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Chronic inflammatory bowel disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238348/the-mannose-receptor-in-regulation-of-helminth-mediated-host-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Irma van Die, Richard D Cummings
Infection with parasitic helminths affects humanity and animal welfare. Parasitic helminths have the capacity to modulate host immune responses to promote their survival in infected hosts, often for a long time leading to chronic infections. In contrast to many infectious microbes, however, the helminths are able to induce immune responses that show positive bystander effects such as the protection to several immune disorders, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergies. They generally promote the generation of a tolerogenic immune microenvironment including the induction of type 2 (Th2) responses and a sub-population of alternatively activated macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234972/staging-treatment-and-future-approaches-of-gallbladder-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Sanjeev Kumar Shukla, Govind Singh, K S Shahi, Bhuvan, Prabhat Pant
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the bile ducts and third most common gastrointestinal malignant in the world for public health. Its relatively low incidence and confused symptoms result in advanced disease at the time of presentation, contributing to poor prognosis and reduced survival associated with this disease. The main function of the gallbladder is to store excreted bile acids from the liver in preparation for a meal. Its main risk factor is prolonged exposure to biliary calculations, although bacterial infections and other inflammatory conditions are associated...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234895/intestinal-stem-cells-to-advance-drug-development-precision-and-regenerative-medicine-a-paradigm-shift-in-translational-research
#3
Jonathan P Mochel, Albert E Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G Martín, Karin Allenspach
Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies...
December 12, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234327/influence-of-microbiota-on-intestinal-immune-system-in-ulcerative-colitis-and-its-intervention
#4
REVIEW
Sai-Long Zhang, Shu-Na Wang, Chao-Yu Miao
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with chronic and recurrent characteristics caused by multiple reasons. Although the pathogenic factors have not been clarified yet, recent studies have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota plays a major role in UC, especially in the immune system. This review focuses on the description of several major microbiota communities that affect UC and their interactions with the host. In this review, eight kinds of microbiota that are highly related to IBD, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, Bacteroides, Roseburia species, Eubacterium rectale, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium, and Candida albicans are demonstrated on the changes in amount and roles in the onset and progression of IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230419/proteobacteria-a-common-factor-in-human-diseases
#5
REVIEW
G Rizzatti, L R Lopetuso, G Gibiino, C Binda, A Gasbarrini
Microbiota represents the entire microbial community present in the gut host. It serves several functions establishing a mutualistic relation with the host. Latest years have seen a burst in the number of studies focusing on this topic, in particular on intestinal diseases. In this scenario, Proteobacteria are one of the most abundant phyla, comprising several known human pathogens. This review highlights the latest findings on the role of Proteobacteria not only in intestinal but also in extraintestinal diseases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230146/microscopic-colitis-a-review-of-collagenous-and-lymphocytic-colitis
#6
Karen Boland, Geoffrey C Nguyen
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic watery diarrhea and diagnosed with the histologic hallmarks of disease despite a macroscopically normal large bowel. Although 2 distinct disease phenotypes exist, their clinical presentations and epidemiologic characteristics have overlapping features. This article summarizes evidence regarding the pathogenesis of MC, mechanisms of diarrhea in this cohort, and associations with medications. In addition, currently recommended and novel therapeutic approaches to achieving remission in this patient population are reviewed...
November 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226107/cholangitis-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis
#7
REVIEW
Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh
Cholangitis is a serious life-threatening situation affecting the hepatobiliary system. This review provides an update regarding the clinical and pathological features of various forms of cholangitis. A comprehensive search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases. It was found that the etiology and pathogenesis of cholangitis are heterogeneous. Cholangitis can be categorized as primary sclerosing (PSC), secondary (acute) cholangitis, and a recently characterized form, known as IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225991/administration-of-protein-kinase-d1-induces-a-protective-effect-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-intestinal-inflammation-in-a-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells-and-raw264-7-macrophage-cells
#8
Ditte Søvsø Gundelund Nielsen, Marlene Fredborg, Vibeke Andersen, Stig Purup
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory diseases involving all or part of the gastrointestinal tract. The stress-activated serine-threonine protein kinase D1 (PKD1) protein has previously been implicated in intestinal immune regulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein...
