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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434170/establishment-and-characterization-of-novel-epithelial-like-cell-lines-derived-from-human-periodontal-ligament-tissue-in-vitro
#1
Kallapat Tansriratanawong, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Junko Toyomura, Soh Sato
In this study, novel human-derived epithelial-like cells (hEPLCs) lines were established from periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues, which were composed of a variety of cell types and exhibited complex cellular activities. To elucidate the putative features distinguishing these from epithelial rest of Malassez (ERM), we characterized hEPLCs based on cell lineage markers and tight junction protein expression. The aim of this study was, therefore, to establish and characterize hEPLCs lines from PDL tissues. The hEPLCs were isolated from PDL of third molar teeth...
April 22, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433889/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-for-clarification-of-the-crucial-roles-of-lysosomes-in-microbial-infections
#2
Benhong Xu, Yanpan Gao, Shaohua Zhan, Wei Ge
Lysosomes play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is widely accepted that lysosomes do not function exclusively as a digestive organelle. It is also involved in the process of immune cells against pathogens. However, the changes in the lysosomal proteome caused by infection with various microbes are still largely unknown, and our understanding of the proteome of the purified lysosome is another obstacle that needs to be resolved. Here, we performed a proteomic study on lysosomes enriched from THP1 cells after infection with Listeria monocytogenes (L...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433718/three-new-piscidins-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-phylogeny-expression-and-functional-characterization
#3
Ze-Rui Zhuang, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xia-Zi Huang, Hui-Xian Gu, Han-Yin Wei, Yi-Jun He, Li Deng
The present study reports the identification, and characterization of three new putative piscidin paralogues, ecPis-2, ecPis-3 and ecPis-4, from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA of the three piscidins with the 207, 216, and 231 nt open reading frame encoded respectively a 68-, 71-, and 76-amino acid preprotein consisting of the predicted signal peptide, and putative mature peptide and prodomain. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple piscidin paralogues in one fish species are highly diversified, the analysis suggested that the piscidins should be a family belonging to the superfamily of ancient cationic, linear, and amphipathic host defence peptides widespread across invertebrate and vertebrate taxa comprising insect cecropins and ceratotoxins, and the amphibian dermaseptins...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433715/aloe-vera-enhances-the-innate-immune-response-of-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus-after-transport-stress-and-combined-heat-killed-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#4
Fábio S Zanuzzo, Rafael E Sabioni, Luz Natalia F Montoya, Gisele Favero, Elisabeth C Urbinati
In this study, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) were fed with diets containing Aloe vera for 10 days prior to transport stress and infection with heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila. A. vera is popular around the world due to its medicinal properties, including immunostimulatory effects which was observed in this study. The results show that transport causes immunosuppression, an effect that was prevented by A. vera. Specifically, A. vera prevented reductions of both leukocyte respiratory burst and hemolytic activity of complement system caused by transport...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433610/paraoxonases-and-infectious-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Jordi Camps, Simona Iftimie, Anabel García-Heredia, Antoni Castro, Jorge Joven
The paraoxonases (PON1, PON2 and PON3) are an enzyme family with a high structural homology. All of them have lactonase activity and degrade lipid peroxides in lipoproteins and cells. As such, they play a role in protection against oxidation and inflammation. Infectious diseases are often associated with oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. Infection and inflammation trigger a cascade of reactions in the host, known as the acute-phase response. This response is associated with dramatic changes in serum proteins and lipoproteins, including a decrease in serum PON1 activity...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433579/distinguishing-septic-from-normal-donors-by-detection-of-spla2-iia-from-human-plasma-using-a-microsieve-based-immunoassay
#6
Daniel R Zweitzig, Arjan G Tibbe, Mark J Kopnitsky, Kathleen Cichonski, Leon W M M Terstappen
Bloodstream infections that progress to septic shock are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year, and are associated with significant healthcare costs. Recent studies have shown that a member of the secreted phospholipase protein family, termed sPLA2-IIA, may play a role during the innate immune response to bacterial infections, and is elevated in the plasma of septic patients. In this report, the feasibility of a simple microsieve-based sPLA2-IIA detection immunoassay was explored. Microsieves containing 5μm pores were covalently coupled with a sPLA2-IIA-specific monoclonal antibody at 0...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433104/wilson-disease-symptomatic-liver-therapy
