-helical structure. Targeted modifications of the N‑terminal region have been assessed in artificial membranes, leading to different models for gating <i>in vitro</i>. However, the i<i>n vivo</i> requirements for gating and the N-terminal segment of porin are less well-understood...
April 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401754/improving-sample-distribution-homogeneity-in-three-dimensional-microfluidic-paper-based-analytical-devices-by-rational-device-design
#7
Giorgio Gianini Morbioli, Thiago Mazzu-Nascimento, Luis Aparecido Milan, Amanda M Stockton, Emanuel Carrilho
Paper-based devices are a portable, user-friendly, and affordable technology that is one of the best analytical tools for inexpensive diagnostic devices. Three-dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (3D-μPADs) are an evolution of single layer devices and they permit effective sample dispersion, individual layer treatment, and multiplex analytical assays. Here, we present the rational design of a wax-printed 3D-μPAD that enables more homogeneous permeation of fluids along the cellulose matrix than other existing designs in the literature...
April 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392982/comparative-venom-gland-transcriptomics-of-naja-kaouthia-monocled-cobra-from-malaysia-and-thailand-elucidating-geographical-venom-variation-and-insights-into-sequence-novelty
#8
Kae Yi Tan, Choo Hock Tan, Lawan Chanhome, Nget Hong Tan
BACKGROUND: The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) is a medically important venomous snake in Southeast Asia. Its venom has been shown to vary geographically in relation to venom composition and neurotoxic activity, indicating vast diversity of the toxin genes within the species. To investigate the polygenic trait of the venom and its locale-specific variation, we profiled and compared the venom gland transcriptomes of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M) and Thailand (NK-T) applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389654/in-vivo-evidence-of-functional-and-anatomical-stripe-based-subdivisions-in-human-v2-and-v3
#9
Serge O Dumoulin, Ben M Harvey, Alessio Fracasso, Wietske Zuiderbaan, Peter R Luijten, Brian A Wandell, Natalia Petridou
Visual cortex contains a hierarchy of visual areas. The earliest cortical area (V1) contains neurons responding to colour, form and motion. Later areas specialize on processing of specific features. The second visual area (V2) in non-human primates contains a stripe-based anatomical organization, initially defined using cytochrome-oxidase staining of post-mortem tissue. Neurons in these stripes have been proposed to serve distinct functional specializations, e.g. processing of color, form and motion. These stripes represent an intermediate stage in visual hierarchy and serve a key role in the increasing functional specialization of visual areas...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370547/real-time-monitoring-of-enzyme-catalysed-reactions-using-deep-uv-resonance-raman-spectroscopy
#10
Chloe Westley, Heidi Fisk, Yun Xu, Katherine Hollywood, Andrew Carnell, Jason Micklefield, Nicholas Turner, Royston Goodacre
For enzyme-catalysed biotransformations, continuous in situ detection methods minimise the need for sample manipulation, ultimately leading to more accurate real-time kinetic determinations of substrate(s) and product(s). We have established for the first time an on-line, real-time quantitative approach to monitor simultaneously multiple biotransformations based on UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. In order to exemplify the generality and versatility of this approach, multiple substrates and enzyme systems were used involving nitrile hydratase and xanthine oxidase, both of which are of industrial and biological significance, and incorporating multi-step enzymatic conversions...
March 29, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366863/proteomic-and-functional-analyses-reveal-pleiotropic-action-of-the-anti-tumoral-compound-nbdhex-in-giardia-duodenalis
#11
Serena Camerini, Alessio Bocedi, Serena Cecchetti, Marialuisa Casella, Miriam Carbo, Veronica Morea, Edoardo Pozio, Giorgio Ricci, Marco Lalle
Giardiasis, a parasitic diarrheal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis, affects one billion people worldwide. Treatment relies only on a restricted armamentarium of drugs. The disease burden and the increase in treatment failure highlight the need for novel, safe and well characterized drug options. The antitumoral compound NBDHEX is effective in vitro against Giardia trophozoites and inhibits glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Aim of this work was to search for additional NBDHEX protein targets. The intrinsic NBDHEX fluorescence was exploited in a proteomic analysis to select and detect modified proteins in drug treated Giardia...
