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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138966/postnatal-nutrition-influences-male-attractiveness-and-promotes-plasticity-in-male-mating-preferences
#1
José C Noguera, Neil B Metcalfe, Pat Monaghan
Poor early-life nutrition could reduce adult reproductive success by negatively affecting traits linked to sexual attractiveness such as song complexity. If so, this might favor strategic mate choice, allowing males with less complex songs to tailor their mating tactics to maximize the reproductive benefits. However, this possibility has been ignored in theoretical and empirical studies. By manipulating the micronutrient content of the diet (e.g., low or high) during the postnatal period of male zebra finches, we show for the first time (1) that males reared on a poor (low) micronutrient diet had less complex songs as adults; (2) that these males, in contrast to the high micronutrient diet group, were more selective in their mating strategies, discriminating against those females most likely to reduce their clutch size when paired with males having less complex songs; and (3) that by following different mating strategies, males reared on the contrasting diets obtained similar reproductive benefits...
November 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131695/time-since-first-acting-on-same-sex-attraction-and-recreational-drug-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm-is-there-an-effect-of-gay-age
#2
Cara E Rice, Sara A Vasilenko, Stephanie T Lanza, John A Davis, Karen S Fields, Melissa Ervin, Abigail Norris Turner
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of substance use compared to men who have sex with women. Among MSM, drug use is linked to higher-risk sexual behavior and acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that time since first acting on one's same sex attraction, or one's "gay age", could be predictive of drug using behavior. METHODS: We examined this question among 176 MSM, aged 18-35, presenting at a public sexual health clinic...
November 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125323/examining-the-effects-of-mtv-s-16-and-pregnant-on-adolescent-girls-sexual-health-the-implications-of-character-affinity-pregnancy-risk-factors-and-health-literacy-on-message-effectiveness
#3
Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz, Jennifer Stevens Aubrey, Hillary Pennell, Kyung Bo Kim
Health communication strategies to decrease teen pregnancies include the employment of entertainment-education (E-E), which involves embedding health messages in an entertainment media vehicle that is relatable and attractive to the intended audience. MTV's 16 and Pregnant is an example of such an effort as an E-E documentary-style reality show that aimed to reduce the U.S. teen pregnancy rate. A pretest-posttest experiment was conducted with 147 adolescent girls (ages 14-18) to investigate the effectiveness of 16 and Pregnant on beliefs, attitudes, and intentions to avoid teen pregnancy...
November 10, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120532/sexual-orientation-concordance-and-un-happiness-about-births
#4
Caroline Sten Hartnett, Lisa Lindley, Katrina M Walsemann, Daniela V Negraia
CONTEXT: A woman's happiness about a pregnancy and birth has implications for her child's health and her own well-being. Sexual orientation and, particularly, the extent of concordance across its dimensions (sexual identity, behavior and attraction) may be related to happiness about these events, but research on this relationship has been lacking. METHODS: Data on 5,744 pregnancies ending in births among women aged 15-44 in three waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-2015) were examined...
November 9, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119473/preference-of-oral-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-versus-rectal-tenofovir-reduced-glycerin-1-gel-regimens-for-hiv-prevention-among-cisgender-men-and-transgender-women-who-engage-in-receptive-anal-intercourse-with-men
#5
Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Curtis Dolezal, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Iván C Balán, William Brown, Christine Rael, Barbra A Richardson, Jeanna M Piper, Linda-Gail Bekker, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Pedro Gonzales, Timothy H Holtz, Albert Liu, Kenneth H Mayer, Carmen D Zorrilla, Javier R Lama, Ian McGowan, Ross D Cranston
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission. Yet, some may prefer not to take systemic daily medication. MTN-017 was a 3-period, phase 2 safety and acceptability study of microbicide gel applied rectally either daily or before and after receptive anal intercourse (RAI), compared to daily oral tablet. At baseline, cisgender men and transgender women who reported RAI (N = 187) rated the daily oral regimen higher in overall liking, ease of use, and likelihood of future use than the gel regimens...
