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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807315/genetic-homogeneity-of-fascioloides-magna-in-austria
#1
Christian Husch, Helmut Sattmann, Christoph Hörweg, Josef Ursprung, Julia Walochnik
The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804451/behavioral-changes-over-time-following-ayahuasca-exposure-in-zebrafish
#2
Robson Savoldi, Daniel Polari, Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila F Silva, Bruno Lobao-Soares, Mauricio Yonamine, Fulvio A M Freire, Ana C Luchiari
The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801230/a-mitochondrial-proteomics-view-of-complex-i-deficiency-in-candida-albicans
#3
Xiaodong She, Pengyi Zhang, Ying Gao, Lulu Zhang, Qiong Wang, Hui Chen, Richard Calderone, Weida Liu, Dongmei Li
Proteomic analyses were carried out on isolated mitochondrial samples of C. albicans from gene-deleted mutants (nuo1Δ, nuo2Δ and goa1Δ) as well as the parental strain in order to better understand the contribution of these three fungal-specific mitochondrial ETC complex I (CI) subunits to cellular activities. Herein, we identify 2333 putative proteins from four strains, in which a total of 663 proteins (28.5%) are putatively located in mitochondria. Comparison of protein abundances between mutants and the parental strain reveal 146 differentially-expressed proteins, of which 78 are decreased and 68 are increased in at least one mutant...
August 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791446/key-role-of-alternative-oxidase-in-lovastatin-solid-state-fermentation
#4
Ailed Pérez-Sánchez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice, Javier Barrios-González
Lovastatin is a commercially important secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus, either by solid-state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. In a previous work, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in idiophase positively regulates lovastatin biosynthetic genes. In addition, it has been found that lovastatin-specific production decreases with aeration in solid-state fermentation (SSF). To study this phenomenon, we determined ROS accumulation during lovastatin SSF, under high and low aeration conditions...
August 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782586/breaking-the-mirror-l-amino-acid-deaminase-a-novel-stereoselective-biocatalyst
#5
REVIEW
Gianluca Molla, Roberta Melis, Loredano Pollegioni
Enantiomerically pure amino acids are of increasing interest for the fine chemical, agrochemicals and pharmaceutical industries. During past years l-amino acids have been produced from deracemization of dl-solution employing the stereoselective flavoenzyme d-amino acid oxidase. On the other hand, the isolation of corresponding d-isomer was hampered by the scarce availability of a suitable l-amino acid oxidase activity. On this side, l-amino acid deaminase (LAAD), only present in the Proteus bacteria, represents a suitable alternative...
August 3, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769963/tissue-specific-floral-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-sexually-deceptive-orchid-chiloglottis-trapeziformis-provides-insights-into-the-biosynthesis-and-regulation-of-its-unique-uv-b-dependent-floral-volatile-chiloglottone-1
#6
Darren C J Wong, Ranamalie Amarasinghe, Claudia Rodriguez-Delgado, Rodney Eyles, Eran Pichersky, Rod Peakall
The Australian sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, employs a unique UV-B-dependent floral volatile, chiloglottone 1, for specific male wasp pollinator attraction. Chiloglottone 1 and related variants (2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones), represent a unique class of specialized metabolites presumed to be the product of cyclization between two fatty acid (FA) precursors. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors, intermediates, and transcriptional regulation remains to be discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762173/methylene-blue-and-its-analogues-as-antidepressant-compounds
#7
REVIEW
Anzelle Delport, Brian H Harvey, Anél Petzer, Jacobus P Petzer
Methylene Blue (MB) is considered to have diverse medical applications and is a well-described treatment for methemoglobinemias and ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy. In recent years the focus has shifted to MB as an antimalarial agent and as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Of interest are reports that MB possesses antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in pre-clinical models and has shown promise in clinical trials for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MB is a noteworthy inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), which is a well-established target for antidepressant action...
