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alternative oxidase

Zi-Shan Zhang, Mei-Jun Liu, Renate Scheibe, Jennifer Selinski, Li-Tao Zhang, Cheng Yang, Xiang-Long Meng, Hui-Yuan Gao
The mechanism by which the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway contributes to PSII photoprotection is in dispute. The current consensus is that the AOX pathway protects photosystems by dissipating excess reducing equivalents that are exported from chloroplasts through the malate/oxaloacetate (Mal/OAA) shuttle, preventing the over-reduction of chloroplasts. Here, using the aox1a Arabidopsis mutant and nine other C3 and C4 species, an additional model of the AOX pathway in PSII photoprotection is proposed...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Plant
Xiang Guo, Shan Zhou, Yanwei Wang, Jinlong Song, Huimin Wang, Delong Kong, Jie Zhu, Weiwei Dong, Mingxiong He, Guoquan Hu, Zhiyong Ruan
Laccases are green biocatalysts that possess attractive advantages for the treatment of resistant environmental pollutants and dye effluents. A putative laccase-like gene, laclK, encoding a protein of 29.3 kDa and belonging to the Cu-oxidase_4 superfamily, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein LaclK (LaclK) was able to oxidize typical laccase substrates such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and l-dopamine. The characteristic adsorption maximums of typical laccases at 330 nm and 610 nm were not detected for LaclK...
2016: PloS One
Md Abu Sayed, Yui Umekawa, Kikukatsu Ito
Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) blooms in early spring and its inflorescence, referred to as the spadix, can produce enough heat to melt snow. Here, we investigated glycolytic carbon flow at the PEP branch-point in thermogenic spadices. Our analyses revealed that petals and pistils in thermogenic florets exhibited higher expression of SrPEPC and SrAOX transcripts than those of SrPK, SrPEPCK, and SrPEPtase. Moreover, enzymatic analyses showed high activities of PEPC in the extracts from thermogenic florets...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tian-Nyu Wang, Min Zhao
Laccases are green oxidases with a number of potential industrial applications. In this study, recombinant Bacillus subtilis CotA laccase was secreted by Escherichia coli via both the α-hemolysin secretion system and the YebF secretion system after microaerobic induction. Meanwhile, we discovered a much simpler approach for extracellular production of recombinant CotA laccase from E. coli, involving alternation of induction conditions to release recombinant CotA following intracellular expression. By optimizing the induction parameters, the extracellular yield of recombinant CotA laccase was improved from 157...
October 13, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jean-Yves Paul, Harjeet Khanna, Jennifer Kleidon, Phuong Hoang, Jason Geijskes, Jeff Daniells, Ella Zaplin, Yvonne Rosenberg, Anthony James, Bulukani Mlalazi, Pradeep Deo, Geofrey Arinaitwe, Priver Namanya, Douglas Becker, James Tindamanyire, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Robert Harding, James Dale
Vitamin A deficiency remains one of the world's major public health problems despite food fortification and supplements strategies. Biofortification of staple crops with enhanced levels of pro-vitamin A (PVA) offers a sustainable alternative strategy to both food fortification and supplementation. As a proof of concept, PVA-biofortified transgenic Cavendish bananas were generated and field trialed in Australia with the aim of achieving a target level of 20 μg/g of dry weight (dw) β-carotene equivalent (β-CE) in the fruit...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Arif U Hasan, Koji Ohmori, Takeshi Hashimoto, Kazuyo Kamitori, Fuminori Yamaguchi, Kumi Konishi, Takahisa Noma, Junsuke Igarashi, Tetsuo Yamashita, Katsuya Hirano, Masaaki Tokuda, Tetsuo Minamino, Akira Nishiyama, Masakazu Kohno
Deterioration of adipocyte function due to increased oxidative stress predisposes patients to metabolic disorders in advanced age. However, the roles of tumor suppressors in such conditions remain largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to address their dynamics in aged adipocytes using a long-term culture model. We compared 3T3-L1 adipocytes at 17-19 days (long-term) with those at 8-10 days (short-term) after initiation of adipogenic induction for mimicking 'aged' and 'young' adipocytes, respectively. H2O2 release and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced in long-term cultured adipocytes, which is suggestive of enhanced oxidative stress in this group...
October 12, 2016: Biogerontology
Lisandra Martin, Lizhi Tao, Alexandr Simonov, Christine Romano, Cristina Butterfield, Monika Fekete, Bradley Tebo, Alan Bond, Leone Spiccia, Willian Casey
In a natural geochemical cycle, manganese-oxide minerals (MnOx) are principally formed via a diurnal microbial process, where a putative multicopper oxidase MnxG plays an essential role. Recent success in isolating the ca. 230 kDa, enzymatically active MnxEFG protein complex has advance our understanding the biogenic MnOx mineralization. Herein, the kinetics of MnOx formation catalyzed by MnxEFG are examined using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and the first electrochemical characterization of the MnxEFG complex is reported using Fourier transformed alternating current voltammetry...
