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alternative oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918276/phytoremediation-of-soil-co-contaminated-with-cd-and-bde-209-using-hyperaccumulator-enhanced-by-am-fungi-and-surfactant
#1
Hui Li, Xing Li, Lei Xiang, Hai Ming Zhao, Yan Wen Li, Quan Ying Cai, Li Zhu, Ce Hui Mo, Ming Hung Wong
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the uptake and translocation of both Cd and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in Solanum nigrum, under the treatments of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [AMF, Funneliformis mosseae (FM) and Rhizophagus intraradices (RI)] and surfactant β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Results showed that S. nigrum treated with either FM or β-CD significantly elevated shoot biomass and Cd concentrations and contents in shoots. The concentrations of BDE-209 in shoots and the dissipation and debromination efficiencies of BDE-209 in soil were significantly enhanced in S...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910702/respiratory-atp-cost-and-benefit-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-with-nicotiana-tabacum-at-different-growth-stages-and-under-salinity
#2
Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Antonia Romero-Munar, David Alonso, Ricardo Aroca, Elena Baraza, Jaume Flexas, Miquel Ribas-Carbo
Growth and maintenance partly depend on both respiration and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation in leaves. Under stress, ATP is needed to maintain the accumulated biomass. ATP production mostly proceeds from the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP), while respiration via the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) may decrease the production of ATP per oxygen consumed, especially under phosphorus (P) limitation and salinity conditions. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is reputed by their positive effect on plant growth under stress at mature stages of colonization; however, fungal colonization may decrease plant growth at early stages...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901910/alternative-oxidase-impacts-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-regulating-intracellular-ros-levels-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#3
Deng-Ke Shi, Jing Zhu, Ze-Hua Sun, Guang Zhang, Rui Liu, Tian-Jun Zhang, Sheng-Li Wang, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
The alternative oxidase (AOX), which forms a branch of the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport pathway, functions to sustain electron flux and alleviate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this article, a homologous AOX gene was identified in Ganoderma lucidum. The coding sequence of the AOX gene in G. lucidum contains 1038 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 39.48 kDa. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the function of AOX in G. lucidum, and two silenced strains (AOXi6 and AOXi21) were obtained, showing significant decreases of approximately 60 and 50 %, respectively, in alternative pathway respiratory efficiency compared to WT...
September 13, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883650/a-novel-and-stress-adaptive-alternative-oxidase-derived-from-alternative-splicing-of-duplicated-exon-in-oyster-crassostrea-virginica
#4
Ming Liu, Ximing Guo
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane oxidase that accepts electrons directly from ubiquinol and reduces oxygen to water without involving cytochrome-linked electron transport chain. It is highly conserved in many non-vertebrate taxa and may protect cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress. We identified two AOX mRNAs in eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, CvAOXA and CvAOXB, which differ by 170 bp but encode AOXs of the same size. Sequence analyses indicate that CvAOX has 10 exons with a tandem duplication of exon 10, and 3' alternative splicing using either the first or second exon 10 produces the two variants CvAOXB or CvAOXA, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881325/biodegradation-of-high-doses-of-commercial-pesticide-products-in-pilot-scale-biobeds-using-olive-oil-agroindustry-wastes
#5
L Delgado-Moreno, R Nogales, E Romero
Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878297/role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-gata3-in-the-inhibition-of-lysyl-oxidase-by-il-1%C3%AE-in-human-amnion-fibroblasts
#6
Chuyue Zhang, Wangsheng Wang, Chao Liu, Jiangwen Lu, Kang Sun
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) accounts for one third of preterm births, a leading cause of neonatal death. Understanding the mechanism of membrane rupture is thus of clinical significance in the prevention of preterm birth. Parturition at both term and preterm is associated with increased abundance of proinflammatory cytokines in the fetal membranes regardless of the presence of infection, which is believed to induce rupture of membranes through activation of the matrix metalloproteinases. It remains unknown whether there are any alternative mechanisms underpinning proinflammatory cytokine-induced rupture of membranes...
