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alternative oxidase

N De Neve, B Vlaeminck, F Gadeyne, E Claeys, P Van der Meeren, V Fievez
Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio...
March 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Godwin U Ebiloma, Teresa Díaz Ayuga, Emmanuel O Balogun, Lucía Abad Gil, Anne Donachie, Marcel Kaiser, Tomás Herraiz, Daniel K Inaoka, Tomoo Shiba, Shigeharu Harada, Kiyoshi Kita, Harry P de Koning, Christophe Dardonville
African trypanosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that is still of great public health relevance, and a severe impediment to agriculture in endemic areas. The pathogens possess certain unique metabolic features that can be exploited for the development of new drugs. Notably, they rely on an essential, mitochondrially-localized enzyme, Trypanosome Alternative Oxidase (TAO) for their energy metabolism, which is absent in the mammalian hosts and therefore an attractive target for the design of safe drugs...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ciqiong Chen, Li Long, Fusheng Zhang, Qin Chen, Cheng Chen, Xiaorui Yu, Qingya Liu, Jinku Bao, Zhangfu Long
Curcuma longa possesses powerful antifungal activity, as demonstrated in many studies. In this study, the antifungal spectrum of Curcuma longa alcohol extract was determined, and the resulting EC50 values (mg/mL) of its extract on eleven fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium tricinctum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Rhizopus oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum, were 0...
2018: PloS One
Laura Lopez-Sanz, Susana Bernal, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Ainhoa Oguiza, Ana Melgar, Luna Jimenez-Castilla, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or impaired antioxidant defenses is closely related to the development of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic activation of Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway contributes to diabetic complications by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of endogenous JAK/STAT regulators is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Michael Strupp, Ludwig Kraus, Franz Schautzer, Dan Rujescu
OBJECTIVES: Since oral betahistine has a very high first-pass effect (ca. 99%), metabolized by monoamine oxidases (MAO), the benefits of a high-dosage betahistine monotherapy were compared with those of a lower dosage of betahistine in combination with the MAO-B inhibitor (MAO-B) selegiline on the frequency of acute attacks of vertigo in patients with Menière's disease (MD). METHODS: Thirteen adults aged 40-75 years (mean 58.9 years; six females) had initially been treated with a high dosage of betahistine dihydrochloride for at least 1 year...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Maria S Yusseppone, Iara Rocchetta, Sebastian E Sabatini, Carlos M Luquet, Maria Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Christoph Held, Doris Abele
Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2 /L), hypoxia (2 mg O2 /L), and normoxia (9 mg O2 /L)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Razieh Rabani, Allen Volchuk, Mirjana Jerkic, Lindsay Ormesher, Linda Garces-Ramirez, Johnathan Canton, Claire Masterson, Stephane Gagnon, Kate C Tatham, John Marshall, Sergio Grinstein, John G Laffey, Katalin Szaszi, Gerard F Curley
Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs) have been reported to produce an M2-like, alternatively activated phenotype in macrophages. In addition, MSCs mediate effective bacterial clearance in pre-clinical sepsis models. Thus, MSCs have a paradoxical anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory response that is not understood. Here we studied the phenotypic and functional response of monocyte-derived human macrophages to MSC exposure in vitro MSCs induced two distinct, co-existent phenotypes: M2-like macrophages (generally elongated morphology, CD163 positive, acute phagosomal acidification, low NADPH oxidase expression and low phagosomal superoxide production) and M1-like macrophages, characterised by high levels of phagosomal superoxide production...
March 8, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Hui-Lei Yu, Tuo Li, Fei-Fei Chen, Xiao-Jing Luo, Aitao Li, Chao Yang, Gao-Wei Zheng, Jian-He Xu
Biocatalytic C-H amination is one of the most challenging tasks. C-H amination reaction can hardly be driven efficiently by solely one enzyme so far. Thus, enzymatic synergy represents an alternative strategy. Herein, we report an "Artificially Bioamination Pathway" for C-H amination of cyclohexane as a model substrate. Three enzymes, a monooxygenase P450BM3 mutant, an alcohol dehydrogenase ScCR from Streptomyces coelicolor and an amine dehydrogenase EsLeuDH from Exiguobactertium sibiricum, constituted a clean cascade reaction system with easy product isolation...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Juthika Saikia, Rupak K Sarma, Rajashree Dhandia, Archana Yadav, Rupjyoti Bharali, Vijai K Gupta, Ratul Saikia
The agricultural crops are often affected by the scarcity of fresh water. Seasonal drought is a major constraint on Northeast Indian agriculture. Almost 80% of the agricultural land in this region is acidic and facing severe drought during the winter period. Apart from classical breeding and transgenic approaches, the application of plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is an alternative strategy for improving plant fitness under stressful conditions. The 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-producing PGPB offer drought stress tolerance by regulating plant ethylene levels...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isabel Velada, Dariusz Grzebelus, Diana Lousa, Cláudio M Soares, Elisete Santos Macedo, Augusto Peixe, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Hélia G Cardoso
Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Casley Borges de Queiroz, Mateus Ferreira Santana, Pedro M Pereira Vidigal, Marisa Vieira de Queiroz
Fungi of the genus Colletotrichum are economically important and are used as models in plant-pathogen interaction studies. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes of two Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates were sequenced and compared with the mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Colletotrichum. The mitochondrial genome of C. lindemuthianum is a typical circular molecule 37,446 bp (isolate 89 A 2 2-3) and 37,440 bp (isolate 83.501) in length. The difference of six nucleotides between the two genomes is the result of a deletion in the ribosomal protein S3 (rps3) gene in the 83...
