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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675039/the-role-of-cell-adhesion-molecule-genes-regulating-neuroplasticity-in-addiction
#1
REVIEW
Dawn E Muskiewicz, George R Uhl, F Scott Hall
A variety of genetic approaches, including twin studies, linkage studies, and candidate gene studies, has established a firm genetic basis for addiction. However, there has been difficulty identifying the precise genes that underlie addiction liability using these approaches. This situation became especially clear in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of addiction. Moreover, the results of GWAS brought into clarity many of the shortcomings of those early genetic approaches. GWAS studies stripped away those preconceived notions, examining genes that would not previously have been considered in the study of addiction, consequently creating a shift in our understanding...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673926/the-investigations-of-genetic-determinants-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Behdokht Fathi Dizaji
Metabolic syndrome is the aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Family and twin studies, heritability spectrum for its components and different prevalence among ethnicities, have provided genetic susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome. The investigations of genetic base for the disorder have recognized numerous chromosomes, various DNA polymorphisms in candidate genes and many gene variants, that are associated with metabolic syndrome as an entity or its traits, which mostly are related to lipid metabolism...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668891/maternal-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-early-offspring-development
#3
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662034/inline-determination-of-residence-time-distribution-in-hot-melt-extrusion
#4
Jens Wesholowski, Andreas Berghaus, Markus Thommes
In the framework of Quality-by-Design (QbD), the inline determination of process parameters or quality attributes of a product using sufficient process analytical technology (PAT) is a center piece for the establishment of continuous processes as a standard pharmaceutical technology. In this context, Twin-Screw-Extrusion (TSE) processes, such as Hot-Melt-Extrusion (HME), are one key aspect of current research. The main benefit of this process technology is the combination of different unit operations. Several of these sub-processes are linked to the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) of the material within the apparatus...
April 15, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661565/fetal-growth-restriction-in-twins
#5
REVIEW
R Townsend, A Khalil
Twin pregnancies are more likely to be affected by fetal growth restriction (FGR), preterm birth and perinatal loss. The management of fetal growth restriction in multiple pregnancy, particularly where only one fetus is affected is complicated by the need to consider the interests of both twins. Selective growth restriction in monochorionic (MC) twins is a pathophysiological process distinct from FGR in dichorionic (DC) pregnancies and management demands an understanding of the monochorionic placental structure and interdependent fetal circulations...
February 24, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660295/breastfeeding-twins-factors-related-to-weaning
#6
Fernanda Cristina Ferreira Mikami, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Agatha Rodrigues, Wagner Rodrigues Hernandez, Marcelo Zugaib, Maria de Lourdes Brizot
BACKGROUND: Many factors may influence a woman's decision to start and maintain breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in twin infants during the first 6 months after birth and to describe the main reasons for weaning cited by mothers of twins. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a prospective randomized trial conducted in Brazil. Data were obtained through longitudinal quantitative and qualitative self-reported interviews...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660172/predictive-accuracy-of-the-southwest-thames-obstetric-research-collaborative-stork-chorionicity-specific-twin-growth-charts-for-stillbirth-a-validation-study
#7
Erkan Kalafat, Mercedes Sebghati, Basky Thilaganathan, Asma Khalil
OBJECTIVE: Twin pregnancy is associated with 2-3 fold increased risk of stillbirth compared to singletons. Despite the fact that the growth pattern has been shown to differ in twins compared to singletons, it is controversial whether twin-specific growth charts should be routinely used. A major goal of prenatal ultrasound is to identify fetuses suffering from growth restriction at risk of stillbirth. The main aim of this study was to compare the performance of chorionicity-specific twin charts with singleton charts, both customized and non-customized, in the antenatal prediction of small-for-gestational age (SGA) stillborn and liveborn fetuses...