November 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109411/structural-basis-for-receptor-recognition-of-pollen-tube-attraction-peptides
#6
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Weijia Liu, Takuya T Nagae, Hidenori Takeuchi, Heqiao Zhang, Zhifu Han, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Jijie Chai
Transportation of the immobile sperms directed by pollen tubes to the ovule-enclosed female gametophytes is important for plant sexual reproduction. The defensin-like (DEFL) cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) LUREs play an essential role in pollen tube attraction to the ovule, though their receptors still remain controversial. Here we provide several lines of biochemical evidence showing that the extracellular domain of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) PRK6 from Arabidopsis thaliana directly interacts with AtLURE1 peptides...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108507/-they-love-us-just-the-way-they-love-a-woman-gender-identity-power-and-transactional-sex-between-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-timor-leste
#7
Hamish Niven, Hayden Jose, Patrick Rawstorne, Sally Nathan
There has been limited research on the experiences of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste. Previous research has suggested a phenomenon by which same-sex-attracted men and transgender women have sexual and intimate relationships with straight-identifying men or mane-forte. Transactional sex has also been reported to be common. This paper, which complements a larger national size estimation among key populations at risk of HIV, further investigates sexual and social identities and roles, including sexual practices, among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste...
November 7, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106794/sexual-arousal-by-dominance-and-submission-in-relation-to-increased-reproductive-success-in-the-general-population
#8
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Sexual arousal by dominance and submissiveness was long considered a mental disorder. The origin of this sexual preference has not been clearly explained. This study scrutinizes the hypothesis that sexual arousal by hierarchical disparity is a manifestation of mating strategy by comparing number of offspring and self-reported attractiveness of the study participants. METHODS: Our data were obtained from the general population via e-mail questionnaire (n=673, age 25-34 years and 35-44 years)...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104826/male-male-competition-and-female-choice-are-differentially-affected-by-male-call-acoustics-in-the-serrate-legged-small-treefrog-kurixalus-odontotarsus
#9
Bicheng Zhu, Jichao Wang, Longhui Zhao, Qinghua Chen, Zhixin Sun, Yue Yang, Steven E Brauth, Yezhong Tang, Jianguo Cui
Background: The evolution of exaggerated vocal signals in anuran species is an important topic. Males and females have both evolved the ability to discriminate communication sounds. However, the nature of sexual dimorphism in cognition and sensory discrimination and in the evolution and limitation of sexual signal exaggeration remain relatively unexplored. Methods: In the present study, we used male calls of varied complexity in the serrate-legged small treefrog, Kurixalus odontotarsus, as probes to investigate how both sexes respond to variations in call complexity and how sex differences in signal discrimination play a role in the evolution of sexual signal exaggeration...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101010/mate-choice-could-be-random-in-female-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#10
Olivia Le Moëne, Eelke M Snoeren
Female mate choice is often investigated in terms of reproductive success in order to understand how male characteristics contribute to sexual attractiveness. Previous studies have found that females rats prefer mating with their first encounter rather than males visited subsequently, suggesting that the rewarding value of this first encounter is enough to reinforce mating with the first partner. Using a multiple chambers paradigm, we allowed female rats to copulate freely with three males placed each in a different chamber...
November 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097444/razor-a-phase-ii-open-randomized-trial-of-screening-plus-goserelin-and-raloxifene-versus-screening-alone-in-pre-menopausal-women-at-increased-risk-of-breast-cancer
#11
Anthony Howell, Linda Ashcroft, Lesley Fallowfield, Diana M Eccles, Rosalind A Eeles, Ann Ward, Adam R Brentnall, Mitchell Dowsett, Jack M Cuzick, Rosemary Greenhalgh, Caroline Boggis, Jamie Motion, Jamie C Sergeant, Judith Adams, D Gareth R Evans
BACKGROUND: Ovarian suppression in premenopausal women is known to reduce breast cancer risk. This study aimed to assess uptake and compliance with ovarian suppression using the LHRH analogue, goserelin, with add-back raloxifene, as a potential regimen for breast cancer prevention. METHODS: Women at ≥30% lifetime risk breast cancer were approached and randomized to mammographic screening alone(C-Control) or screening in addition to monthly subcutaneous injections of 3...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097007/national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases-workshop-report-chlamydia-vaccines-the-way-forward
#12
Guangming Zhong, Robert C Brunham, Luis M de la Maza, Toni Darville, Carolyn Deal
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), an intracellular pathogen, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. In addition to acute cervicitis and urethritis, Ct can lead to serious sequelae of significant public health burden including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Ct control efforts have not resulted in desired outcomes such as reduced incidence and reinfection, and this highlights the need for the development of an effective Ct vaccine. To this end, NIAID organized a workshop to consider the current status of Ct vaccine research and address critical questions in Ct vaccine design and clinical testing...
