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twin research

Svetlana V Glinianaia, Judith Rankin, Asma Khalil, Julia Binder, Gareth Waring, Stephen N Sturgiss, Basky Thilaganathan, Therese Hannon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancies and to describe perinatal outcomes and clinical management of these pregnancies. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study used population-based data on MCMA twin pregnancies from 11 Northern Survey of Twin and Multiple Pregnancy (NorSTAMP) maternity units for the prevalence estimation of MCMA twinning. Pregnancy outcomes at <24 weeks' gestation, antenatal parameters and perinatal outcomes (from ≥24 weeks to the first 28 days of life) were analysed using combined data on pregnancies with confirmed MCMA chorionicity from the NorSTAMP and the Southwest Thames Region of London Obstetric Research Collaborative (STORK) multiple pregnancy cohort for 2000-2013...
June 13, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Stephen V Faraone, Henrik Larsson
Decades of research show that genes play an vital role in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its comorbidity with other disorders. Family, twin, and adoption studies show that ADHD runs in families. ADHD's high heritability of 74% motivated the search for ADHD susceptibility genes. Genetic linkage studies show that the effects of DNA risk variants on ADHD must, individually, be very small. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated several genetic loci at the genome-wide level of statistical significance...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Camelia C Minică, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma, Eco de Geus, Michael C Neale
Although experimental studies are regarded as the method of choice for determining causal influences, these are not always practical or ethical to answer vital questions in health and social research (e.g., one cannot assign individuals to a "childhood trauma condition" in studying the causal effects of childhood trauma on depression). Key to solving such questions are observational studies. Mendelian Randomization (MR) is an influential method to establish causality in observational studies. MR uses genetic variants to test causal relationships between exposures/risk factors and outcomes such as physical or mental health...
June 7, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Fu-Chao Liu, Huan-Tang Lin, Chang-Fu Kuo, Mei-Yun Hsieh, Lai-Chu See, Huang-Ping Yu
Background: Individuals with a family history of Parkinson's disease (PD) appear to have a higher risk of developing PD and other neuropsychiatric diseases. However, estimates of the relative risks (RRs) of PD and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in PD susceptibility are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine familial aggregation and genetic contributions to PD and the RRs of other neuropsychiatric diseases in relatives of PD patients. Methods: In this population-based family cohort study, the records of all individuals actively registered in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 2015 were queried (N=24,349,599)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Nathan J Evans, Mark Steyvers, Scott D Brown
Understanding individual differences in cognitive performance is an important part of understanding how variations in underlying cognitive processes can result in variations in task performance. However, the exploration of individual differences in the components of the decision process-such as cognitive processing speed, response caution, and motor execution speed-in previous research has been limited. Here, we assess the heritability of the components of the decision process, with heritability having been a common aspect of individual differences research within other areas of cognition...
June 5, 2018: Cognitive Science
Sushma V Lute, Ranjit M Dhenge, Agba D Salman
Lactose and mannitol are some of the most commonly used powders in the pharmaceutical industry. The limited research published so far highlights the effects of process and formulation parameters on the properties of the granules and the tablets produced using these two types of powders separately. However, the comparison of the performance of these two types of powders during twin screw wet granulation has received no attention. The present research is focused on understanding the granulation mechanism of different grades of two pharmaceutical powders with varying properties (i...
June 2, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Anna M Hedman, Tong Gong, Cecilia Lundholm, Elin Dahlén, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Bronwyn K Brew, Catarina Almqvist
PURPOSE: Risk factors and consequences of asthma can be studied by using validated questionnaires. The overall objective of this study was to assess the agreement of parental-reported asthma-related questions regarding their children against Swedish health care registers. METHODS: We linked a population-based twin cohort of 27 055 children aged 9 to 12 years to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, National Patient Register, and the primary care register. Parent-reported asthma was obtained from questionnaires, and diagnoses and medication were retrieved from the registers...
June 3, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Pia Hollerbach, Ada Johansson, Daniel Ventus, Patrick Jern, Craig S Neumann, Lars Westberg, Pekka Santtila, Elmar Habermeyer, Andreas Mokros
Psychopathy is characterized by callous affect, interpersonal manipulation, a deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behavior. Previous research has linked psychopathic traits to childhood trauma, but also to the upstream variable number tandem repeat (uVNTR) polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene. An interaction between childhood trauma and MAOA genotype has been associated with antisocial behavior, but so far little is known about interaction effects of childhood trauma and the MAOA uVNTR on psychopathy...
May 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Cristian Viorel Poalelungi, Liana Ples, Decebal Hudita, Iuliana Ceausu
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the historical risk factors associated with preterm birth, and the potential benefit of correct prenatal care for prevention. METHODS: This prospective study was performed in 2011-12 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, and comprised women who gave birth at the hospital during the study period. The pregnancy was considered clinically cared if a pregnant woman underwent the following exams: first trimester ultrasound, maternal serum tests, screening tests, second trimester ultrasound, and amniocentesis if deemed necessary...
