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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448518/effect-of-aspect-ratio-on-electrical-rheological-and-glass-transition-properties-of-pc-mwcnt-nanocomposites
#1
Heidy Cruz, Younggon Son
Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNT), significant research works have focused on the application of CNT as conductive filler to polymer nanocomposites which can be used in several fields such as electrostatic dissipation (ESD), electrostatic painting and electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI-shielding). However, the main challenge in the large-scale manufacturing of this technology is the poor electrical conductivity of polymer nanocomposites produced by injection molding process. This study aims to investigate the effect of CNT aspect ratio in improving the electrical conductivity of injection molded nanocomposites...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433366/mode-of-birth-in-twins-data-and-reflections
#2
A Reitter, B A Daviss, M J Krimphove, K C Johnson, R Schlößer, F Louwen, A Bisits
Our primary objective was to compare neonatal and maternal outcomes in women with twin pregnancies, beyond 32 weeks, having a planned vaginal birth or a planned caesarean section (CS). This was a retrospective cohort study from a single tertiary centre over nine years. 534 sets of twins ≥32 + 0 weeks of gestation were included. 401 sets were planned vaginally and 133 sets were planned by CS. We compared a composite adverse perinatal outcome (perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity; five minute APGAR score ≤4, neurological abnormality and need for intubation) and a composite maternal adverse outcome (major haemorrhage, trauma or infection) between the groups...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423343/rumination-and-psychopathology-are-anger-and-depressive-rumination-differentially-associated-with-internalizing-and-externalizing-psychopathology
#3
Alta du Pont, Soo Hyun Rhee, Robin P Corley, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Existing literature on rumination has predominately focused on depressive rumination; thus, there is little research directly comparing different forms of rumination as correlates of psychopathological outcomes. The present study investigated anger and depressive rumination as correlates of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Cross-sectional confirmatory factor analyses on data from 764 young adults from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study indicated that anger and depressive rumination were separable at the latent variable level, and were both associated with lifetime symptoms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology...
February 2018: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415910/comparative-immunity-of-antigen-recognition-differentiation-and-other-functional-molecules-similarities-and-differences-among-common-marmosets-humans-and-mice
#4
Yoshie Kametani, Takashi Shiina, Ryuji Suzuki, Erika Sasaki, Sonoko Habu
The common marmoset (CM; Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey with a high rate of pregnancy and is maintained in closed colonies as an experimental animal species. Although CMs are used for immunological research, such as studies of autoimmune disease and infectious disease, their immunological characteristics are less defined than those of other nonhuman primates. We and others have analyzed antigen recognition-related molecules, the development of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and the molecules involved in the immune response...
February 8, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413155/examining-the-association-between-autistic-traits-and-atypical-sensory-reactivity-a-twin-study
#5
Mark J Taylor, Peik Gustafsson, Henrik Larsson, Christopher Gillberg, Sebastian Lundström, Paul Lichstenstein
OBJECTIVE: Atypical responses to sensory stimuli are common features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Consequently, atypical sensory reactivity (SR) is now a diagnostic feature of ASD. Quantitative genetic research on ASD has overlooked these symptoms, however. We therefore investigated the association between autistic traits and SR using twin methods. METHOD: Autistic traits and SR were assessed by 2 separate scales in 12,419 Swedish twin pairs (n = 3,586 monozygotic [MZ], n = 8,833 dizygotic [DZ]) when the twins were 9 or 12 years of age...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410268/preparation-and-characterization-of-thermoplastic-starch-and-cellulose-nanofibers-as-green-nanocomposites-extrusion-processing
#6
Abbas Ghanbari, Taghi Tabarsa, Alireza Ashori, Alireza Shakeri, Mahdi Mashkour
This research was aimed at studying the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS) from cornstarch flour using twin screw extrusion. Also, the effects of the addition of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) as reinforcement, on TPS nanocomposite films properties were evaluated. Nanocomposites with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5wt% of CNFs content were prepared. The chemical structure of starch, TPS and TPS/CNFs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties, morphological structure, and thermal stability of neat thermoplastic starch and their nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and water absorption (WA) test...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401269/chronic-hyperandrogenemia-and-western-style-diet-beginning-at-puberty-reduces-fertility-and-increases-metabolic-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-in-young-adult-female-macaques
#7
C V Bishop, R L Stouffer, D L Takahashi, E C Mishler, M C Wilcox, O D Slayden, C A True