September 7, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877584/influence-of-modified-atmosphere-on-induction-and-activity-of-respiratory-enzymes-in-broccoli-florets-during-the-early-stage-of-postharvest-storage
#7
Hsiao-Wen Wang, Yoshio Makino, Jun Inoue, Kensaku Maejima, Sachiko Funayama-Noguchi, Takeshi Yamada, Ko Noguchi
Modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere storage (hypoxia conditions) extend shelf lives of horticultural products by depressing O2 uptake rate. We investigated the relationship between atmospheres and alternative oxidase (AOX) to cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities (based on oxygen isotope discrimination) and relative amounts of two respiratory enzymes-AOX and COX-during the early stage of storage. Broccoli florets, with high O2 uptake rates, were stored under hypoxia and normoxia at 25°C...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873527/enzymes-loaded-chitosan-coconut-fibre-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-strip-for-polyamine-determination
#8
Vinita Hooda, Archita
Most often, the immobilized enzyme based quantification is an attractive alternative to other chromatographic, electrochemical and mass spectrometry based methods due to its specificity and simplicity. In the present study, polyamine oxidase specific for spermine and spermidine and diamine oxidase specific for putrescine, were co-immobilized onto a novel chitosan/coconut fibre/zinc oxide nanoparticles (CS/CF/nZnO) hybrid support to yield a polyamine sensing strip. The strip worked optimally at pH 7.0, temperature 25°C and 6min of incubation time...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871549/laser-capture-microdissection-for-amplification-of-alternative-oxidase-aox-genes-in-target-tissues-in-daucus-carota-l
#9
Carla Ragonezi, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Laser microdissection provides a useful method for isolating specific cell types from complex biological samples for downstream applications. In contrast to the texture of mammalian cells, most plant tissues exhibit a cell organization with hard, cellulose-containing cell walls, large vacuoles, and air spaces, thus complicating tissue preparation and extraction of macromolecules such as DNA. In this study, we report a method that allows tissue-specific gene amplification. An improved perception of genetic identity of the entire plant can contribute to improved functional marker strategies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871548/studying-individual-plant-aox-gene-functionality-in-early-growth-regulation-a-new-approach
#10
Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Vinod Kumar Patil
AOX1 and AOX2 genes are thought to play different physiological roles. Whereas AOX1 is typically expected to associate to stress and growth responses, AOX2 was more often found to be linked to development and housekeeping functions. However, this view is questioned by several adverse observations. For example, co-regulated expression for DcAOX1 and DcAOX2a genes was recently reported during growth induction in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Early expression peaks for both genes during the lag phase of growth coincided with a critical time point for biomass prediction, a result achieved by applying calorespirometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871547/a-step-by-step-protocol-for-classifying-aox-proteins-in-flowering-plants
#11
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
The potential of alternative oxidase (AOX) genes to develop functional markers for plant breeding programs has been emphasized. In this sense, it is essential to have a reliable classification system, which could aid in the selection of candidate AOX genes from different species. In the case of angiosperms AOX, a robust classification system is required because this enzyme is encoded by variable gene numbers (1-6 genes) with variable AOX subfamilies and subtypes. Thus, in this protocol, we present a detailed guideline to application of a classification scheme of AOX based on specific amino acids and phylogeny...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871546/a-driving-bioinformatics-approach-to-explore-co-regulation-of-aox-gene-family-members-during-growth-and-development
#12
José Hélio Costa, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
The alternative oxidase (AOX) gene family is a hot candidate for functional marker development that could help plant breeding on yield stability through more robust plants based on multi-stress tolerance. However, there is missing knowledge on the interplay between gene family members that might interfere with the efficiency of marker development. It is common view that AOX1 and AOX2 have different physiological roles. Nevertheless, both family member groups act in terms of molecular-biochemical function as "typical" alternative oxidases and co-regulation of AOX1 and AOX2 had been reported...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871545/measurements-of-electron-partitioning-between-cytochrome-and-alternative-oxidase-pathways-in-plant-tissues
#13
Nestor Fernandez Del-Saz, Miquel Ribas-Carbo, Gabriel Martorell, Alisdair R Fernie, Igor Florez-Sarasa
Plant respiration is characterized by the existence of the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) that competes with cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) for the electrons of the ubiquinone pool of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, thus reducing ATP synthesis. The oxygen (O2) isotope fractionation technique is the only available to determine the electron partitioning between the two pathways and their in vivo activities in plant tissues. In this chapter, the basis of the O2 isotope fractionation technique and its derived calculations are carefully explained together with a detailed description of the dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry (DI-IRMS) system and the protocol developed at the University of Balearic Islands...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871543/respiration-traits-as-novel-markers-for-plant-robustness-under-the-threat-of-climate-change-a-protocol-for-validation
#14
Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Respiration traits allow calculating temperature-dependent carbon use efficiency and prediction of growth rates. This protocol aims (1) to enable validation of respiration traits as non-DNA biomarkers for breeding on robust plants in support of sustainable and healthy plant production; (2) to provide an efficient, novel way to identify and predict functionality of DNA-based markers (genes, polymorphisms, edited genes, transgenes, genomes, and hologenomes), and (3) to directly help farmers select robust material appropriate for a specified region...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860337/from-b-to-a-making-an-essential-cofactor-in-a-human-parasite
#15
Naomi S Morrissette, Celia W Goulding
Trypanosomatids are parasitic eukaryotic organisms that cause human disease. These organisms have complex lifestyles; cycling between vertebrate and insect hosts and alternating between two morphologies; a replicating form and an infective, nonreplicating one. Because trypanosomatids are one of the few organisms that do not synthesize the essential cofactor, heme, these parasites sequester the most common form, heme B, from their hosts. Once acquired, the parasites derivatize heme B to heme A by two sequential enzyme reactions...