2017: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222221/acute-pancreatitis-following-oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
#9
Nnamdi Arinze Nwafo
Acute pancreatitis is a well-recognised complication of endoscopic procedures like endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography but not oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). I report a case of a 33-year-old woman, admitted with severe epigastric pain and vomiting 2 hours after an elective OGD for evaluation of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of elevated lipase (40 790 U/L; normal 11-82) and findings on imaging studies. Other common causes of acute pancreatitis such as gallstones, alcohol and medications were ruled out...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222081/media-consumption-and-creation-in-attitudes-toward-and-knowledge-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-web-based-survey
#10
Jacob Groshek, Miles Basil, Ling Guo, Sarah Parker Ward, Francis A Farraye, Jason Reich
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic gastrointestinal condition affecting over 5 million people globally and 1.6 million in the United States but currently lacks a precisely determined cause or cure. The range of symptoms IBD patients experience are often debilitating, and the societal stigmas associated with some such symptoms can further degrade their quality of life. Better understanding the nature of this public reproach then is a critical component for improving awareness campaigns and, ultimately, the experiences of IBD patients...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214422/emu-oil-improves-clinical-indicators-of-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#11
Lauren C Chartier, Gordon S Howarth, Ian C Lawrance, Debbie Trinder, Scott J Barker, Suzanne Mashtoub
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ulcerative colitis is a remitting and relapsing inflammatory bowel disorder. Current treatments are limited, and if poorly controlled, colitis may progress to colorectal cancer. Previously, Emu Oil protected the intestine in experimental models of gut damage. We aimed to determine whether Emu Oil could reduce the severity of chronic colitis and prevent the onset of neoplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were injected (day 0) with azoxymethane, followed by ad libitum access to three dextran sulfate sodium/water cycles (7 days of dextran sulfate sodium and 14 days of water)...
December 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214394/serious-adverse-events-associated-with-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-agents-in-pediatric-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-in-a-real-life-setting
#12
Serena Pastore, Samuele Naviglio, Arianna Canuto, Loredana Lepore, Stefano Martelossi, Alessandro Ventura, Andrea Taddio
OBJECTIVES: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) agents are generally well tolerated, yet they can be associated with serious adverse events (SAEs) in a minority of patients. We examined the incidence of SAEs in a pediatric referral center for chronic rheumatologic and gastroenterological inflammatory disorders. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of SAEs occurring during treatment with anti-TNF-α agents in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 78)  or pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n = 105) seen at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, Italy, between June 2001 and February 2016...
December 6, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212102/-conservative-treatment-of-an-aseptic-abscess-syndrome-with-splenic-abscesses-in-crohn-s-disease
#13
Thomas Göbel, Jutta Rauen-Vossloh, Hubert Georg Hotz, Andree Boldt, Andreas Erhardt
A 24-year old woman with a history of Crohn's disease developed bloody diarrhea and multiple abdominal abscesses, daily fever, leukocytosis, and elevated CRP several months after her immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine was stopped. Recurrent abscess punctures did not detect any pathogenic germs and neither clinical nor serological response was achieved by administration of different antimicrobial therapies. Additionally, new splenic abscesses arose despite ongoing therapy. Under the suspicion of the rare aseptic abscess syndrome, representing an auto-inflammatory, extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, the antimicrobial therapy was stopped and an intravenous therapy with prednisolone was initiated...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211800/diagnostic-test-strategies-in-children-at-increased-risk-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-primary-care
#14
Gea A Holtman, Yvonne Lisman-van Leeuwen, Boudewijn J Kollen, Obbe F Norbruis, Johanna C Escher, Laurence C Walhout, Angelika Kindermann, Yolanda B de Rijke, Patrick F van Rheenen, Marjolein Y Berger
BACKGROUND: In children with symptoms suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who present in primary care, the optimal test strategy for identifying those who require specialist care is unclear. We evaluated the following three test strategies to determine which was optimal for referring children with suspected IBD to specialist care: 1) alarm symptoms alone, 2) alarm symptoms plus c-reactive protein, and 3) alarm symptoms plus fecal calprotectin. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted, including children with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms referred to pediatric gastroenterology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211010/meta-analysis-of-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolites-in-experimental-colitic-mice-during-the-inflammatory-and-healing-phases
#15
Toshifumi Osaka, Eri Moriyama, Shunichi Arai, Yasuhiro Date, Junji Yagi, Jun Kikuchi, Satoshi Tsuneda
The imbalance of gut microbiota is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but it remains unknown whether dysbiosis is a cause or consequence of chronic gut inflammation. In order to investigate the effects of gut inflammation on microbiota and metabolome, the sequential changes in gut microbiota and metabolites from the onset of colitis to the recovery in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice were characterized by using meta 16S rRNA sequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) analysis...