#7
Jan Pfeiffenberger, Karl-Heinz Weiss, Wolfgang Stremmel
Wilson disease leads to symptomatic impairment of liver function or liver cirrhosis. Strict adherence to decoppering agents is essential in these patients. Secondary prevention of additional hepatic damage by avoidance of other toxic substances (e.g., alcohol, drugs) and sufficient calorie intake is recommended. Routine examinations in cirrhotic patients include screening for signs of portal hypertension (esophagus varices), development of ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Where varices are present, primary or secondary preventive interventions may include treatment with nonselective beta-blockers or variceal ligation, similar to the approach in patients with liver cirrhosis due to other etiologies...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432358/differential-sensitivity-to-infections-and-antimicrobial-peptide-mediated-immune-response-in-four-silkworm-strains-with-different-geographical-origin
#8
Ottavia Romoli, Alessio Saviane, Andrea Bozzato, Paola D'Antona, Gianluca Tettamanti, Andrea Squartini, Silvia Cappellozza, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori has an innate immune system, whose main effectors are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Silkworm strains are commonly grouped into four geographical types (Japanese, Chinese, European and Tropical) and are generally characterised by a variable susceptibility to infections. To clarify the genetic and molecular mechanisms on which the different responses to infections are based, we exposed one silkworm strain for each geographical area to oral infections with the silkworm pathogens Enterococcus mundtii or Serratia marcescens...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432302/a-bacterial-abc-transporter-enables-import-of-mammalian-host-glycosaminoglycans
#9
Sayoko Oiki, Bunzo Mikami, Yukie Maruyama, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, constitute mammalian extracellular matrices. The uronate and amino sugar residues in hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate are linked by 1,3-glycoside bond, while heparin contains 1,4-glycoside bond. Some bacteria target GAGs as means of establishing colonization and/or infection, and bacterial degradation mechanisms of GAGs have been well characterized. However, little is known about the bacterial import of GAGs. Here, we show a GAG import system, comprised of a solute-binding protein (Smon0123)-dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, in the pathogenic Streptobacillus moniliformis...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432209/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-of-the-seasonal-dynamics-of-airway-pathogens-in-the-aetiology-of-exacerbations-in-copd
#10
Tom M A Wilkinson, Emmanuel Aris, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Mathieu Peeters, Thierry G Pascal, Sonia Schoonbroodt, Andrew C Tuck, Viktoriya Kim, Kristoffer Ostridge, Karl J Staples, Nicholas Williams, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Jeanne-Marie Devaster
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is incompletely understood. Understanding the relationship between chronic bacterial airway infection and viral exposure may explain the incidence and seasonality of these events. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cohort study (NCT01360398), patients with COPD aged 40-85 years underwent sputum sampling monthly and at exacerbation for detection of bacteria and viruses. Results are presented for subjects in the full cohort, followed for 1 year...
April 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432096/interaction-between-dapg-and-hcn-producing-pseudomonas-brassicacearum-lbum300-and-clavibacter-michiganensis-subsp-michiganensis-in-the-rhizosphere-of-tomato
#11
Mélanie M Paulin, Amy Novinscak, Carine Lanteigne, Vijay J Gadkar, Martin Filion
We have previously demonstrated that inoculation of tomato plants with 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) producing Pseudomonas brassicacearum LBUM300 could significantly reduce bacterial canker symptoms caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). In this study, in order to better characterize the population dynamics of LBUM300 in the rhizosphere of tomato plants, we characterized the role played by DAPG and HCN production by LBUM300 on rhizosphere colonization of healthy and Cmm-infected tomato plants...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431953/cryostored-autologous-skull-bone-for-cranioplasty-a-study-on-cranial-bone-flaps-viability-and-microbial-contamination-after-deep-frozen-storage-at-80%C3%A2-c
#12
David Yuen Chung Chan, Yi Tan Mok, Ping Kuen Lam, Cindy See Wai Tong, Stephanie Chi Ping Ng, Tin Fung David Sun, Wai Sang Poon
Craniectomy is a life-saving procedure. Subsequent cranioplasty with autologous skull bone has a bone resorption rate from 4% to 22.8% and an infection rate from 3.3% to 26%. There are concerns with their viability and the potential microbial contamination as they were explanted for a long period of time. Eighteen cranial bone flaps stored at Prince of Wales Hospital Skull Bone Bank during the period from June 2011 to March 2016 were identified. Ethics approval was obtained. Bone chips and deep bone swabs were collected for osteoblast culture and microbial culture...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431934/etiological-analysis-and-epidemiological-comparison-among-adult-cap-and-nhcap-patients-in-okinawa-japan
#13
Gretchen Parrott, Daijiro Nebeya, Takeshi Kinjo, Kazuya Miyagi, Shusaku Haranaga, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
