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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668871/transgenic-mice-overexpressing-srebp-1a-in-male-ob-ob-mice-exhibit-lipodystrophy-and-exacerbate-insulin-resistance
#1
Hiroshi Ohno, Takashi Matsuzaka, Nie Tang, Rahul Sharma, Kaori Motomura, Takuya Shimura, Aoi Satoh, Song-Iee Han, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Motohiro Sekiya, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Hirohito Sone, Naoya Yahagi, Nobuhiro Yamada, Yoshikazu Higami, Hitoshi Shimano
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1a (SREBP-1a) is a key transcription factor which activates the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Transgenic mice that overexpress the nuclear form of SREBP-1a under the control of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) promoter (Tg-1a) were previously shown to display a lipodystrophic phenotype characterized by enlarged and fatty livers, diminished peripheral white adipose tissue (WAT), and insulin resistance...
April 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665456/the-contribution-of-obesity-to-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-burden-in-a-general-population-sample-in-norway-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#2
Yume Imahori, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, David A Leon, Laila A Hopstock, Alun D Hughes, Stein Harald Johnsen, Lone Jørgensen, Nina Emaus, Katy E Morgan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have investigated the association of different measures of adiposity with carotid plaque. We aimed to investigate and compare the associations of four measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with the presence of carotid plaque and total plaque area (TPA) in the right carotid artery. METHODS: We included 4906 individuals aged 31-88 years who participated in a population-based study with ultrasonography of the right carotid artery...
April 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662648/visceral-abdominal-fat-measured-by-computer-tomography-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-gynecological-malignancies
#3
Johanna Nattenmüller, Joachim Rom, Tom Buckner, Jalal Arvin, Benedikt Bau, Christof Sohn, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Sarah Schott
Introduction: Obesity is associated with increased incidence of ovarian (OC), cervical (CC) and endometrium cancer (EC). However, the impact of body composition (BC) on overall survival (OS), especially of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is not yet understood. Methods: In 189 women with gynecological malignancies (31 OC, 104 CC, 54 EC, mean age 62.9y; mean BMI 26.8 kg/m2 ; median follow-up 30.7months) with routine staging CT-scans at baseline (mean interval: 4.3 months), densitometric quantification of total (TAT), visceral, and subcutaneous-fat-area (SAT), inter-muscular-fat-area (IMFA), and skeletal-muscle-index (SMI) was performed to analyze the impact of BC on survival...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658059/visceral-fat-area-not-body-mass-index-predicts-postoperative-30-day-morbidity-in-patients-undergoing-colon-resection-for-cancer
#4
Benjamin A Kuritzkes, Emmanouil P Pappou, Ravi P Kiran, Onur Baser, Liqiong Fan, Xiaotao Guo, Binsheng Zhao, Stuart Bentley-Hibbert
PURPOSE: Colectomy for cancer in obese patients is technically challenging and may be associated with worse outcomes. Whether visceral obesity, as measured on computed tomography, is a better predictor of complication than body mass index (BMI) or determines long-term oncologic outcomes has not been well characterized. This study examines the association between derived anthropometrics and postoperative complication and long-term oncologic outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients undergoing elective colectomy for cancer at a single tertiary-care center from 2010 to 2016...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649530/self-assembled-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles-implications-as-a-nanomedicine-for-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
Jun Gi Rho, Hwa Seung Han, Ji Hye Han, Hansang Lee, Van Quy Nguyen, Wang Hee Lee, Seunglee Kwon, Sungeun Heo, Juhwan Yoon, Han Ho Shin, Eun-Young Lee, Hoin Kang, Siyoung Yang, Eun Kyung Lee, Jae Hyung Park, Wook Kim
Self-assembled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HA-NPs) have been extensively investigated for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their biocompatibility and receptor-binding properties. Here, we report that an empty HA-NP itself not bearing any drug has therapeutic effects on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. HA-NPs inhibited not only the receptor-mediated internalization of low-molecular-weight (LMW) free HA but also LMW free HA-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in mouse primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) isolated from wild-type mice, but not in CD44-null (CD44-/-) BMDMs...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627338/a-comparative-review-on-estrogen-receptors-in-the-reproductive-male-tract-of-non-mammalian-vertebrates
#6
REVIEW
Mariailaria Verderame, Rosaria Scudiero
Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are transcription factors known to be involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in mammals. They are expressed primarily in the reproductive tract of all vertebrates females, thus indicating important and conserved functions in female reproductive success. ERs are also present in physiological different tissues as bone, brain, liver, skin and adipose tissues, in both females and males. In the latter, ERs have been found also in the genital tract, supporting the findings of a complex role for estrogen in spermatogenesis and, more generally, in male reproduction...