October 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076407/erectile-dysfunction-in-brazilian-primary-health-care-dealing-with-medicalization
#13
Antônio Augusto Dall'Agnol Modesto, Marcia Thereza Couto
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem and has been attracting growing interest from the field of medicine. The pharmaceutical industry works together with medical associations to popularize the theme, emphasizing individual enhancement and medication, besides reinforcing an idea of a male sexuality defined by the ability to have an erection and penetrate. Patients worried about erection problems search for general practitioners (GPs), frequently without a clear complaint, and a comprehensive primary health care (PHC) must be capable of dealing with these issues considering medicalization and disease mongering...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076247/sexuality-and-sexual-health-among-female-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder-pathology
#14
Katherine N Thompson, Jennifer Betts, Martina Jovev, Yolanda Nyathi, Emma McDougall, Andrew M Chanen
AIM: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder that is characterized by unstable relationships, impulsive behaviours and identity disturbance. BPD usually has its onset between puberty and young adulthood and presents disproportionately among females in clinical settings. Taken together, this makes young women with BPD a particularly vulnerable group with regard to healthy psychosexual development. It was hypothesized that female youth with BPD pathology would be more likely to score worse on measures of sexual health and safety, and to show greater uncertainty in sexual identity formation...
October 27, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075928/the-relationship-between-indicators-of-depression-and-anxiety-and-sexual-orientation-in-canadian-women
#15
Lanna J Petterson, Doug P VanderLaan, Tonje J Persson, Paul L Vasey
Previous studies examining the associations between women's sexual orientation and mental health have obtained inconsistent results. Whereas some studies have suggested that status as a lesbian or bisexual woman may be associated with greater mental health risk, others have suggested that bisexual women may be specifically vulnerable to mental health problems. The current study examined two competing models in a non-clinical sample of Canadian women (N = 278). The first model predicted that women who reported bisexual attraction would endorse more indicators of depression and anxiety compared to women who reported monosexuality (either same- or opposite-sex attraction)...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071543/a-comparison-of-masculinity-facial-preference-among-naturally-cycling-pregnant-lactating-and-post-menopausal-women
#16
Urszula M Marcinkowska, Grazyna Jasienska, Pavol Prokop
Women show cyclical shifts in preferences for physical male traits. Here we investigated how fertility status influences women's facial masculinity preference in men by analyzing a large sample of heterosexual women (N = 3720). Women were regularly either cycling (in both low- and high-conception probability groups), lactating or were currently in a non-fertile state (pregnant or post-menopausal). Analyses simultaneously controlled for women's age and sexual openness. Participants via two alternative forced choice questions judged attractiveness of masculinized and feminized men's faces...
October 25, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069524/small-but-attractive-female-biased-nectar-production-and-floral-visitors-in-a-dimorphic-shrub
#17
Cinthya Cervantes, Anai Alvarez, Eduardo Cuevas
In sexually dimorphic species, hermaphrodite flowers in gynodioecious species, or male flowers in dioecious species, often are larger and produce more nectar than their conspecific female flowers. As a consequence, hermaphrodite or male flowers frequently receive more pollinator visits. Sex ratio, flower size, floral display, nectar production and floral visits were evaluated in two natural populations of Fuchsia thymifolia, a morphologically gynodioecious but functionally subdioecious insect-pollinated shrub...
October 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054119/pollinator-independent-orchid-attracts-biotic-pollinators-due-the-production-of-lipoidal-substances
#18
E R Pansarin, P J Bergamo, M J Ferreira-Caliman
● Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinators pressures. ● In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, and temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system...
October 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051563/women-s-self-rated-attraction-to-male-faces-does-not-correspond-with-physiological-arousal
#19
S Hagerman, Z Woolard, K Anderson, B W Tatler, F R Moore
There has been little work to determine whether attractiveness ratings of faces correspond to sexual or more general attraction. We tested whether a measure of women's physiological arousal (pupil diameter change) was correlated with ratings of men's facial attractiveness. In Study 1, women rated the faces of men for whom we also measured salivary testosterone. They rated each face for attractiveness, and for desirability for friendship and long- and short-term romantic relationships. Pupil diameter change was not related to subjective ratings of attractiveness, but was positively correlated with the men's testosterone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050504/transgender-research-in-the-21st-century-a-selective-critical-review-from-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#20
Sven C Mueller, Griet De Cuypere, Guy T'Sjoen
Gender dysphoria describes the psychological distress caused by identifying with the sex opposite to the one assigned at birth. In recent years, much progress has been made in characterizing the needs of transgender persons wishing to transition to their preferred gender, thus helping to optimize care. This critical review of the literature examines their common mental health issues, several individual risk factors for psychiatric comorbidity, and current research on the underlying neurobiology. Prevalence rates of persons identifying as transgender and seeking help with transition have been rising steeply since 2000 across Western countries; the current U...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
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