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alternative oxidase

Yun Xie, Zhanchao Li, Jian Zhou
The Hamiltonian replica exchange Monte Carlo (H-REMC) algorithm was applied to study protein adsorption and its performance was compared with that of the temperature replica exchange Monte Carlo (T-REMC). Comparisons indicate that the simulation results are consistent but the computational efficiency is improved for H-REMC. H-REMC could accurately and efficiently identify the preferred orientations of glucose oxidase (GOx) on charged surfaces; different preferential GOx orientations on different surfaces and solution conditions could be spotted with a much fewer number of simulation runs...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anne K Dunn
Alternative oxidase (Aox) is a non-energy conserving respiratory oxidase found in certain eukaryotes and bacteria, whose role in physiology is not entirely clear. Using the genetically tractable bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model organism, we have identified a role for Aox to reduce levels of stress in cells exposed to oxygen and nitric oxide (NO). In V. fischeri lacking the NO-detoxifying enzyme flavohemoglobin (Hmp), deletion of aox in cells grown in the presence of oxygen and NO results in alterations to the transcriptome that include increases in transcripts mapping to stress-related genes...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Jaime Kulisevsky, Lais Oliveira, Susan H Fox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in therapeutics for motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroprotection remains a large area of investigation with preliminary safety data on alpha synuclein immunotherapy and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists. Novel Monoamine Oxidase B and Caetchol-O-methyltransferase-inhibitors for motor fluctuations have shown benefit and are recently approved for clinical use. Long-acting amantadine has also been approved to reduce dyskinesia...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ellen L Robb, Andrew R Hall, Tracy A Prime, Simon Eaton, Marten Szibor, Carlo Viscomi, Andrew M James, Michael P Murphy
The generation of mitochondrial superoxide (O2 •- ) by reverse electron transport (RET) at complex I causes oxidative damage in pathologies such as ischemia reperfusion injury, but also provides the precursor to H2 O2 production in physiological mitochondrial redox signaling. Here, we quantified the factors that determine mitochondrial O2 •- production by RET in isolated heart mitochondria. Measuring mitochondrial H2 O2 production at a range of Δp values and for several CoQ and NADH pool redox states obtained with the uncoupler p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, we show that O2 •- production by RET responds to changes in O2 concentration, the magnitude of the proton-motive force (Δp), and the redox states of the coenzyme Q (CoQ) and NADH pools...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jennifer Senkler, Nils Rugen, Holger Eubel, Jan Hegermann, Hans-Peter Braun
The mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which is based on the presence of five protein complexes, is in the very center of cellular ATP production. Complexes I to IV are components of the respiratory electron transport chain that drives proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by complex V (the ATP synthase complex) for the phosphorylation of ADP. Occurrence of complexes I to V is highly conserved in eukaryotes, with exceptions being restricted to unicellular parasites that take up energy-rich compounds from their hosts...
April 27, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Andrew E Maclean, Alexander P Hertle, Joanna Ligas, Ralph Bock, Janneke Balk, Etienne H Meyer
Parasitism is a life history strategy found across all domains of life whereby nutrition is obtained from a host. It is often associated with reductive evolution of the genome, including loss of genes from the organellar genomes [1, 2]. In some unicellular parasites, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) has been lost entirely, with far-reaching consequences for the physiology of the organism [3, 4]. Recently, mitogenome sequences of several species of the hemiparasitic plant mistletoe (Viscum sp.) have been reported [5, 6], revealing a striking loss of genes not seen in any other multicellular eukaryotes...
April 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Tong Zhu, Lijuan Zou, Yan Li, Xiuhong Yao, Fei Xu, Xingguang Deng, Dawei Zhang, Honghui Lin
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is involved in a large number of plant physiological processes, such as growth, development and stress responses; however, the exact role of AOX in response to drought remains unclear. In our study, we provide solid evidences that the activated AOX capacity positively involved in ethylene-induced drought tolerance, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), accompanied by the changing level of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and autophagy. In AOX1a-RNAi plants, the ethylene-induced drought tolerance was aggravated and associated with decreasing level of autophagy...