July 31, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754203/arsenic-inorganic-compounds-cause-oxidative-stress-mediated-by-the-transcription-factor-pho4-in-candida-albicans
#8
Verónica Urrialde, Begoña Alburquerque, José Pedro Guirao-Abad, Jesús Pla, Juan Carlos Argüelles, Rebeca Alonso-Monge
Arsenic is a toxic metalloid widespread in nature. Recently, it has been demonstrated a main role of the transcription factor Pho4 in the acquisition of tolerance to arsenic-derived compounds, arsenite and arsenate in Candida albicans. Here, the effect of these compounds on this pathogenic yeast has been analyzed. In wild type cells, both arsenite and arsenate induced a marked increase in the endogenous production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), together with the accumulation of intracellular trehalose and the activation of catalase, suggesting their role as generators of oxidative stress in this yeast...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753257/caffeic-acid-attenuates-the-inflammatory-stress-induced-by-glycated-ldl-in-human-endothelial-cells-by-mechanisms-involving-inhibition-of-age-receptor-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#9
Laura Toma, Gabriela M Sanda, Loredan S Niculescu, Mariana Deleanu, Camelia S Stancu, Anca V Sima
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a worldwide epidemic and its atherosclerotic complications determine the high morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients. Caffeic acid (CAF), a phenolic acid present in normal diets, is known for its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate CAF's anti-inflammatory properties and its mechanism of action, using cultured human endothelial cells (HEC) incubated with glycated low-density lipoproteins (gLDL). Levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), inflammatory stress markers (C reactive protein, CRP; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, VCAM-1; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1), and oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) markers were evaluated in gLDL-exposed HEC, in the presence/absence of CAF...
July 28, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752634/characterization-of-biomimetic-cofactors-according-to-stability-redox-potentials-and-enzymatic-conversion-by-nadh-oxidase-from-lactobacillus-pentosus
#10
Claudia Nowak, André Pick, Lénárd-István Csepei, Volker Sieber
Oxidoreductases are attractive biocatalysts that convert achiral substrates to products of higher value but are also for the most part dependent on nicotinamide cofactors. Recently, biomimetic nicotinamide derivatives have received attention as less costly alternatives to natural cofactors. However, recycling of biomimetics is still challenging since there are only limited opportunities. Here, we characterized various biomimetic cofactors in regard of stability and redox potentials to find the best alternative for natural cofactors...
July 27, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744316/the-antidepressant-and-cognitive-improvement-activities-of-the-traditional-chinese-herb-cistanche
#11
Dongfang Wang, Haizhen Wang, Li Gu
More than ten percent of people suffer from at least one episode of depression and related mental disorders in a lifetime, and depression and related mental disorders are one of the world's greatest public health problems. A multiple system theory holds that dysregulation of the multiple systems underlies the pathogenesis of depression and related mental disorders, and new therapies based on the multiple system dysregulation theory are urgently needed. In this study, the antidepressant effect of decoction from herb Cistanche deserticola Y...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742096/insecticide-resistance-is-mediated-by-multiple-mechanisms-in-recently-introduced-aedes-aegypti-from-madeira-island-portugal
#12
Gonçalo Seixas, Linda Grigoraki, David Weetman, José Luís Vicente, Ana Clara Silva, João Pinto, John Vontas, Carla Alexandra Sousa
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector of arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. In 2005, Ae. aegypti was identified for the first time in Madeira Island. Despite an initial insecticide-based vector control program, the species expanded throughout the Southern coast of the island, suggesting the presence of insecticide resistance. Here, we characterized the insecticide resistance status and the underlying mechanisms of two populations of Ae. aegypti from Madeira Island, Funchal and Paúl do Mar...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737709/regulation-and-modulation-of-human-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-activity-and-function
#13
REVIEW
Marietta Y W T Lee, Xiaoxiao Wang, Sufang Zhang, Zhongtao Zhang, Ernest Y C Lee
This review focuses on the regulation and modulation of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). The emphasis is on the mechanisms that regulate the activity and properties of Pol δ in DNA repair and replication. The areas covered are the degradation of the p12 subunit of Pol δ, which converts it from a heterotetramer (Pol δ4) to a heterotrimer (Pol δ3), in response to DNA damage and also during the cell cycle. The biochemical mechanisms that lead to degradation of p12 are reviewed, as well as the properties of Pol δ4 and Pol δ3 that provide insights into their functions in DNA replication and repair...
July 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735145/metabolic-gene-targeted-monitoring-of-non-starter-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-cheese-ripening
#14
Alessia Levante, Francesca De Filippis, Antonietta La Storia, Monica Gatti, Erasmo Neviani, Danilo Ercolini, Camilla Lazzi
Long ripened cheeses, such as Grana Padano (GP), a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Italian cheese, harbor a viable microbiota mainly composed of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which contribute to the final characteristics of cheese. The NSLAB species Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lb. casei and Lb. paracasei are frequently found in GP, and form a closely related taxonomic group (Lb. casei group), making it difficult to distinguish the three species through 16S rRNA sequencing. SpxB, a metabolic gene coding for pyruvate oxidase in Lb...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734268/dna-barcoding-allows-identification-of-european-fanniidae-diptera-of-forensic-interest
#15
Andrzej Grzywacz, Dominika Wyborska, Marcin Piwczyński
In forensic entomology practice, species identification is a prerequisite for any further analysis of collected material. Although morphology-based taxonomy may be hindered by a range of factors, these are not obstacles for a molecular identification approach, so-called DNA barcoding. The Fanniidae are a dipteran family that is attracted to and breeds in decomposing animal carrion and dead human bodies. However, morphological identification of fanniids, both at adult and immature stages, is considered to be difficult, particularly for non-experts...