December 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206649/the-importance-of-the-microbiome-in-pediatrics-and-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#16
Thaidra Gaufin, Nicole H Tobin, Grace M Aldrovandi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging research on the pediatric microbiome implicates the importance of the microbiome on the development of the immune system, nervous system, and growth. Changes to the microbiome during infancy are associated with the development of chronic illnesses such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, the microbiome provides protection against certain pathogens, affects vaccine responses, and alters drug metabolism. This review highlights what is known about the microbiome, the establishment of a healthy microbiome and the significance that changes to the microbiome composition have on growth and health of children and adolescents...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206211/the-imbalance-between-n-6-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-comprehensive-review-and-future-therapeutic-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Eleonora Scaioli, Elisa Liverani, Andrea Belluzzi
Eating habits have changed dramatically over the years, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in favour of n-6 PUFAs, particularly in the Western diet. Meanwhile, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. Recent epidemiological data indicate the potential beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs in ulcerative colitis (UC) prevention, whereas consumption of a higher ratio of n-6 PUFAs versus n-3 PUFAs has been associated with an increased UC incidence...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204117/protective-effect-of-pogostone-on-2-4-6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid-induced-experimental-colitis-via-inhibition-of-t-helper-cell
#18
Jiyan Su, Cailan Li, Xiuting Yu, Guanghua Yang, Jianhua Deng, Ziren Su, Huifang Zeng, Jiannan Chen, Xiaojun Zhang, Xiaoping Lai
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-related disease mainly caused by the disequilibrium of T helper (Th) cell paradigm? Pogostone (PO) is one of the major chemical constituents of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. The present study aims to investigate the potential benefit of PO against IBD in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis model. PO treatment by enema significantly brought down the disease activity index (DAI) of the TNBS-challenged rats, which was manifested by the ameliorated inflammatory features including ulceration, adhesion, and edema...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204051/intestinal-epithelium-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-and-the-gut-microbiota-key-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-celiac-disease
#19
REVIEW
Bożena Cukrowska, Agnieszka Sowińska, Joanna Beata Bierła, Elżbieta Czarnowska, Anna Rybak, Urszula Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Before activating the immune system, gluten peptides are transferred by the epithelial barrier to the mucosal lamina propria, where they are deamidated by intestinal tissue transglutaminase 2. As a result, they strongly bind to human leucocyte antigens (HLAs), especially HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8, expressed on antigen-presenting cells. This induces an inflammatory response, which results in small bowel enteropathy...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203393/pyrin-inflammasome-regulates-tight-junction-integrity-to-restrict-colitis-and-tumorigenesis
#20
Deepika Sharma, Ankit Malik, Clifford S Guy, Rajendra Karki, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) increase risk for colorectal cancer. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV or pyrin) are associated with hereditary autoinflammatory disease and severe IBD. Expression of MEFV, a sensor protein that the initiates assembly of the inflammasome complex, is increased in colon biopsies from patients with IBD. We investigated the role of pyrin in intestinal homeostasis in mice. METHODS: Mefv-/- mice and C57/BL6 mice (controls) were given azoxymethane followed by multiple rounds of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis and tumorigenesis...
December 1, 2017: Gastroenterology
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