April 5, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626700/combinatory-approach-for-developing-silk-fibroin-scaffolds-for-cartilage-regeneration
#7
Viviana P Ribeiro, Alain da Silva Morais, F Raquel Maia, Raphael F Canadas, João B Costa, Ana L Oliveira, Joaquim M Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Several processing technologies and engineering strategies have been combined to create scaffolds with superior performance for efficient tissue regeneration. Cartilage tissue is a good example of that, presenting limited self-healing capacity together with a high elasticity and load-bearing properties. In this work, novel porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds derived from horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mediated crosslinking of highly concentrated aqueous SF solution (16 wt.%) in combination with salt-leaching and freeze-drying methodologies were developed for articular cartilage tissue engineering (TE) applications...
April 4, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618983/perivascular-adipose-tissue-as-a-relevant-fat-depot-for-cardiovascular-risk-in-obesity
#8
REVIEW
Rafael M Costa, Karla B Neves, Rita C Tostes, Núbia S Lobato
Obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death, morbidity, and mortality from several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. However, this is not a straightforward relationship. Although several studies have substantiated that obesity confers an independent and additive risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, there is significant variability in these associations, with some lean individuals developing diseases and others remaining healthy despite severe obesity, the so-called metabolically healthy obese...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609587/new-indexes-of-body-fat-distribution-and-sex-specific-risk-of-total-and-cause-specific-mortality-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Susanne Rost, Dennis Freuer, Annette Peters, Barbara Thorand, Rolf Holle, Jakob Linseisen, Christa Meisinger
BACKGROUND: A number of prior studies have examined the association between anthropometric measures and mortality, but studies investigating the sex-specific predictive value of novel anthropometric measures on mortality are scarce so far. Therefore, we investigated the sex-specific relevance of the new anthropometric measures body adiposity index (BAI) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) as well as the common measures body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist to hip ratio (WHR) for cause-specific mortality risk...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608940/an-update-on-the-role-of-irisin-in-the-regulation-of-endocrine-and-metabolic-functions
#10
REVIEW
Mohamed Omer Mahgoub, Crystal D'Souza, Reem S M H AlDarmaki, May M Y H Baniyas, Ernest Adeghate
Irisin is a novel myokine and adipokine that has gained much attention recently due to its mechanisms of action. Irisin is secreted following proteolytic cleavage of its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). Following its release, irisin exerts its major action by increasing the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP 1), which facilitates the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into beige adipose tissue. Irisin is distributed in various body tissues and several actions have been attributed to its presence in those tissues...
March 30, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603915/examining-the-association-between-adiposity-and-biochemical-recurrence-after-radical-prostatectomy
#11
Ross J Mason, Stephen A Boorjian, Bimal Bhindi, Laureano Rangel, Igor Frank, R Jeffrey Karnes, Matthew K Tollefson
INTRODUCTION: Herein we examined the association between adiposity, as measured with computed tomography (CT), and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after RP. METHODS: Using axial CT images, preoperative fat mass index (FMI) was calculated for 698 men who underwent RP from 2007-2010 by using measurements of total surface area of adipose tissue at the L3 level. Obesity was classified according to NHANES standards for obesity (FMI >9 kg/m2 ). The associations between obesity and the distribution of adiposity (visceral vs...
March 19, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600328/cross-sectional-association-of-dietary-water-intakes-and-sources-and-adiposity-national-adult-nutrition-survey-the-republic-of-ireland
#12
Janette Walton, Laura O'Connor, Albert Flynn
PURPOSE: Drinking (plain) water intake has been associated with weight loss and reducing energy intake in intervention trials. In free-living populations, replacing other beverages with drinking water is associated with reduced obesity risk. However, the association of total water intake and its sources, and body fat distribution remain unevaluated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate total water intake and its sources and the association with anthropometric measures. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1500 adults aged 18-90 years (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey, 2008-2010)...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581366/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-heterogeneity-of-obesity-clinical-challenges-and-implications-for-management
#13
REVIEW
Ian J Neeland, Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Després
The prevalence of obesity has increased globally over the last 2 decades. Although the body mass index has been a convenient and simple index of obesity at the population level, studies have shown that obesity defined by body mass index alone is a remarkably heterogeneous condition with varying cardiovascular and metabolic manifestations across individuals. Adipose tissue is an exquisitely active metabolic organ engaged in cross-talk between various systems; perturbation of adipose tissue results in a pathological response to positive caloric balance in susceptible individuals that directly and indirectly contributes to cardiovascular and metabolic disease...
