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adipose distribution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821441/in-situ-detection-of-the-activation-of-rac1-and-rala-small-gtpases-in-mouse-adipocytes-by-immunofluorescent-microscopy-following-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-insulin-stimulation
#1
Nobuyuki Takenaka, Yuma Nihata, Sho Ueda, Takaya Satoh
Rac1 has been implicated in insulin-dependent glucose uptake by mechanisms involving plasma membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Although the uptake of glucose is also stimulated by insulin in adipose tissue, the role for Rac1 in adipocyte insulin signaling remains controversial. As a step to reveal the role for Rac1 in adipocytes, we aimed to establish immunofluorescent microscopy to detect the intracellular distribution of activated Rac1. The epitope-tagged Rac1-binding domain of a Rac1-specific target was utilized as a probe that specifically recognizes the activated form of Rac1...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820999/absorption-tissue-distribution-metabolism-and-elimination-of-decabrominated-diphenyl-ether-bde-209-in-rats-after-multi-dose-oral-exposure
#2
Xiu-Bo Mi, Lian-Jun Bao, Chen-Chou Wu, Charles S Wong, Eddy Y Zeng
Human and ecological risks of BDE-209 have drawn much attention, particularly with growing e-waste recycling activities in developing countries. To further address the issue of BDE-209 biotransformation, a laboratory-controlled study was conducted. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally by gavage at a daily dose of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight for 7 d and a depuration period of 22 d, to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination dynamics of BDE-209 during multi-dose exposures simulating short-term oral exposure of e-waste workers...
August 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817729/comparison-of-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-and-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography-for-total-fat-volume-measurement-in-mice
#3
Gaelle Aubertin, Amira Sayeh, Jean-Philippe Dillenseger, Estelle Ayme-Dietrich, Philippe Choquet, Nathalie Niederhoffer
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are two pathologies whose prevalence are in a constant increase. Evaluation of the total fat mass but also of the distribution between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are important factors while assessing the pathophysiology of these two pathologies. Computed tomography (CT) and bioimpedance (BIS) are the translational methods the most frequently used in human beings as well as in rodent models in longitudinal studies on adiposity and obesity. Surprisingly, no direct comparison of micro-CT and BIS was reported yet in mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815865/bone-marrow-and-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cardiac-fibrosis-induced-by-methotrexate-in-rats
#4
Ebtehal Mohammad Fikry, Wedad A Hassan, Amany M Gad
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an ideal adult stem cell with capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with an extensive tissue distribution. The present study evaluates the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) against the development of methotrexate (MTX)-induced cardiac fibrosis versus dexamethasone (DEX). Rats were allocated into five groups; group 1, received normal saline orally; group 2, received MTX (14 mg/kg/week for 2 weeks); groups 3 and 4, treated once with 2 × 10(6) cells of MTX + BM-MSCs and MTX + AD-MSCs, respectively; and group 5, MTX + DEX (0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814392/temporal-eating-patterns-associations-with-nutrient-intakes-diet-quality-and-measures-of-adiposity
#5
Rebecca M Leech, Anna Timperio, Katherine M Livingstone, Anthony Worsley, Sarah A McNaughton
Background: Some evidence suggests that higher energy intake (EI) later in the day is associated with poor diet quality and obesity. However, EI at one eating occasion (EO) is also dependent on EI at surrounding EOs. Studies that examine the distribution of EOs across the day are rare.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity in a representative sample of Australian adults.Design: Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional 2011-2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed (n = 4544 adults, aged ≥19 y)...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#6
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804730/breast-dose-reduction-with-organ-based-wide-angle-tube-current-modulated-ct
#7
Wanyi Fu, Gregory M Sturgeon, Greeshma Agasthya, William Paul Segars, Anuj J Kapadia, Ehsan Samei
This study aimed to estimate the organ dose reduction potential for organ-dose-based tube current modulated (ODM) thoracic computed tomography (CT) with a wide dose reduction arc. Twenty-one computational anthropomorphic phantoms (XCAT) were used to create a virtual patient population with clinical anatomic variations. The phantoms were created based on patient images with normal anatomy (age range: 27 to 66 years, weight range: 52.0 to 105.8 kg). For each phantom, two breast tissue compositions were simulated: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (glandular-to-adipose ratio)...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803538/pharmacokinetics-of-tafamidis-a-transthyretin-amyloidosis-drug-in-rats
#8
Kyeong-Ryoon Lee, Jong-Woo Jeong, Hun-Chan Hyun, Jang Eunseo, Sunjoo Ahn Ahn, Sungwook Choi, Sang Hoon Joo, Sung-Sub Kim, Tae-Sung Koo
1. We characterized the pharmacokinetics of tafamidis, a novel drug to treat transthyretin-related amyloidosis, in rats after intravenous and oral administration at doses of 0.3-3 mg/kg. In vitro Caco-2 cell permeability and liver microsomal stability, as well as in vivo tissue distribution and plasma protein binding were also examined. 2. After intravenous injection, systemic clearance (CL), volumes of distribution at steady state (Vss), and half-life (T½) remained unaltered as a function of dose, with values in the ranges of 6...