April 16, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659834/an-open-source-integrated-pedigree-data-management-and-visualization-tool-for-genetic-epidemiology
#8
Thilina Ranaweera, Enes Makalic, John L Hopper, Adrian Bickerstaffe
With advances in genetic epidemiology, increasingly large amounts of pedigree-related information are being collected by family studies, including twin studies. To date, biomedical data management systems that cater for family data have usually done so as part of their standard (non-family-centric) data model. Consequently, data managers with computing expertise are needed to extract family datasets and perform family-centric operations. We present a robust approach to handling large family datasets. Our approach is implemented as a new module which extends the capabilities of The Ark, an open-source web-based biomedical data management tool...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658745/stability-of-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-executive-functions-in-midlife
#9
Daniel E Gustavson, Matthew S Panizzon, Jeremy A Elman, Carol E Franz, Chandra A Reynolds, Kristen C Jacobson, Naomi P Friedman, Hong Xian, Rosemary Toomey, Michael J Lyons, William S Kremen
Research on executive functions (EFs) has revealed that individual differences in general EF abilities are highly correlated across the first few decades of life, especially at the level of genetic influences. Our work has also provided evidence for substantial heritability of this Common EF factor in midlife, but it remains unclear whether individual differences in Common EFs continue to show strong stability in middle age. We examined data from 1,464 middle-aged twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, most of whom completed 7 neuropsychological measures of EFs at 2 points in middle age (Mages = 56 and 62)...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658740/twin-classroom-dilemma-to-study-together-or-separately
#10
Elaine K White, Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Maria G Tosto, Sergey B Malykh, Xinying Li, Beatrix Kiddle, Lucy Riglin, Brian Byrne, Ginette Dionne, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Michel Boivin, Yulia Kovas
There is little research to date on the academic implications of teaching twins in the same or different classroom. Consequently, it is not clear whether twin classroom separation is associated with positive or negative educational outcomes. As a result, parents and teachers have insufficient evidence to make a well-informed decision when twins start school. This study addresses two research questions: Are there average positive or negative effects of classroom separation? Are twins taught in different classes more different from each other than twins taught in the same class? Twin pairs from two large representative samples from Quebec (Canada) and the United Kingdom were evaluated across a large age range (7 to 16 years) on academic achievement, several cognitive abilities and motivational measures...
April 16, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655401/classic-provocative-and-or-influential-a-twin-study-sampler-twin-research-reviews-twin-pregnancies-with-and-without-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-ectopic-twin-pregnancy-sex-differences-in-cognition-maternal-cardiac-hemodynamics-newsworthy-president-obama-s-portrait
#11
Nancy L Segal
Selected twin research papers that are classic, provocative, and/or influential are surveyed. Many papers meet these criteria, so those chosen reflect the opinion of the author. Reviews of recent research on twin pregnancies with and without polycystic ovary syndrome, ectopic pregnancy, sex differences in cognition and maternal cardiac hemodynamics follow. Newsworthy twin-based items, including President Obama's portrait artist, the financial activities of the Winkelvoss twins, a set of triplet fashion models and the experience of seeing oneself in a painting, are summarized...
April 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655398/adult-empathy-possible-gender-differences-in-gene-environment-architecture-for-cognitive-and-emotional-components-in-a-large-italian-twin-sample
#12
Virgilia Toccaceli, Corrado Fagnani, Nancy Eisenberg, Guido Alessandri, Augusto Vitale, Maria Antonietta Stazi
Empathy plays a central role in prosocial behavior and human cooperation. Very few twin researchers have investigated innate and environmental effects in adult empathy, and twin research on gender differences in these effects is sparse. The goal of this study was to examine innate and environmental influences on three components of an empathy scale frequently used with adults - the expression of cognitive (CE), emotional (EE), and social skills (SS) empathy - and to explore gender differences in the influences...
April 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619677/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-language-ability-in-older-adults-findings-from-the-older-australian-twins-study
#13
T Lee, A Thalamuthu, J D Henry, J N Trollor, D Ames, M J Wright, P S Sachdev
We used a sub-sample from the Older Australian Twins Study to estimate the heritability of performance on three tests of language ability: Boston Naming Test (BNT), Letter/Phonemic Fluency (FAS) and Category/Semantic Fluency (CFT) Tests. After adjusting for age, sex, education, mood, and global cognition (GC), heritability estimates obtained for the three tests were 0.35, 0.59, and 0.20, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that the genetic correlation were high for BNT and CFT (0.61), but low for BNT and FAS (0...
April 4, 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607796/the-etiology-of-social-aggression-a-nuclear-twin-family-study
#14
Brooke L Slawinski, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt
BACKGROUND: Social aggression is a form of antisocial behavior in which social relationships and social status are used to damage reputations and inflict emotional harm on others. Despite extensive research examining the prevalence and consequences of social aggression, only a few studies have examined its genetic-environmental etiology, with markedly inconsistent results. METHOD: We estimated the etiology of social aggression using the nuclear twin family (NTF) model...