BACKGROUND: Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues for CAP and NHCAP. Despite the availability of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality ensues. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the etiology of 200 pneumonia patients at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Patients were categorized into CAP (n = 97) or NHCAP (n = 103), according to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines. Diagnoses were made using clinical tests including, Gram stain, bacterial culture, serum and urinary tests...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431848/epidemiology-of-device-associated-infections-in-an-intensive-care-unit-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-nepal-a-prospective-surveillance-study-from-a-developing-country
#14
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Santosh Dahal, Jaya Prasad Singh, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Hari Prasad Kattel, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit patients are a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. METHODS: A prospective, structured clinicomicrobiological surveillance was carried out for 3 common DA-HAIs: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) present in the patients of an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Nepal...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431569/co-colonisation-with-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-is-associated-with-poorer-health-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-an-irish-registry-analysis
#15
Emma Reece, Ricardo Segurado, Abaigeal Jackson, Siobhán McClean, Julie Renwick, Peter Greally
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary infection is the main cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF). Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are the most prevalent fungal and bacterial pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. Our aim was to determine the effect of different colonisation profiles of AF and PA on the clinical status of patients with CF. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from the Cystic Fibrosis Registry of Ireland from 2013 was performed to determine the effect of intermittent and persistent colonisation with AF or PA or co-colonisation with both microorganisms on clinical outcome measures in patients with CF...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431422/how-long-is-too-long-the-prespiked-intravenous-debate
#16
Jennifer L Stedman, Joel M Yarmush, Minal C Joshi, Sangeetha Kamath, Joseph Schianodicola
BACKGROUND: As the number of operative cases increases, there is a greater emphasis on reducing inefficiency while maintaining patient safety. Recently, the issue of prespiking intravenous (IV) bags was raised. No study has assessed whether the risk of infection is related to the length of time a sterile (IV) fluid bag has been spiked. After completion of a pilot study revealed no microbial growth within 24 hours of an IV spike, a larger formal study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased infection risk within 4 hours of spiking an intravenous fluid bag...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431414/intratracheal-instillation-of-neutrophils-rescues-bacterial-overgrowth-initiated-by-trauma-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#17
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431162/risk-of-serious-bacterial-infection-associated-with-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-inhibitors-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#18
Wan-Ju Lee, Todd A Lee, Katie J Suda, Gregory S Calip, Leslie Briars, Glen T Schumock
Objectives.: TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) have a black box warning for increased risk of serious infection that was based on evidence from studies of adults. Evidence of the association is lacking for children. We aimed to examine the risk of infection posed by TNFIs compared with DMARDs in children with JIA. Methods.: We conducted a cohort study using the 2009-13 Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Children <16 years old with JIA who initiated monotherapy with TNFIs or DMARDs were identified and followed for occurrence of serious bacterial infection requiring hospitalization...
April 18, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#19
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431099/effect-of-cold-water-induced-stress-on-immune-response-pathology-and-fertility-in-mice-during-chlamydia-muridarum-genital-infection
#20
Tesfaye Belay, Anthony Woart, Vincent Graffeo
Genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial sexually-transmitted disease worldwide. It causes serious reproductive health complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Stress is implicated as a risk factor for various infections; however, its effect on chlamydia genital infection is unknown. We previously showed that repeated exposure of mice to cold water results in increased severity of chlamydia genital infection. In the present study, cold water-induced stress resulted in: i) elevated levels of NE and EP in the spleen and genital tract of stressed mice; ii) elevated IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in macrophage-rich peritoneal cells of mice; iii) supplement of NE in vitro exerts an immunosuppressive effect on splenic T cell production of cytokines; iv) decreased C...
April 18, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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