August 14, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802693/diversity-of-tissue-resident-nk-cells
#9
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Although natural killer (NK) cells were initially named for their spontaneous tumor-killing capacity, their concept has been greatly expanded with more than 40 years of extensive investigation. Currently, NK cells are known as a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family, consisting of different subsets with unique phenotypic and functional features. Recent studies have shown that tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells, which are distinct from conventional NK (cNK) cells, preferentially distribute in non-lymphoid tissues, such as the liver, uterus, salivary gland, and adipose...
August 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792966/maternal-exposure-to-an-environmentally-relevant-dose-of-triclocarban-results-in-perinatal-exposure-and-potential-alterations-in-offspring-development-in-the-mouse-model
#10
Heather A Enright, Miranda J S Falso, Michael A Malfatti, Victoria Lao, Edward A Kuhn, Nicholas Hum, Yilan Shi, Ana Paula Sales, Kurt W Haack, Kristen S Kulp, Bruce A Buchholz, Gabriela G Loots, Graham Bench, Kenneth W Turteltaub
Triclocarban (TCC) is among the top 10 most commonly detected wastewater contaminants in both concentration and frequency. Its presence in water, as well as its propensity to bioaccumulate, has raised numerous questions about potential endocrine and developmental effects. Here, we investigated whether exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC could result in transfer from mother to offspring in CD-1 mice during gestation and lactation using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 14C-TCC (100 nM) was administered to dams through drinking water up to gestation day 18, or from birth to post-natal day 10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792859/elucidating-the-role-of-plexin-d1-in-body-fat-distribution-and-susceptibility-to-metabolic-disease-using-a-zebrafish-model-system
#11
James E N Minchin, John F Rawls
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer were responsible for 68% of all deaths worldwide in 2012. The regional distribution of lipid deposited within adipose tissue (AT) - so called body fat distribution (BFD) - is a strong risk factor for NCDs. BFD is highly heritable; however, the genetic basis of BFD is almost entirely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with BFD, including at Plexin D1 (PLXND1) - a gene known to modulate angiogenesis...
July 27, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791287/bidirectional-mast-cell-eosinophil-interactions-in-inflammatory-disorders-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Mansour Seaf, Giancarlo Marone, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Gianni Marone
Human mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790931/microtissues-enhance-smooth-muscle-differentiation-and-cell-viability-of-hadscs-for-three-dimensional-bioprinting
#13
Jin Yipeng, Xu Yongde, Wu Yuanyi, Sun Jilei, Guo Jiaxiang, Gao Jiangping, Yang Yong
Smooth muscle differentiated human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) provide a crucial stem cell source for urinary tissue engineering, but the induction of hADSCs for smooth muscle differentiation still has several issues to overcome, including a relatively long induction time and equipment dependence, which limits access to abundant stem cells within a short period of time for further application. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting holds great promise in regenerative medicine due to its controllable construction of a designed 3D structure...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774668/chronic-exposure-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-induces-an-obesogenic-effect-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#14
Axelle Brulport, Ludovic Le Corre, Marie-Christine Chagnon
Contaminant involvement in the pathophysiology of obesity is widely recognized. It has been shown that low dose and chronic exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) potentiated diet- induced obesity. High and acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and an EDC with anti-estrogenic property, causes wasting syndrome . However at lower doses, the TCDD metabolic effects remain poorly understood. We investigated the obesogenic effect during chronic exposure of TCDD at 1μg/kg body weight (bw)/week in adult C57BL/6J mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) and exposed from 10 to 42 weeks old to TCDD or equal volume of vehicle by intragastric gavage...