October 11, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Baruch Wolach, Ronit Gavrieli, Martin de Boer, Karin van Leeuwen, Sivan Berger-Achituv, Tal Stauber, Josef Ben Ari, Menachem Rottem, Yechiel Schlesinger, Galia Grisaru-Soen, Omar Abuzaitoun, Nufar Marcus, Ben Zion Garty, Arnon Broides, Jakov Levy, Polina Stepansky, Amos Etzioni, Raz Somech, Dirk Roos
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an innate immunodeficiency with a genetic defect of the nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced, oxidase components. This leads to decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which renders patients susceptible to life-threatening infections. Over the course of 30 years, we diagnosed CGD in 84 patients from 61 families using functional, molecular and genetic studies. The incidence of CGD in Israel is 1.05 per 100,000 live-births in the Jewish population and 1...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Vladimir A Morozov, Shaun Wynyard, Shinichi Matsumoto, Adrian Abalovich, Joachim Denner, Robert Elliott
Xenotransplantation of pig islet cells is a promising alternative for the treatment of diabetes with insulin and may help to prevent numerous late complications such as blindness and amputation. First encouraging results using porcine islets have been reported in preclinical animal models as well in the first clinical trial in New Zealand. The goal of this manuscript is to examine the biological safety of a second trial performed in Argentina, specifically in regards to the transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) using improved detection methods As in the first trial encapsulated islet cells from the well-characterised Auckland Island pigs were used...
September 24, 2016: Virus Research
Evanna L Mills, Beth Kelly, Angela Logan, Ana S H Costa, Mukund Varma, Clare E Bryant, Panagiotis Tourlomousis, J Henry M Däbritz, Eyal Gottlieb, Isabel Latorre, Sinéad C Corr, Gavin McManus, Dylan Ryan, Howard T Jacobs, Marten Szibor, Ramnik J Xavier, Thomas Braun, Christian Frezza, Michael P Murphy, Luke A O'Neill
Activated macrophages undergo metabolic reprogramming, which drives their pro-inflammatory phenotype, but the mechanistic basis for this remains obscure. Here, we demonstrate that upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages shift from producing ATP by oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis while also increasing succinate levels. We show that increased mitochondrial oxidation of succinate via succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and an elevation of mitochondrial membrane potential combine to drive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Osamu Yamada, Masayuki Machida, Akira Hosoyama, Masatoshi Goto, Toru Takahashi, Taiki Futagami, Youhei Yamagata, Michio Takeuchi, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Hideaki Koike, Keietsu Abe, Kiyoshi Asai, Masanori Arita, Nobuyuki Fujita, Kazuro Fukuda, Ken-Ichi Higa, Hiroshi Horikawa, Takeaki Ishikawa, Koji Jinno, Yumiko Kato, Kohtaro Kirimura, Osamu Mizutani, Kaoru Nakasone, Motoaki Sano, Yohei Shiraishi, Masatoshi Tsukahara, Katsuya Gomi
Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A...
September 20, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Midéko Justin Kohoude, Fernand Gbaguidi, Pierre Agbani, Marc-Abel Ayedoun, Sylvie Cazaux, Jalloul Bouajila
CONTEXT: Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. (Burseraceae) is an aromatic plant. The leaves are used for beverage flavouring. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of various extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The essential oil was prepared via hydrodistillation. Identification and quantification were realized via GC-MS and GC-FID. Consecutive extractions (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were carried out and various chemical groups (phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, antocyanins and sugar) were quantified...
September 21, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mari Paz Serrano, Raquel Herrero-Labrador, Hunter S Futch, Julia Serrano, Alejandro Romero, Ana Patricia Fernandez, Abdelouahid Samadi, Mercedes Unzeta, Jose Marco-Contelles, Ricardo Martínez-Murillo
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease requires the development of multitarget drugs for treating the symptoms of the disease and its progression. Both cholinergic and monoamine oxidase dysfunctions are involved in the pathological process. Thus, we hypothesized that the development of therapies focused on these targets might be effective. We have developed and assessed a new product, coded ASS234, a multipotent acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase/monoamine oxidase A-B inhibitor with a potent inhibitory effect on amyloid-β aggregation as well as antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Garrett C Moraski, Natalie Seeger, Patricia A Miller, Allen G Oliver, Helena I Boshoff, Sanghyun Cho, Surafel Mulugeta, Jeffery R Anderson, Scott G Franzblau, Marvin J Miller
Increasing interest in the potent anti-tuberculosis activity and the novel target (QcrB) of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides encouraged extended structure-activity relationship studies of additional scaffolds. This study reports on the in vitro profiling of the imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-5-carboxamides as a new promising class of anti-tuberculosis compounds endowed with nanomolar potency against replicating and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as well as low toxicity to VERO cells. Compounds 6, 16, and 17 had MIC values <10 nM and toxicity >100 μM...