May 4, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Kai Kai Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Hui Jie Chen, Jia Qi Ni, Xiao Fan Jiang, Fa di Chen, Wei Min Fang
The chrysanthemum black spot caused by Alternaria alternata significantly reduced the quality and yield of chrysanthemum. The crude toxin secreted by A. alternata in the metabolic process have elopathic effects on plants, which is the main pathogenic factor for the occurrence of chrysanthemum black spot. The pathogenic fungi A. alternate was isolated from chrysanthemum black spot leaves, The effects of crude toxin on plant height, stem diameter, root length, resistant material content, membrane relative permeability, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in different treatments of chrysanthemum 'Jinba' seedlings were investigated...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Daniela Mennerich, Sakari Kellokumpu, Thomas Kietzmann
SIGNIFICANCE: Eukaryotic cells execute various functions in subcellular compartments or organelles for which cellular redox homeostasis is of importance. Apart from mitochondria, hypoxia and stress mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to modulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA) functions. Recent Advances: Research during the last decade has improved our understanding of disulfide bond formation, protein glycosylation and secretion as well as pH and redox homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus (GA)...
May 2, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yves M Galante, Luca Merlini, Tiziana Silvetti, Paola Campia, Bianca Rossi, Fiorenza Viani, Milena Brasca
New biomaterials from renewable sources and the development of "functionalized biopolymers" are fields of growing industrial interest. Plant polysaccharides represent a valid alternative to traditional synthetic polymers, which are obtained from monomers of fossil, non-renewable origin. Several polysaccharides, either in their natural or chemically/biochemically modified forms, are currently employed in the biomedical, food and feed, and industrial fields, including packaging. Sustainable biochemical reactions, such as enzyme modifications of polysaccharides, open further possibilities for new product and process innovation...
April 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fabio Gervasi, Patrizia Ferrante, Maria Teresa Dettori, Marco Scortichini, Ignazio Verde
Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) is a major threat to Prunus species worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of peach resistance to Xap during early leaf infection were investigated by RNA-Seq analysis of two Prunus persica cultivars, 'Redkist' (resistant), and 'JH Hale' (susceptible) at 30 minutes, 1 and 3 hours-post-infection (hpi). Both cultivars exhibited extensive modulation of gene expression at 30 mpi, which reduced significantly at 1 hpi, increasing again at 3 hpi. Overall, 714 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in 'Redkist' (12% at 30 mpi and 1 hpi and 88% at 3 hpi)...
2018: PloS One
Elizabeth Elliot-Portal, Sofien Laouafa, Christian Arias-Reyes, Tara Adele Janes, Vincent Joseph, Jorge Soliz
Study Objectives: Based on the fact that erythropoietin (Epo) administration in rodents protects against spatial learning and cognitive deficits induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-mediated oxidative damage, here we tested the hypothesis that Epo in the brain protects against cardiorespiratory disorders and oxidative stress induced by CIH in adult mice. Methods: Adult control and transgenic mice overexpressing Epo in the brain only (Tg21) were exposed to CIH (21%-10% O2-10 cycles/hour-8 hours/day-7 days) or room air...
April 25, 2018: Sleep
Chang Sun, Samir Benlekbir, Padmaja Venkatakrishnan, Yuhang Wang, Sangjin Hong, Jonathan Hosler, Emad Tajkhorshid, John L Rubinstein, Robert B Gennis
Alternative complex III (ACIII) is a key component of the respiratory and/or photosynthetic electron transport chains of many bacteria1-3 . Like complex III (also known as the bc1 complex), ACIII catalyses the oxidation of membrane-bound quinol and the reduction of cytochrome c or an equivalent electron carrier. However, the two complexes have no structural similarity4-7 . Although ACIII has eluded structural characterization, several of its subunits are known to be homologous to members of the complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) superfamily 8 , including the proton pump polysulfide reductase9,10 ...