July 31, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768291/a-requiem-for-bmi-in-the-clinical-setting
#15
Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Steven B Heymsfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quetelet reported in the nineteenth century that body weight varies across adults with the square of height. Quetelet's index, now known as BMI, is accepted by most health organizations as a first-level measure of body fat and as a screening tool for diagnosing excess adiposity. Modern imaging methods now, however, indicate that BMI has limited predictive value for estimating body fat and lean mass at the individual level. The use of BMI as a measure of body composition in the clinical setting should therefore be challenged...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763157/a-unifying-mathematical-model-of-lipid-droplet-metabolism-reveals-key-molecular-players-in-the-development-of-hepatic-steatosis
#16
Christin Wallstab, Dimitra Eleftheriadou, Theresa Schulz, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jürgen Borlak, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Nikolaus Berndt
The liver responds to elevated plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) with an enhanced uptake of FFAs and their esterification to triacylglycerol (TAG). On the long term this may result in massive hepatic TAG accumulation called steatosis hepatitis. In hepatocytes, the poor water-soluble TAG is packed in specialized organelles: Lipid droplets (LDs) serving as transient cellular deposit and lipoproteins (LPs) transporting TAG and cholesterol esters to extra-hepatic tissues. The dynamics of these organelles is controlled by a variety of regulatory surface proteins (RSPs)...
August 1, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758566/the-influence-of-level-of-spinal-cord-injury-on-adipose-tissue-and-its-relationship-to-inflammatory-adipokines-and-cardiometabolic-profiles
#17
Gary J Farkas, Ashraf S Gorgey, David R Dolbow, Arthur S Berg, David R Gater
OBJECTIVE: Level of injury (LOI) and the role of adipose tissue and its proinflammatory adipokines in cardiometabolic dysfunction following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains poorly understood. We aim to examine the influence of LOI on adipose tissue and its relationship to proinflammatory adipokines and cardiometabolic profiles following SCI. DESIGN: Cross sectional and correlational study. SETTING: Clinical hospital and academic setting. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven individuals with chronic motor complete SCI (age 43...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755272/polymorphism-and-methylation-of-the-mc4r-gene-in-obese-and-non-obese-dogs
#18
Monika Mankowska, Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Aneta Graczyk, Paulina Ciazynska, Monika Stachowiak, Marek Switonski
The dog is considered to be a useful biomedical model for human diseases and disorders, including obesity. One of the numerous genes associated with human polygenic obesity is MC4R, encoding the melanocortin 4 receptor. The aim of our study was to analyze polymorphisms and methylation of the canine MC4R in relation to adiposity. Altogether 270 dogs representing four breeds predisposed to obesity: Labrador Retriever (n = 187), Golden Retriever (n = 38), Beagle (n = 28) and Cocker Spaniel (n = 17), were studied...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753161/impact-of-exercise-on-cardiometabolic-component-risks-in-spinal-cord-injured-humans
#19
Tom E Nightingale, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Dylan Thompson, James L J Bilzon
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology, characterised by low levels of habitual physical activity and an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. This study aimed to assess the impact of a moderate-intensity upper-body exercise training intervention on, biomarkers of cardiometabolic component risks, adipose tissue metabolism and cardiorespiratory fitness in persons with SCI. METHODS: Twenty-one inactive men and women with chronic (>1 year) SCI (all paraplegic injuries), aged 47 ± 8 years (mean ± S...
July 28, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746163/the-potential-contribution-of-dietary-factors-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#20
Niva Shapira
Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
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