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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921375/visceral-adiposity-and-cancer-survival-a-review-of-imaging-studies
#1
REVIEW
J Xiao, V C Mazurak, T A Olobatuyi, B J Caan, C M Prado
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for cancer, the association between obesity and cancer survival remains controversial. This is partially due to the inability of conventional obesity measures to directly assess adiposity or adipose tissue distribution. As a metabolic organ, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) secrets a variety of cytokines and cytokine-like factors, potentially affecting cancer survival. The objective of this review was to investigate the influence of imaging-assessed VAT on cancer survival...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918534/multiethnic-genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-ectopic-fat-depots-identifies-loci-associated-with-adipocyte-development-and-differentiation
#2
Audrey Y Chu, Xuan Deng, Virginia A Fisher, Alexander Drong, Yang Zhang, Mary F Feitosa, Ching-Ti Liu, Olivia Weeks, Audrey C Choh, Qing Duan, Thomas D Dyer, John D Eicher, Xiuqing Guo, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Tim Kacprowski, Jack W Kent, Leslie A Lange, Xinggang Liu, Kurt Lohman, Lingyi Lu, Anubha Mahajan, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ankita Parihar, Juan M Peralta, Albert V Smith, Yi Zhang, Georg Homuth, Ahmed H Kissebah, Joel Kullberg, René Laqua, Lenore J Launer, Matthias Nauck, Michael Olivier, Patricia A Peyser, James G Terry, Mary K Wojczynski, Jie Yao, Lawrence F Bielak, John Blangero, Ingrid B Borecki, Donald W Bowden, John Jeffrey Carr, Stefan A Czerwinski, Jingzhong Ding, Nele Friedrich, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Erik Ingelsson, Andrew D Johnson, Sharon L R Kardia, Carl D Langefeld, Lars Lind, Yongmei Liu, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Jerome I Rotter, Alan R Shuldiner, Bradford Towne, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, James G Wilson, Matthew Allison, Cecilia M Lindgren, Wolfram Goessling, L Adrienne Cupples, Matthew L Steinhauser, Caroline S Fox
Variation in body fat distribution contributes to the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The genetic determinants of body fat distribution are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to gain new insights into the underlying genetics of body fat distribution by conducting sample-size-weighted fixed-effects genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 9,594 women and 8,738 men of European, African, Hispanic and Chinese ancestry, with and without sex stratification, for six traits associated with ectopic fat (hereinafter referred to as ectopic-fat traits)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916988/circulating-scd36-levels-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-controls
#3
S Heebøll, M K Poulsen, M J Ornstrup, T N Kjær, S B Pedersen, S Nielsen, H Grønbæk, A Handberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels, intrahepatic lipid content and markers of obesity in NAFLD patients and controls. METHODS: 111 NAFLD patients and 33 normal/overweight controls were included. Intrahepatic lipid content was measured by MR spectroscopy; and subgroups of participants had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (n=99), magnetic resonance imaging (n=94, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue) and liver biopsy (n=28 NAFLD patients) performed...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913584/nitro-fatty-acid-pharmacokinetics-in-the-adipose-tissue-compartment
#4
Marco Fazzari, Nicholas K H Khoo, Steven R Woodcock, Diane K Jorkasky, Lihua Li, Francisco J Schopfer, Bruce A Freeman
Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports post-translational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO2-FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael additions with biological cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[14C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over two weeks...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911148/effects-of-chronic-estrogen-administration-in-the-ventromedial-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-vmh-on-fat-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Z Zhang, J Liu, A G Veldhuis-Vlug, Y Su, E Foppen, B C J van der Eerden, M Koedam, N Bravenboer, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, E Fliers, P H Bisschop
Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus regulates fat distribution and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that the protective effect of systemic E2 on fat and bone metabolism in the OVX model is partly mediated through the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906060/discrete-adipose-derived-stem-cell-subpopulations-may-display-differential-functionality-after-in-vitro-expansion-despite-convergence-to-a-common-phenotype-distribution
#6
Frederik Mølgaard Nielsen, Simone Elkjær Riis, Jens Isak Andersen, Raphaëlle Lesage, Trine Fink, Cristian Pablo Pennisi, Vladimir Zachar
BACKGROUND: Complex immunophenotypic repertoires defining discrete adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) subpopulations may hold a key toward identifying predictors of clinical utility. To this end, we sorted out of the freshly established ASCs four subpopulations (SPs) according to a specific pattern of co-expression of six surface markers, the CD34, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD271, using polychromatic flow cytometry. METHOD: Using flow cytometry-associated cell sorting and analysis, gating parameters were set to select for a CD73(+)CD90(+)CD105(+) phenotype plus one of the four following combinations, CD34(-)CD146(-)CD271(-) (SP1), CD34(-)CD146(+)CD271(-) (SP2), CD34(+)CD146(+)CD271(-) (SP3), and CD34(-)CD146(+)CD271(+) (SP4)...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898966/postweaning-changes-in-the-expression-of-chemerin-and-its-receptors-in-calves-are-associated-with-the-modification-of-glucose-metabolism