March 29, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363600/heme-modulates-trypanosoma-cruzi-bioenergetics-inducing-mitochondrial-ros-production
#12
Natália P Nogueira, Francis M S Saraiva, Matheus P Oliveira, Ana Paula M Mendonça, Job D F Inacio, Elmo E Almeida-Amaral, Rubem F Menna-Barreto, Gustavo A T Laranja, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Marcus F Oliveira, Marcia C Paes
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358927/aquaglyceroporin-null-trypanosomes-display-glycerol-transport-defects-and-respiratory-inhibitor-sensitivity
#13
Laura Jeacock, Nicola Baker, Natalie Wiedemar, Pascal Mäser, David Horn
Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs) transport water and glycerol and play important roles in drug-uptake in pathogenic trypanosomatids. For example, AQP2 in the human-infectious African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is responsible for melarsoprol and pentamidine-uptake, and melarsoprol treatment-failure has been found to be due to AQP2-defects in these parasites. To further probe the roles of these transporters, we assembled a T. b. brucei strain lacking all three AQP-genes. Triple-null aqp1-2-3 T. b. brucei displayed only a very moderate growth defect in vitro, established infections in mice and recovered effectively from hypotonic-shock...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356734/therapeutic-effects-of-proteoliposomes-on-x-linked-chronic-granulomatous-disease-proof-of-concept-using-macrophages-differentiated-from-patient-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Julie Brault, Guillaume Vaganay, Aline Le Roy, Jean-Luc Lenormand, Sandra Cortes, Marie José Stasia
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited immunodeficiency due to dysfunction of the phagocytic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex leading to severe and recurrent infections in early childhood. The main genetic form is the X-linked CGD leading to the absence of cytochrome b558 composed of NOX2 and p22 (phox) , the membrane partners of the NADPH oxidase complex. The first cause of death of CGD patients is pulmonary infections. Recombinant proteoliposome-based therapy is an emerging and innovative approach for membrane protein delivery, which could be an alternative local, targeted treatment to fight lung infections in CGD patients...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348471/role-of-allopurinol-in-optimizing-thiopurine-therapy-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Shivani Deswal, Anshu Srivastava
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic immune mediated liver disease characterized by elevated transaminases, hyper gammaglobulinemia, presence of autoantibodies and interface hepatitis in the absence of a known etiology of liver disease. Thiopurines (azathioprine [AZA]/6-mercaptopurine [6MP]) and steroids remain the first line of treatment of AIH in both children and adults. However, a small proportion of AIH patients are either non-responders or develop side effects with AZA. The metabolism of AZA is complex and mediated by multiple enzymes...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346745/emp10-encodes-a-mitochondrial-ppr-protein-that-affects-the-cis-splicing-of-nad2-intron-1-and-seed-development-in-maize
#16
Manjun Cai, L Shuzhen, Feng Sun, Qin Sun, Hailiang Zhao, Xuemei Ren, Yanxin Zhao, Baocai Tan, Zuxin Zhang, Fazhan Qiu
In higher plants, many mitochondrial genes contain group II-type introns that are removed from RNAs by splicing to produce mature transcripts that are then translated into functional proteins. However, the factors involved in the splicing of mitochondrial introns and their biological functions are not well understood in maize. Here, we isolated an empty pericarp 10 (emp10) mutant and identified the underlying gene by map-based cloning. Emp10 encodes a P-type mitochondria-targeted pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with 10 PPR motifs...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338762/redox-and-reactive-oxygen-species-network-in-acclimation-for-salinity-tolerance-in-sugar-beet
#17
M Sazzad Hossain, Abdelaleim Ismail ElSayed, Marten Moore, Karl-Josef Dietz
Fine-tuned and coordinated regulation of transport, metabolism and redox homeostasis allows plants to acclimate to osmotic and ionic stress caused by high salinity. Sugar beet is a highly salt tolerant crop plant and is therefore an interesting model to study sodium chloride (NaCl) acclimation in crops. Sugar beet plants were subjected to a final level of 300 mM NaCl for up to 14 d in hydroponics. Plants acclimated to NaCl stress by maintaining its growth rate and adjusting its cellular redox and reactive oxygen species (ROS) network...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336806/fluorouracil-enhances-photodynamic-therapy-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-a-p53-independent-mechanism-that-increases-protoporphyrin-ix-levels-and-tumor-cell-death
#18
Sanjay Anand, Kishore R Rollakanti, Niokelta Brankov, Douglas E Brash, Tayyaba Hasan, Edward V Maytin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to drive synthesis of protoporphryin IX (PpIX) is a promising, scar-free alternative to surgery for skin cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and SCC precursors called actinic keratoses (AK). In the United States, PDT is only FDA approved for treatment of AK; this narrow range of indications could be broadened if PDT efficacy were improved. Toward that goal, we developed a mechanism-based combination approach using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as a neoadjuvant for ALA-based PDT...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331194/post-treatment-with-ma-huang-tang-ameliorates-cold-warm-cycles-induced-rat-lung-injury
#19
Meng-Meng Xiao, Chun-Shui Pan, Yu-Ying Liu, Li-Qian Ma, Li Yan, Jing-Yu Fan, Chuan-She Wang, Rong Huang, Jing-Yan Han
Frequent and drastic ambient temperature variation may cause respiratory diseases such as common cold and pneumonia, the mechanism for which is not fully understood, however, due to lack of appropriate animal models. Ma-Huang-Tang (MHT) is widely used in China for treatment of respiratory diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of MHT on temperature alternation induced rat lung injury and explore underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a cold environment for 1 h and then shifted to a warm environment for 30 min...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287132/crispr-cas9-generated-p47-phox-deficient-cell-line-for-chronic-granulomatous-disease-gene-therapy-vector-development
#20
Dominik Wrona, Ulrich Siler, Janine Reichenbach
Development of gene therapy vectors requires cellular models reflecting the genetic background of a disease thus allowing for robust preclinical vector testing. For human p47(phox)-deficient chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) vector testing we generated a cellular model using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 to introduce a GT-dinucleotide deletion (ΔGT) mutation in p47(phox) encoding NCF1 gene in the human acute myeloid leukemia PLB-985 cell line. CGD is a group of hereditary immunodeficiencies characterized by impaired respiratory burst activity in phagocytes due to a defective phagocytic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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