STUDY QUESTION: What are the impacts of elevated testosterone (T) and an obesogenic western-style diet (WSD), either independently or together, on fertility and metabolic adaptations of pregnancy in primates? SUMMARY ANSWER: Testosterone increases the time to achieve pregnancy, while a WSD reduces overall fertility, and the combination of testosterone and WSD additionally impairs glucose tolerance and causes pregnancy loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both hyperandrogenemia and obesity are hallmarks of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a leading cause of infertility among women worldwide...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396481/conserved-dna-methylation-signatures-in-early-maternal-separation-and-in-twins-discordant-for-co2-sensitivity
#8
Francesca Giannese, Alessandra Luchetti, Giulia Barbiera, Valentina Lampis, Claudio Zanettini, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Simona Scaini, Dejan Lazarevic, Davide Cittaro, Francesca R D'Amato, Marco Battaglia
Respiratory and emotional responses to blood-acidifying inhalation of CO2 are markers of some human anxiety disorders, and can be enhanced by repeatedly cross-fostering (RCF) mouse pups from their biological mother to unrelated lactating females. Yet, these dynamics remain poorly understood. We show RCF-associated intergenerational transmission of CO2 sensitivity in normally-reared mice descending from RCF-exposed females, and describe the accompanying alterations in brain DNA methylation patterns. These epigenetic signatures were compared to DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic twins discordant for emotional reactivity to a CO2 challenge...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393215/age-estimation-with-dna-from-forensic-dna-fingerprinting-to-forensic-epi-genomics-a-mini-review
#9
Walther Parson
Forensic genetics developed from protein-based techniques a quarter of a century ago and became famous as "DNA fingerprinting," this being based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of high-molecular-weight DNA. The amplification of much smaller short tandem repeat (STR) sequences using the polymerase chain reaction soon replaced RFLP analysis and advanced to become the gold standard in genetic identification. Meanwhile, STR multiplexes have been developed and made commercially available which simultaneously amplify up to 30 STR loci from as little as 15 cells or fewer...
January 23, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380213/medical-students-exposure-to-the-humanities-correlates-with-positive-personal-qualities-and-reduced-burnout-a-multi-institutional-u-s-survey
#10
Salvatore Mangione, Chayan Chakraborti, Giuseppe Staltari, Rebecca Harrison, Allan R Tunkel, Kevin T Liou, Elizabeth Cerceo, Megan Voeller, Wendy L Bedwell, Keaton Fletcher, Marc J Kahn
BACKGROUND: Literature, music, theater, and visual arts play an uncertain and limited role in medical education. One of the arguments often advanced in favor of teaching the humanities refers to their capacity to foster traits that not only improve practice, but might also reduce physician burnout-an increasing scourge in today's medicine. Yet, research remains limited. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that medical students with higher exposure to the humanities would report higher levels of positive physician qualities (e...
January 29, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378809/mosaic-analysis-in-drosophila
#11
Federico Germani, Cora Bergantinos, Laura A Johnston
Since the founding of Drosophila genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan and his colleagues over 100 years ago, the experimental induction of mosaicism has featured prominently in its recognition as an unsurpassed genetic model organism. The use of genetic mosaics has facilitated the discovery of a wide variety of developmental processes, identified specific cell lineages, allowed the study of recessive embryonic lethal mutations, and demonstrated the existence of cell competition. Here, we discuss how genetic mosaicism in Drosophila became an invaluable research tool that revolutionized developmental biology...
February 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377643/causes-of-congenital-malformations
#12
M Hassan Toufaily, Marie-Noel Westgate, Angela E Lin, Lewis B Holmes
BACKGROUND: Many different causes of malformations have been established. The surveillance of a consecutive population of births, including stillbirths and elective terminations of pregnancy because of fetal anomalies, can identify each infant with malformations and determine the frequency of the apparent etiologies. This report is a sequel to the first such analysis in the first 10 years of this Active Malformations Surveillance Program (Nelson and Holmes, ). METHODS: The presence of malformations was determined among 289,365 births over 41 years (1972-2012) at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston...
January 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369039/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-of-negative-valence-systems-to-internalizing-pathways
#13
Jennifer L Cecilione, Lance M Rappaport, Shannon E Hahn, Audrey E Anderson, Laura E Hazlett, Jason R Burchett, Ashlee A Moore, Jeanne E Savage, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay
The genetic and environmental contributions of negative valence systems (NVS) to internalizing pathways study (also referred to as the Adolescent and Young Adult Twin Study) was designed to examine varying constructs of the NVS as they relate to the development of internalizing disorders from a genetically informed perspective. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic and environmental contributions to potential psychiatric endophenotypes that contribute to internalizing psychopathology by studying adolescent and young adult twins longitudinally over a 2-year period...