August 30, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858719/liposome-supported-enzymatic-peritoneal-dialysis
#16
Anna Pratsinis, Stefanie Zuercher, Vincent Forster, Eric J Fischer, Paola Luciani, Jean-Christophe Leroux
Compared to hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis represents a more straightforward and less invasive alternative, though current solutions are not as effective. Herein, the feasibility of liposome-supported enzymatic peritoneal dialysis (LSEPD) is explored to increase the functionality of peritoneal dialysis for the model indication acute alcohol poisoning. Enzyme-loaded liposomes (E-Liposomes) containing alcohol metabolizing enzymes, alcohol oxidase and catalase, are developed and their in vitro and in vivo performances investigated...
August 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843728/evidence-for-proton-tunneling-and-a-transient-covalent-flavin-substrate-adduct-in-choline-oxidase-s101a
#17
Rizvan Uluisik, Elvira Romero, Giovanni Gadda
The effect of temperature on the reaction of alcohol oxidation catalyzed by choline oxidase was investigated with the S101A variant of choline oxidase. Anaerobic enzyme reduction in a stopped-flow spectrophotometer was biphasic using either choline or 1,2-[(2)H4]-choline as a substrate. The limiting rate constants klim1 and klim2 at saturating substrate were well separated (klim1/klim2>9), and were >15-fold slower than for wild-type choline oxidase. Solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) ~4 established that klim1 probes the proton transfer from the substrate hydroxyl to a catalytic base...
August 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807315/genetic-homogeneity-of-fascioloides-magna-in-austria
#18
Christian Husch, Helmut Sattmann, Christoph Hörweg, Josef Ursprung, Julia Walochnik
The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804451/behavioral-changes-over-time-following-ayahuasca-exposure-in-zebrafish
#19
Robson Savoldi, Daniel Polari, Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila F Silva, Bruno Lobao-Soares, Mauricio Yonamine, Fulvio A M Freire, Ana C Luchiari
The combined infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi stem and Psychotria viridis leaves, known as ayahuasca, has been used for centuries by indigenous tribes. The infusion is rich in N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, with properties similar to those of serotonin. Despite substantial progress in the development of new drugs to treat anxiety and depression, current treatments have several limitations. Alternative drugs, such as ayahuasca, may shed light on these disorders. Here, we present time-course behavioral changes induced by ayahuasca in zebrafish, as first step toward establishing an ideal concentration for pre-clinical evaluations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801230/a-mitochondrial-proteomics-view-of-complex-i-deficiency-in-candida-albicans
#20
Xiaodong She, Pengyi Zhang, Ying Gao, Lulu Zhang, Qiong Wang, Hui Chen, Richard Calderone, Weida Liu, Dongmei Li
Proteomic analyses were carried out on isolated mitochondrial samples of C. albicans from gene-deleted mutants (nuo1Δ, nuo2Δ and goa1Δ) as well as the parental strain in order to better understand the contribution of these three fungal-specific mitochondrial ETC complex I (CI) subunits to cellular activities. Herein, we identify 2333 putative proteins from four strains, in which a total of 663 proteins (28.5%) are putatively located in mitochondria. Comparison of protein abundances between mutants and the parental strain reveal 146 differentially-expressed proteins, of which 78 are decreased and 68 are increased in at least one mutant...
August 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
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