#7
Y Suzuki, S Haga, M Nakano, H Ishizaki, M Nakano, S Song, K Katoh, S Roh
Chemerin, originally known as a chemoattractant derived from adipose tissue and the liver, has been reported to have regulatory functions in gluconeogenesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. This study was conducted to assess the postweaning changes in expression of this cytokine and its physiological role in the modification of glucose metabolism associated with weaning. Eighteen tissue samples were collected from Holstein calves (90 d of age; n = 4) to investigate the tissue distributions of chemerin and its receptors genes...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898678/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-relation-to-17-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-cross-sectional-study-of-us-adults
#8
David H Rehkopf, Belinda L Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Ami R Zota, Janet M Wojcicki, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a putative biological marker of immune system age, and there are demonstrated associations between LTL and cardiovascular disease. This may be due in part to the relationship of LTL with other biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, the strength of associations between LTL and adiposity, metabolic, proinflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers has not been systematically evaluated in a United States nationally representative population...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888809/human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-atopic-dermatitis-via-regulation-of-b-lymphocyte-maturation
#9
Tae-Hoon Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Soon Won Choi, Ji-Hee Shin, Insung Kang, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Hong-Ki Lee, Jae-Eon Jung, Yong-Woon Choi, Sung-Hoon Lee, Jin-Sang Yoon, Jin-Sub Choi, Chi-Seung Lee, Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been applied for the therapy of allergic disorders due to its beneficial immunomodulatory abilities. However, the underlying mechanisms for therapeutic efficacy are reported to be diverse according to the source of cell isolation or the route of administration. We sought to investigate the safety and the efficacy of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hAT-MSCs) in mouse atopic dermatitis (AD) model and to determine the distribution of cells after intravenous administration. Murine AD model was established by multiple treatment of Dermatophagoides farinae...
November 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884640/biodegradation-of-the-zno-eu-nanoparticles-in-the-tissues-of-adult-mouse-after-alimentary-application
#10
Paula Kielbik, Jaroslaw Kaszewski, Julita Rosowska, Ewelina Wolska, Bartłomiej S Witkowski, Mikolaj A Gralak, Zdzisław Gajewski, Marek Godlewski, Michal M Godlewski
Biodegradable zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are considered promising materials for future biomedical applications. To fulfil this potential, biodistribution and elimination patterns of ZnO NPs in the living organism need to be resolved. In order to investigate gastrointestinal absorption of ZnO NPs and their intra-organism distribution, water suspension of ZnO or fluorescent ZnO:Eu (Europium-doped zinc oxide) NPs (10mg/ml; 0.3ml/mouse) was alimentary-administered (IG: intra-gastric) to adult mice. Internal organs collected at key time-points after IG were evaluated by AAS for Zn concentration and analysed by cytometric techniques...
November 21, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879248/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-regulates-mmp3-to-modulate-depot-and-sex-dependent-adipose-expansion-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#11
Yuanyuan Wu, Mi-Jeong Lee, Yasuo Ido, Susan K Fried
Increased adipocyte size is hypothesized to signal the recruitment of adipose progenitor cells (APCs) to expand tissue storage capacity. To investigate depot- and sex-differences in adipose growth, male and female C57BL/6J mice (10-weeks-old) were challenged with high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets (D) for 14 weeks. The HFD increased gonadal (GON) depot weight by adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia in females, but hypertrophy alone in males. In both sexes, inguinal (ING) adipocytes were smaller than GON and depot expansion was due to hypertrophy...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878041/a-prospective-evaluation-of-obesometric-parameters-associated-with-renal-stone-recurrence
#12
Derek Bos, Shawn Dason, Edward Matsumoto, Jehonathan Pinthus, Christopher Allard
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate whether obesometric serum hormones and body fat distribution are associated with renal stone recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of participants undergoing renal stone (RS) intervention at a single institution from November 2009-June 2010 and followed them for a median 62 months. Obesometric parameters were measured at baseline, including body mass index (BMI), fasting serum leptin and adiponectin, and proportion of visceral adipose tissue (%VAT) averaged from three fixed axial computed tomography (CT) slices...