February 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361503/twin-studies-for-the-prognosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-musculoskeletal-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Lucas Calais-Ferreira, Vinicius C Oliveira, Jeffrey M Craig, Louisa B Flander, John L Hopper, Luci F Teixeira-Salmella, Paulo H Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal conditions are highly prevalent in our ageing society and are therefore incurring substantial increases in population levels of years lived with disability (YLD). An evidence-based approach to the prognosis, prevention, and treatment of those disorders can allow an overall improvement in the quality of life of patients, while also softening the burden on national health care systems. METHODS: In this Masterclass article, we provide an overview of the most relevant twin study designs, their advantages, limitations and major contributions to the investigation of traits related to the domain of musculoskeletal physical therapy...
December 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349587/the-danish-medical-birth-register
#15
REVIEW
Mette Bliddal, Anne Broe, Anton Pottegård, Jørn Olsen, Jens Langhoff-Roos
The Danish Medical Birth Register was established in 1973. It is a key component of the Danish health information system. The register enables monitoring of the health of pregnant women and their offspring, it provides data for quality assessment of the perinatal care in Denmark, and it is used extensively for research. The register underwent major changes in construction and content in 1997, and new variables have been added during the last 20 years. The aim was to provide an updated description of the register focusing on structure, content, and coverage since 1997...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334044/gene-environment-interplay-in-the-etiology-of-psychosis
#16
Alyson Zwicker, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Rudolf Uher
Schizophrenia and other types of psychosis incur suffering, high health care costs and loss of human potential, due to the combination of early onset and poor response to treatment. Our ability to prevent or cure psychosis depends on knowledge of causal mechanisms. Molecular genetic studies show that thousands of common and rare variants contribute to the genetic risk for psychosis. Epidemiological studies have identified many environmental factors associated with increased risk of psychosis. However, no single genetic or environmental factor is sufficient to cause psychosis on its own...
January 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324852/real-life-helping-behaviours-in-north-america-a-genome-wide-association-approach
#17
Georg Primes, Martin Fieder
In humans, prosocial behaviour is essential for social functioning. Twin studies suggest this distinct human trait to be partly hardwired. In the last decade research on the genetics of prosocial behaviour focused on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, dopamine, and their respective pathways. Recent trends towards large scale medical studies targeting the genetic basis of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia pave the way for new directions also in behavioural genetics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324601/potentially-preventable-stillbirth-in-a-diverse-u-s-cohort
#18
Jessica M Page, Vanessa Thorsten, Uma M Reddy, Donald J Dudley, Carol J Rowland Hogue, George R Saade, Halit Pinar, Corette B Parker, Deborah Conway, Barbara J Stoll, Donald Coustan, Radek Bukowski, Michael W Varner, Robert L Goldenberg, Karen Gibbins, Robert M Silver
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of potentially preventable stillbirths in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 512 stillbirths with complete evaluation enrolled in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network from 2006 to 2008. The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network was a multisite, geographically, racially, and ethnically diverse, population-based case-control study of stillbirth in the United States. Cases of stillbirth underwent standard evaluation that included maternal interview, medical record abstraction, biospecimen collection, postmortem examination, placental pathology, and clinically recommended evaluation...
February 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305597/grammar-clinical-marker-yields-substantial-heritability-for-language-impairments-in-16-year-old-twins
#19
Philip S Dale, Mabel L Rice, Kaili Rimfeld, Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas
Purpose: There is a need for well-defined language phenotypes suitable for adolescents in twin studies and other large-scale research projects. Rice, Hoffman, and Wexler (2009) have developed a grammatical judgment measure as a clinical marker of language impairment, which has an extended developmental range to adolescence. Method: We conducted the first twin analysis, along with associated phenotypic analyses of validity, of an abridged, 20-item version of this grammatical judgment measure (GJ-20), based on telephone administration using prerecorded stimuli to 405 pairs of 16-year-olds (148 monozygotic and 257 dizygotic) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (Haworth, Davis, & Plomin, 2012)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302220/a-brief-review-of-the-genetics-and-pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-use-disorders
#20
Wade Berrettini
Increased physician prescribing of opioids to treat chronic nonprogressive pain has been accompanied by an increase in opioid addiction. Twin studies of opioid addiction are consistent with an inherited component of risk, approximately 50%. Several genome-wide association study (GWAS) reports indicate that genetic risk for opioid addiction is conveyed by many alleles of small effect (odds ratios <1.5). These reports have detected alleles in potassium-ion-channel genes (KCNC1 and KCNG2) and in a glutamate receptor auxiliary protein (CNIH3)...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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