June 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727032/probiotic-supplementation-protects-weaned-pigs-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-k88-challenge-and-improves-performance-similar-to-antibiotics
#16
L Pan, P F Zhao, X K Ma, Q H Shang, Y T Xu, S F Long, Y Wu, F M Yuan, X S Piao
These studies evaluated the effects of probiotics (PB) as a potential substitute for antibiotics (AB) on diarrhea in relation to immune responses and intestinal health in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic (ETEC) K88 (Exp. 1) and the effects of PB on performance and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, 24 weaned barrows (4.9 ± 0.4 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments consisted of pigs fed an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet and not challenged (NON-C) or challenged with ETEC K88 (CHA-C) on d 9 and pigs fed the same basal diet supplemented with AB (100 mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 50 mg/kg colistin sulfate, and 100 mg/kg olaquindox; CHA-AB) or 500 mg/kg PB ( and ; CHA-PB) and challenged with ETEC K88 on d 9...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718955/an-electrochemiluminescent-method-for-glutamate-measurement-in-small-microdialysate-samples-in-asphyxiated-young-rats
#17
Jorge Ortega-Ibarra, Silvia López-Pérez, Alberto Morales-Villagrán
Glutamate (Glu) quantification has been performed by a combination of intracerebral microdialysis through which the samples are obtained and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); its measurement requires a large expenditure of time (15-30 min per sample) and special training. Therefore, an alternative method is presented here, based on the electrochemiluminescence produced by the use of an enzymatic reactor, containing glutamate-oxidase, mixed and incubated with microdialysate from dorsal striatum (DS) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of young rats asphyxiated during the neonatal period, under a global asphyxia model in order to test this method...
July 18, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715473/population-and-colony-structure-and-morphometrics-in-the-queen-dimorphic-little-black-ant-monomorium-sp-az-02-with-a-review-of-queen-phenotypes-in-the-genus-monomorium
#18
Robert A Johnson, Rick P Overson
The North American little black ant, Monomorium sp. AZ-02 (subfamily Myrmicinae), displays a dimorphism that consists of alate (winged) and ergatoid (wingless) queens. Surveys at our field site in southcentral Arizona, USA, demonstrated that only one queen phenotype (alate or ergatoid) occurred in each colony during the season in which reproductive sexuals were produced. A morphometric analysis demonstrated that ergatoid queens retained all specialized anatomical features of alate queens (except for wings), and that they were significantly smaller and had a lower mass than alate queens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713355/respiratory-pathways-reconstructed-by-multi-omics-analysis-in-melioribacter-roseus-residing-in-a-deep-thermal-aquifer-of-the-west-siberian-megabasin
#19
Sergey Gavrilov, Olga Podosokorskaya, Dmitry Alexeev, Alexander Merkel, Maria Khomyakova, Maria Muntyan, Ilya Altukhov, Ivan Butenko, Elizaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Vadim Govorun, Ilya Kublanov
Melioribacter roseus, a representative of recently proposed Ignavibacteriae phylum, is a metabolically versatile thermophilic bacterium, inhabiting subsurface biosphere of the West-Siberian megabasin and capable of growing on various substrates and electron acceptors. Genomic analysis followed by inhibitor studies and membrane potential measurements of aerobically grown M. roseus cells revealed the activity of aerobic respiratory electron transfer chain comprised of respiratory complexes I and IV, and an alternative complex III...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703274/pterostilbene-reduces-oxidative-stress-prevents-hypertrophy-and-preserves-systolic-function-of-right-ventricle-in-cor-pulmonale-model
#20
Denise Dos Santos Lacerda, Patrick Türck, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Rafael Colombo, Vanessa Duarte Ortiz, Jéssica Hellen Poletto Bonetto, Cristina Campos-Carraro, Sara Elis Bianchi, Adriane Belló-Klein, Valquiria LinckBassani, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In cor pulmonale, the increased afterload imposed on the right ventricle (RV) generates a maladaptive response, impairing the contractile cardiac function. Oxidative mechanisms play an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. The administration of pterostilbene (PTS), a phyto-phenol with antioxidant potential, may represent a therapeutic alternative. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PTS complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) on hypertrophy, contractile function and oxidative parameters in the RV of rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline administration...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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