April 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Cicerone Laurentiu Popa, Costel Emil Cotet, Diana Popescu, Mihai Florin Solea, Simona Gheorghiţa Şaşcîm Dumitrescu, Tiberiu Dobrescu
The current paper presents the design of a glass panels recycling flow and the method used for establishing the optimal processing installation architecture. In the solution provided in the current research, a novel approach centred on applying digital twinning in the design of the requested processing architecture is presented. It involves designing the virtual prototype of the diffused processing architecture and modelling the glass waste flow as a hybrid material flow. Dedicated analysis and simulation software is then used for establishing installation architecture and the specific parameters for each processing and transport capacity...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Jonathan D Schaefer, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Renate Houts, Margaret A Sheridan, Jasmin Wertz, Avshalom Caspi
Adolescence is the peak age for both victimization and mental disorder onset. Previous research has reported associations between victimization exposure and many psychiatric conditions. However, causality remains controversial. Within the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, we tested whether seven types of adolescent victimization increased risk of multiple psychiatric conditions and approached causal inference by systematically ruling out noncausal explanations. Longitudinal within-individual analyses showed that victimization was followed by increased mental health problems over a childhood baseline of emotional/behavioral problems...
May 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Juan J Madrid-Valero, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, Alice M Gregory, José M Martínez-Selva, Juan R Ordoñana
Study objectives: Sleep quality is associated with health throughout the life span, which is particularly salient in middle-age and older adulthood. Sleep quality appears to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. However, there is still limited information about genetic influences on sleep quality in middle-aged adults, and particularly in those from certain geographical locations. We estimated the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on sleep quality in a representative sample of middle-aged Spanish twins...
May 25, 2018: Sleep
Minxuan Huang, Amit Shah, Shaoyong Su, Jack Goldberg, Rachel J Lampert, Oleksiy M Levantsevych, Lucy Shallenberger, Pratik Pimple, J Douglas Bremner, Viola Vaccarino
Importance: Depressive symptoms are associated with lower heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic dysregulation, but the direction of the association remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the temporal association between depression and HRV. Design, Settings, and Participants: A longitudinal, cross-lagged twin difference study, with baseline assessments from March 2002 to March 2006 (visit 1) and a 7-year follow-up (visit 2) at an academic research center with participants recruited from a national twin registry...
May 16, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Lisa N Yelland, Ewoud Schuit, Javier Zamora, Philippa F Middleton, Arianne C Lim, Anwar H Nassar, Line Rode, Vicente Serra, Elizabeth A Thom, Christophe Vayssière, Ben Wj Mol, Simon Gates
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the correlation between neonatal outcomes of twins and demonstrate how this information can be used in the design of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in women with twin pregnancies. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from 12 RCTs. SETTING: Obstetric care in multiple countries, 2004-2012. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 4504 twin pairs born to women who participated in RCTs to assess treatments given during pregnancy...
May 22, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Fiona L Mackie, Matthew J Hall, R Katie Morris, Mark D Kilby
OBJECTIVE: Assess ability of first trimester pregnancy related factors (ultrasound measurements, maternal characteristics, biomarkers) to predict complications in monochorionic twin pregnancies DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Registration of Controlled Trials and Research Registers, and Google Scholar, from inception to 12 May 2017. Grey literature and bibliographies of articles were checked. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies that reported ultrasound measurements, maternal characteristics, or potential biomarkers, measured in the first trimester in monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies, where the potential prognostic ability between the variable and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, growth restriction, or intrauterine fetal death could be assessed...
May 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gretchen R B Saunders, Irene J Elkins, Kaare Christensen, Matt McGue
Prior research has shown robust associations between greater subjective well-being (SWB) and reduced mortality. Whether this observed association is causal in nature or due instead to confounding genetic or environmental factors affecting both SWB and mortality is not well understood. We used a combined sample of 6,802 twins drawn from two cohorts: the Longitudinal Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins (MADT; N = 2,815, baseline age between 45 and 69 years, M = 56.8, SD = 6.4) and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT; N = 3,987, baseline age between 70 and 97 years, M = 76...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
Mark A Whisman, Alta du Pont, Soo Hyun Rhee, Erica L Spotts, Paul Lichtenstein, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Jenae M Neiderhiser
BACKGROUND: Prior research has found a reliable and robust association between poor dyadic (e.g., marital) adjustment and depression and anxiety. However, it is possible that this association may be due, at least in part, to confounding variables (i.e., variables that are causally associated both with marital adjustment and psychopathology and could account for their covariation). The present study was conducted using a genetically informative sample of twins to examine the association between dyadic adjustment and symptoms of depression and anxiety, accounting for unmeasured genetic and shared environmental confounds...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Gerald Holtmann, Paul Enck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Rebecca Richards, Jayshree Patel, Kate Stevenson, SallyAnn Harbison
Epigenetics is an emerging area of interest in forensic science. DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic modification, can be applied to chronological age estimation, identical twin differentiation and body fluid identification. However, there is not yet an agreed, established methodology for targeted detection and analysis of DNA methylation markers in forensic research. Recently a massively parallel sequencing-based approach has been suggested. The use of massively parallel sequencing is well established in clinical epigenetics and is emerging as a new technology in the forensic field...
May 11, 2018: Electrophoresis
Laura N Anderson, Julia A Knight, Rayjean J Hung, Sheryl L Hewko, Ryan A Seeto, Mary-Jean Martin, Alison Fleming, Jonathon L Maguire, Stephen G Matthews, Kellie E Murphy, Nan Okun, Jennifer M Jenkins, Stephen J Lye, Alan Bocking
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and early childhood represent critical periods that impact health throughout the life-course. The Ontario Birth Study (OBS) is a pregnancy cohort study designed as a platform for research on pregnancy complications, maternal and infant health, and the developmental origins of health and disease. METHODS: Pregnant women <17 weeks gestational age were recruited between 2013 and 2015 from antenatal clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada...
May 11, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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