March 27, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574204/design-and-synthesis-of-aryloxypropanolamine-as-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-antagonist-in-cancer-and-lipolysis
#14
Jiyu Jin, Chunxiao Miao, Zhilong Wang, Wanli Zhang, Xiongwen Zhang, Xin Xie, Wei Lu
β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) are broadly distributed in various tissues and regulate a panel of important physiological functions and disease states including cancer. Above all, β3 -adrenergic receptor (β3 -AR) plays a significant role in regulating lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel L-748,337 derivatives as selective human β3 -AR antagonists. Among all the tested L-748,337 analogs, compound 23d was found to display 23-fold more potent β3 -AR antagonist activity (EC50  = 0...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568333/relationship-between-a-body-shape-index-absi-and-body-composition-in-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Fernando Gomez-Peralta, Cristina Abreu, Margarita Cruz-Bravo, Elvira Alcarria, Gala Gutierrez-Buey, Nir Y Krakauer, Jesse C Krakauer
Background: Obesity is known to be related to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The most commonly used anthropometric indicator (body mass index [BMI]) presents several limitations such as the lack of possibility to distinguish adipose tissue distribution. Thus, this study examines the suitability of a body shape index (ABSI) for prediction of body composition and sarcopenic obesity in obese or overweight T2D subjects. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 199 overweight/obese T2D adults...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568104/gut-microbiome-related-lct-genotype-and-2-year-changes-in-body-composition-and-fat-distribution-the-pounds-lost-trial
#16
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Wenjie Ma, Yan Zheng, Catherine M Champagne, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut microbiome regulates host energy metabolism and adiposity. A recent study identified a genome-wide significant variant in the lactase (LCT) gene that determines gut-microbiome abundance. We investigated whether the LCT variant influenced long-term changes in adiposity among overweight and obese individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We included 583 whites with LCT variant rs4988235 (G allele as Bifidobacterium-abundance-increasing allele) who were randomly assigned to one of four weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient contents...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568102/enhanced-hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-expression-in-adipose-tissue-may-contribute-to-diet-induced-visceral-adiposity
#17
Limei Liu, Ying Wang, Jian Wang, Yunzhou Dong, Scarlett Chang, Xiwen Liu, Kabirullah Lutfy, Hong Chen, Theodore C Friedman, Meisheng Jiang, Yanjun Liu
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat accumulation increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is associated with excessive glucocorticoids (GCs). Fat depot-specific GC action is tightly controlled by 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD1) coupled with the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH). Mice with inactivation or activation of H6PDH genes show altered adipose 11ß-HSD1 activity and lipid storage. We hypothesized that adipose tissue H6PDH activation is a leading cause for the visceral obesity and insulin resistance...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566469/volumetric-lipoinjection-of-the-fronto-orbital-and-temporal-complex-with-adipose-stem-cells-for-the-aesthetic-restoration-of-sequelae-of-craniosynostosis
#18
Yanko Castro-Govea, Amin Vela-Martinez, Luis Alberto Treviño-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Non-syndromic craniosynostosis causes craniofacial asymmetry and may persist after cranioplasty. These postoperative asymmetries are primarily depressions. In some cases, patients may be subjected to pranks and harassment by their peers, affecting their psychosocial development. We propose lipoinjection enriched with adipose stem cells (ASCs) to treat the sequelae of craniosynostosis in the fronto-orbital and temporal complex in cranioplasty patients, with the goal of improving the appearance of the upper third of the face...
March 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563954/evaluating-the-fat-distribution-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-scanning
#19
Catherine Hornby, Hannah Botfield, Michael W O'Reilly, Connar Westgate, James Mitchell, Susan P Mollan, Konstantinos Manolopoulos, Jeremy Tomlinson, Alexandra Sinclair
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is strongly associated with obesity. We aimed to utilise dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to characterise fat distribution, and to evaluate change in fat mass and distribution following weight loss. IIH patients ( n = 24) had a similar fat distribution to body mass index (BMI)- and gender-matched obese controls ( n = 47). In the IIH cohort, truncal fat mass correlated with lumbar puncture pressure. Weight loss in IIH patients resulted in a significant reduction in disease activity and fat mass, predominantly from the truncal region (-4...
April 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555491/the-radiographic-prepatellar-fat-thickness-ratio-correlates-with-infection-risk-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#20
Russell A Wagner, Sean P Hogan, John Ross Burge, Christopher M Bates, Hugo B Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with complications after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Surgical site infection (SSI) after TKA is one of the feared complications as it increases revision rates, costs, and stress to the patient. There is conflicting evidence in the literature regarding body mass index (BMI) and risk of infection after TKA, and some studies have suggested that site-specific fat distribution may be a better metric for determining risk of postoperative infections...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
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