August 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877104/sweet-taste-receptor-serves-to-activate-glucose-and-leptin-responsive-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-participates-in-glucose-responsiveness
#13
Daisuke Kohno, Miho Koike, Yuzo Ninomiya, Itaru Kojima, Tadahiro Kitamura, Toshihiko Yada
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867202/generalization-and-fine-mapping-of-european-ancestry-based-central-adiposity-variants-in-african-ancestry-populations
#14
S Yoneyama, J Yao, X Guo, L Fernandez-Rhodes, U Lim, J Boston, P Buzková, C S Carlson, I Cheng, B Cochran, R Cooper, G Ehret, M Fornage, J Gong, M Gross, C C Gu, J Haessler, C A Haiman, B Henderson, L A Hindorff, D Houston, M R Irvin, R Jackson, L Kuller, M Leppert, C E Lewis, R Li, L Le Marchand, T C Matise, K-Dh Nguyen, A Chakravarti, J S Pankow, N Pankratz, L Pooler, M D Ritchie, S A Bien, C L Wassel, Y-DI Chen, K D Taylor, M Allison, J I Rotter, P J Schreiner, F Schumacher, L Wilkens, E Boerwinkle, C Kooperberg, U Peters, S Buyske, M Graff, K E North
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of BMI and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866222/the-cytoskeletal-protein-septin-11-is-associated-with-human-obesity-and-is-involved-in-adipocyte-lipid-storage-and-metabolism
#15
Natalia Moreno-Castellanos, Amaia Rodríguez, Yoana Rabanal-Ruiz, Alejandro Fernández-Vega, José López-Miranda, Rafael Vázquez-Martínez, Gema Frühbeck, María M Malagón
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Septins are newly identified members of the cytoskeleton that have been proposed as biomarkers of a number of diseases. However, septins have not been characterised in adipose tissue and their relationship with obesity and insulin resistance remains unknown. Herein, we characterised a member of this family, septin 11 (SEPT11), in human adipose tissue and analysed its potential involvement in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism. METHODS: Gene and protein expression levels of SEPT11 were analysed in human adipose tissue...
November 19, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859461/gene-expression-profiles-of-human-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#16
Boyun Kim, Boram Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Seung Pyo Gong, Noh Hyun Park, Hyun Hoon Chung, Hee Seung Kim, Jae Hong No, Woong Yang Park, Ae Kyung Park, Jeong Mook Lim, Yong Sang Song
Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues show a different risk effect on metabolic disorders because they have distinct cellular properties. We isolated stem cells from the separate human adipose tissues to investigate that subcutaneous and visceral fat depots have metabolic differences. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were characterized by immunophenotype and differentiation potentials into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Although subcutaneous and visceral ASCs (S-ASC and V-ASC) express same surface markers (CD31(-) , CD34(-) , CD45(-) , CD73(+) , CD90(+) , and CD105(+) ) and have differentiation potentials, S-ASCs had higher capacity to proliferate and to differentiate into adipogenic lineage than V-ASCs...
November 17, 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857136/differentiating-lipedema-and-dercum-s-disease
#17
K Beltran, K L Herbst
BACKGROUND: People with lipedema or Dercum's disease (DD) can have a similar distribution of excess painful nodular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) making them difficult to differentiate. METHODS: Case series of 94 patients with DD, 160 with lipedema and 18 with both diagnoses (Lip+DD) from a single clinic in an academic medical center to improve identification and differentiation of these disorders by comparison of clinical findings, prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2), hypermobility by the Beighton score, and assessment of a marker of inflammation, Total complement activity (CH50)...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834143/distribution-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-jwh-210-rcs-4-and-%C3%A2-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-after-intravenous-administration-to-pigs
#18
Nadine Schaefer, Mattias Kettner, Matthias W Laschke, Julia Schlote, Andreas H Ewald, Michael D Menger, Hans H Maurer, Peter H Schmidt
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have become an increasing issue in forensic toxicology. Controlled human studies evaluating pharmacokinetic data of SCs are lacking and only few animal studies have been published. Thus, an interpretation of analytical results found in intoxicated or poisoned individuals is difficult. Therefore, the distribution of two selected SCs, namely 4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-210) and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-indol-3-yl)methanone (RCS-4) as well as ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as reference were examined in pigs...
November 11, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831949/sex-differences-in-the-association-of-hiv-infection-with-hepatic-steatosis
#19
Ani Kardashian, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Jennifer C Price, Monika Sarkar, Natalie Korn, Kyle Tillinghast, Marion G Peters, Susan M Noworolski, Phyllis C Tien
BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is increasing worldwide. Whether HIV and its associated metabolic perturbations exacerbate steatosis is unclear. Sex differences in adipose tissue distribution may also affect steatosis risk. We examined the contribution of HIV and sex to steatosis. METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat fraction (LFF) were measured in 121 HIV-infected and 107 uninfected men and women without viral hepatitis...
November 7, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829874/increased-unfractionated-heparin-requirements-with-decreasing-body-mass-index-in-pregnancy
#20
Avinash S Patil, Tracy Clapp, Piyamas K Gaston, David Kuhl, Eliza Rinehart, Norman L Meyer
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women receiving low-molecular-weight heparin for therapeutic anticoagulation are often converted to unfractionated heparin in anticipation of labor. We aim to characterize the impact of maternal body mass index on attainment of target anticoagulation during the conversion process. METHODS: We conducted a five-year retrospective study of a pregnancy cohort converted from low-molecular-weight heparin to unfractionated heparin in the third trimester...
December 2016: Obstetric Medicine
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