June 10, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Luis Enrique Paternina, Daniel Verbel-Vergara, Eduar Elías Bejarano
INTRODUCTION: In recent decades the analysis of mitochondrial genes has been used for population and phylogenetic studies of ticks allowing many advances in their systematics. Mitochondrial ribosomal 16S (16S) subunit is one of the most frequently used among those genes available for tick analysis, whereas cytochrome oxidase gene 1 (COX1) has recently been used and proposed as an alternative to the traditional 16S gene marker.  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of 16S and COX1 in genetic studies of ticks by analyzing sequences of three species commonly found in the Caribbean region of Colombia...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Pius S Fasinu, Babu L Tekwani, Bharathi Avula, Narayan D Chaurasiya, N P Dhammika Nanayakkara, Yan-Hong Wang, Ikhlas A Khan, Larry A Walker
BACKGROUND: There has been some evidence to suggest that the addition of chloroquine (CQ) or quinine (QN) to 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ) treatment regimens may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the 8-AQ and simultaneously mitigate against its haemolytic toxicity. However, both CQ and QN are considered effective, although perhaps moderate inhibitors of CYP2D6, an enzyme now regarded as necessary for primaquine (PQ) pharmacologic activity. An understanding of the influence of CQ and QN on the metabolism of PQ may shed light on the potential mechanisms of the beneficial interaction...
2016: Malaria Journal
Christina G Siontorou, Konstantinos N Georgopoulos, Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Dimitrios P Nikolelis, Stefanos K Karapetis, Spyridoula Bratakou
Proteinaceous moieties are critical elements in most detection systems, including biosensing platforms. Their potential is undoubtedly vast, yet many issues regarding their full exploitation remain unsolved. On the other hand, the biosensor formats with the higher marketability probabilities are enzyme in nature and electrochemical in concept. To no surprise, alternative materials for hosting catalysis within an electrode casing have received much attention lately to demonstrate a catalysis-coated device. Graphene and ZnO are presented as ideal materials to modify electrodes and biosensor platforms, especially in protein-based detection...
September 7, 2016: Membranes
Soumyajit Banerjee Mustafi, Nicolas Aznar, Shailendra Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Prabir Kumar Chakraborty, Rumki Basak, Priyabrata Mukherjee, Pradipta Ghosh, Resham Bhattacharya
The polycomb complex proto-oncogene BMI1 [B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (mouse)] is essential for self-renewal of normal and cancer stem cells. BMI1-null mice show severe defects in growth, development, and survival. Although BMI1 is known to exert its effect in the nucleus via repression of 2 potent cell-cycle regulators that are encoded by the Ink4a/Arf locus, deletion of this locus only partially rescues BMI1-null phenotypes, which is indicative of alternate mechanisms of action of BMI1. Here, we show that an extranuclear pool of BMI1 localizes to inner mitochondrial membrane and directly regulates mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) homeostasis and bioenergetics...
September 9, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Marie-Paule Wautier, Pierre-Jean Guillausseau, Jean-Luc Wautier
Advanced glycation end products (AGE) resulted from a reaction between free amino group of proteins and carbohydrates. This reaction is followed by oxidation and molecular rearrangement. Alternatively AGEs can be produced by glycolysis and oxidation. AGEs bind to a cellular receptor RAGE. RAGE engagement by ligands AGE, β-amyloid peptide, and S100 calgranulin induces a stimulation of NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen intermediate formation, NFκB activation and gene transcription. This cascade of reaction leads to an inflammatory reaction responsible for alteration of microvessels in the retina and the kidney...
September 4, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Keshav Dahal, Greg C Vanlerberghe
The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) terminates at cytochrome (cyt) oxidase or alternative oxidase (AOX). In Nicotiana tabacum leaves, mitochondrial respiration in the light (RL ) declined with increasing drought severity but then increased under extreme drought, despite a steep decline in maximal cyt oxidase activity. This increased RL was absent in AOX knockdown lines, while AOX overexpression lines showed enhanced RL relative to the wild-type (WT). Cyt oxidase activity under extreme drought was higher in overexpressors and lower in knockdowns, compared with the WT, providing evidence that AOX acted to maintain cyt pathway function...
August 31, 2016: New Phytologist
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