February 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Allison G Hays, Micaela Iantorno, Michael Schär, Shenghan Lai, Matthew Czarny, Elayne Breton, Robert N Palmer, Andrew Whelton, Robert G Weiss, Gary Gerstenblith
BACKGROUND: The xanthine oxidase (XO) system is a significant source of vascular oxidative stress, which is believed to impair endothelial function, an important contributor to atherosclerotic disease. We tested whether febuxostat, a potent XO inhibitor, improves coronary endothelial function (CEF) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. METHODS: CEF was measured using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of changes in 30 patients with stable CAD and baseline impaired CEF...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
Iraj Hashemzadeh Segherloo, Eric Normandeau, Laura Benestan, Clément Rougeux, Guillaume Coté, Jean-Sébastien Moore, NabiAllah Ghaedrahmati, Asghar Abdoli, Louis Bernatchez
Two blind Iran cave barbs, Garra typhlops and Garra lorestanensis, exist in sympatry in a single subterranean habitat, raising the hypothesis that they may represent a case of sympatric speciation following a colonization event. Their different mental disc forms have prompted some authors to propose the alternative hypothesis of two separate colonization events. In this study, we analysed a genome-wide panel of 11,257 SNPs genotyped by means of genotyping-by-sequencing combined with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase sub-unit I sequence data, field observations and morphological traits to test these two hypotheses...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Laura Tibério de Jesus, Thiago Soares Leite, Marcelo Cristianini
The present study evaluated the effect of high isostatic pressure (HIP) on the activity of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from açaí. Açaí pulp was submitted to several combinations of pressure (400, 500, 600MPa), temperature (25 and 65°C) for 5 and 15min. The combined effect of HIP technology and high temperatures (690MPa by 2 and 5min at 80°C) was also investigated and compared to the conventional thermal treatment (85°C/1min). POD and PPO enzyme activity and instrumental color were examined after processing and after 24h of refrigerated storage...
March 2018: Food Research International
Crystal Sweetman, Kathleen L Soole, Colin L D Jenkins, David A Day
Mitochondria isolated from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) possess substantial alternative oxidase (AOX) activity, even in non-stressed plants, and one or two AOX protein bands were detected immunologically, depending on the organ. Four different AOX isoforms were identified in the chickpea genome: CaAOX1 and CaAOX2A, B and D. CaAOX2A was the most highly expressed form and was strongly expressed in photosynthetic tissues, while CaAOX2D was found in all organs examined. These results are very similar to those of previous studies with soybean and siratro (Kearns et al...
February 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Chunyu Liu, Jessica L Fetterman, Poching Liu, Yan Luo, Martin G Larson, Ramachandran S Vasan, Jun Zhu, Daniel Levy
Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and age-related conditions. But little is known about the molecular basis for this connection. A possible cause may be mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are often heteroplasmic-the joint presence of different alleles at a single locus in the same individual. However, the involvement of mtDNA heteroplasmy in aging and age-related conditions has not been investigated thoroughly. We deep-sequenced the complete mtDNA genomes of 356 Framingham Heart Study participants (52% women, mean age 43, mean coverage 4570-fold), identified 2880 unique mutations and comprehensively annotated them by MITOMAP and PolyPhen-2...
February 8, 2018: Human Genetics
Allison E McDonald, Dmytro V Gospodaryov
The electron transport systems in mitochondria of many organisms contain alternative respiratory enzymes distinct from those of the canonical respiratory system depicted in textbooks. Two of these enzymes, the alternative NADH dehydrogenase and the alternative oxidase, were of interest to a limited circle of researchers until they were envisioned as gene therapy tools for mitochondrial disease treatment. Recently, these enzymes were discovered in several animals. Here, we analyse the functioning of alternative NADH dehydrogenases and oxidases in different organisms...
February 6, 2018: Mitochondrion
Koji Narita, Atsushi Minami, Taro Ozaki, Chengwei Liu, Motoichiro Kodama, Hideaki Oikawa
Total biosynthesis of (-)-terpestacin was achieved by heterologous expression of four biosynthetic enzyme genes (tpcA-D) in Aspergillus oryzae. After construction of preterpestacin I by the action of bifunctional terpene synthase (TpcA), two cytochrome P450s (TpcBC) activate inert C-H bond to install three hydroxyl groups on the A-ring in stereo- and regioselective manners. Subsequently, a flavin-dependent oxidase (TpcD) catalyzes oxidation of the vicinal diol moiety to give a α-diketone, which undergoes an enolization to furnish terpestacin...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Padmaja Venkatakrishnan, Samir Benlekbir, Chang Sun, Sangjin Hong, Jonathan Hosler, John Rubinstein, Robert B Gennis
Alternative Complex III (ACIII) is a functional homolog of the bc1 complex that catalyzes quinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity but has no structural similarities with the bc1 complex. In this work, we characterize the ACIII from the mesophile Flavobacterium johnsoniae, and isolate it as part of a supercomplex with the cytochrome aa3 oxygen reductase. We have solubilized and purified the supercomplex using a styrene maleic acid (SMA) copolymer that forms nanodiscs containing the entire supercomplex. The SMA nanodiscs are stable and are useful for various structural studies with the supercomplex including EPR spectroscopy and electron cryomicroscopy...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Eliana Buenaventura, César Valverde-Castro, Marta Wolff, Omar Triana-Chavez, Andrés Gómez-Palacio
The first step for a successful use of any insect as indicator in forensic sciences is providing a precise taxonomic identification at species level. Due to morphology-based identification of Sarcophaginae flies (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) is often difficult and requires strong taxonomic expertise, their use as forensic indicators has been limited. Consequently, molecular-based approaches have been accepted as alternative means of identification. Thus, we aimed testing the efficiency of the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for identification of synanthropic flesh flies of several species of the genera Peckia, Oxysarcodexia, Ravinia, and Tricharaea collected in Colombia...
February 3, 2018: Acta Tropica
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