April 25, 2018: Nature
Ji Hye Park, Sang Eon Shin, Kwang Soo Ko, Seong Hwan Park
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is paramount in modern forensic investigation. After the disappearance of the early postmortem phenomena conventionally used to estimate PMI, entomologic evidence provides important indicators for PMI estimation. The age of the oldest fly larvae or pupae can be estimated to pinpoint the time of oviposition, which is considered the minimum PMI (PMImin ). The development rate of insects is usually temperature dependent and species specific. Therefore, species identification is mandatory for PMImin estimation using entomological evidence...
2018: BioMed Research International
Ákos P Molnár, Zoltán Németh, Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Nancy P Keller, Levente Karaffa
Aspergillus nidulans has one gene for alternative oxidase (EC To investigate the relationship between this mitochondrial terminal oxidase and the formation of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin, the encoding aodA gene was both deleted and overexpressed. Relative to the wild-type, the cyanide-resistant fraction of respiration in the late stationary stage—when sterigmatocystin production occurs—doubled in the overexpressing mutant carrying three aodA gene copies, but decreased to 10% in the deletant...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
Jennifer Selinski, Renate Scheibe, David A Day, James Whelan
The alternative pathway of mitochondrial electron transport, which terminates in the alternative oxidase (AOX), uncouples oxidation of substrate from mitochondrial ATP production, yet plant performance is improved under adverse growth conditions. AOX is regulated at different levels. Identification of regulatory transcription factors shows that Arabidopsis thaliana AOX1a is under strong transcriptional suppression. At the protein level, the primary structure is not optimised for activity. Maximal activity requires the presence of various metabolites, such as tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates that act in an isoform-specific manner...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Jing Wu, Xiangchen Fan, Jia Liu, Qiuling Luo, Jisi Xu, Xiulai Chen
Enzymatic transformation is now an attractive alternative for α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) production, but the oxidative deamination from L-glutamic acid to α-KG is along with H2 O2 accumulation. To remove the effect of H2 O2 on α-KG production, in vitro cascade biocatalysis was designed using the purified L-glutamate oxidase (LGOX) from Streptomyces ghanaensis and catalase (KatG) from Escherichia coli W3110, and the optimal ratio of LGOX:KatG (2.0:1250) was detected in this system. To achieve this ratio, in vivo cascade biocatalysis was constructed by varying promoters and ribosome binding sites (RBSs), and optimized by promoter engineering, such as adjusting the junctions between the SD sequence and start codon ATG and tuning the strengths of RBSs...
April 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chun Xiao Sun, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
Hypocrellin A (HA) is a major bioactive perylenequinone from the fruiting body of Shiraia bambusicola used for the treatment of skin diseases and developed as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent against cancers and viruses. The mycelial culture of S. bambusicola under dark is a biotechnological alternative for HA production but with low yield. In this study, light and dark conditions were investigated to develop effective elicitation on HA production in the cultures. Our results showed the constant light at 200 lx stimulated HA production without any growth retardation of mycelia...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Juan Carlos Salazar-Sánchez, Alberto Morales-Villagrán, Silvia Josefina López-Pérez, Kenia Pardo-Peña, Fridha Villalpando-Vargas, Laura Medina-Ceja
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a well-known neurotransmitter that regulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system and participates in several processes outside the brain. A reliable quantification method is needed to determine its role in different physiological and pathological conditions. However, GABA measurements have several challenges because GABA is neither fluorescent nor electroactive, and it is difficult to detect using enzymatic reactions because no oxidases or dehydrogenases have been identified...
April 13, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Aleksandra Maria Staszak, Witold Nowak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Mitochondrial responses under drought within Brassica genus are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate mitochondrial biogenesis of three cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) cultivars with varying drought tolerance. Diverse quantitative changes (decreases in abundance mostly) in the mitochondrial proteome were assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Respiratory (e.g., complex II, IV (CII, CIV) and ATP synthase subunits), transporter (including diverse porin isoforms) and matrix multifunctional proteins (e...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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