April 2, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596870/a-qualitative-investigation-of-how-mothers-from-low-income-households-perceive-their-role-during-family-meals
#15
Amanda C Trofholz, Anna K Schulte, Jerica M Berge
BACKGROUND: Having regular family meals has been shown to be protective for child dietary intake (e.g., higher intake of fruit and vegetables). Mothers appear to be most responsible for preparing family meals. Therefore, understanding how mothers perceive their roles around family meals may help identify ways in which to help more families have regular family meals. METHODS: United States mothers (n = 83) from the Twin Cities, Minnesota were interviewed during an in-home visit...
March 26, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596027/optimization-aspects-of-the-biological-nitrogen-removal-process-in-a-full-scale-twin-sequencing-batch-reactor-sbr-system-in-series-treating-landfill-leachate
#16
Nikolaos Remmas, Spyridon Ntougias, Marianna Chatzopoulou, Paraschos Melidis
Despite the fact that biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process has been studied in detail in laboratory- and pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems treating landfill leachate, a limited number of research works have been performed in full-scale SBR plants regarding nitrification and denitrification. In the current study, a full-scale twin SBR system in series of 700 m3 (350 m3 each) treating medium-age landfill leachate was evaluated in terms of its carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency in the absence and presence of external carbon source, i...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590493/longitudinal-twin-study-of-subjective-health-differences-in-genetic-and-environmental-components-of-variance-across-age-and-sex
#17
Deborah Finkel, Carol E Franz, Kaare Christensen, Chandra A Reynolds, Nancy L Pedersen
Objective: The current analysis examines sex differences in longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental influences on three measures of subjective health. Method: Sample includes 7372 twins (mean intake age = 73.22) with up to 8 waves of measurement (mean = 3.1). Three subjective health (SH) items were included: general self-rated health (SRH), health compared to age peers (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT) which previous research shows capture different frames of reference...
March 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582724/definitive-zygosity-scores-in-the-peas-in-the-pod-questionnaire-is-a-sensitive-and-accurate-assessment-of-the-zygosity-of-adult-twins
#18
Zakariya A Jarrar, Kirsten J Ward, Massimo Mangino, Lynn F Cherkas, Raj Gill, Irina Gillham-Nasenya, Darioush Yarand, Deborah Hart, Christopher J Hammond, Tim D Spector
Twin researchers face the challenge of accurately determining the zygosity of twins for research. As part of the annual questionnaire between 1999 and 2006, 8,307 twins from the TwinsUK registry were asked to complete five questions (independently from their co-twin) to ascertain their self-perceived zygosity during childhood on up to five separate occasions. This questionnaire is known as the 'peas in the pod' questionnaire (PPQ), but there is little evidence of its validation. Answers were scored and classified as monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic (DZ), or unknown zygosity (UZ) and were compared with 4,484 twins with genotyping data who had not been selected for zygosity...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582723/are-migraine-and-tension-type-headache-genetically-related-an-investigation-of-twin-family-data
#19
Lannie Ligthart, Annemarie Huijgen, Gonneke Willemsen, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are often viewed as distinct entities and defined as such in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II) criteria, although there is also empirical evidence to suggest they may be etiologically similar. This study aims to investigate whether migraine and TTH are etiologically related conditions. First, we explored whether migraine and TTH were associated with the same environmental and lifestyle risk factors at the population level. Second, we examined comorbidity of migraine and TTH in a twin design...
April 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566063/pain-catastrophizing-neuroticism-fear-of-pain-and-anxiety-defining-the-genetic-and-environmental-factors-in-a-sample-of-female-twins
#20
Andrea Burri, Soshiro Ogata, David Rice, Frances Williams
The objective of the present study was to establish the heritability of pain catastrophizing and its subdomains of helplessness, magnification, and rumination and to further explore the genetic and environmental sources that may contribute to pain catastrophizing as well as to its commonly reported psycho-affective correlates, including neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and fear of pain. N = 2,401 female twin individuals from the TwinsUK registry were subject to univariate and multivariate twin analyses. Well validated questionnaires including the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale, the Ten Item Personality Index, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index were used to assess the study variables...
2018: PloS One
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