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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303775/reared-apart-chinese-twins-chance-discovery-twin-based-research-twin-study-of-media-use-twin-relations-over-the-life-span-breast-feeding-opposite-sex-twins-print-and-online-media-twins-in-fashion-second-twin-pair-born-to-tennis-star-twin-primes-twin-pandas
#1
Nancy L Segal
A January 2017 reunion of 10-year-old reared-apart Chinese twin girls was captured live on ABC's morning talk show Good Morning America, and rebroadcast on their evening news program Nightline. The twins' similarities and differences, and their participation in ongoing research will be described. This story is followed by reviews of twin research concerning genetic and environmental influences on media use, twin relations across the lifespan and the breast-feeding of opposite-sex twins. Popular interest items include twins in fashion, the second twin pair born to an internationally renowned tennis star, twin primes and twin pandas...
April 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302734/time-dependent-genetic-effects-on-gene-expression-implicate-aging-processes
#2
Julien Bryois, Alfonso Buil, Pedro G Ferreira, Nikolaos I Panousis, Andrew A Brown, Ana Viñuela, Alexandra Planchon, Deborah Bielser, Kerrin Small, Tim Spector, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis
Gene expression is dependent on genetic and environmental factors. In the last decade, a large body of research has significantly improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether genetic effects on gene expression remain stable over time. Here, we show, using longitudinal whole-blood gene expression data from a twin cohort, that the genetic architecture of a subset of genes is unstable over time. In addition, we identified 2213 genes differentially expressed across time points that we linked with aging within and across studies...
March 16, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301762/sex-differences-in-binge-eating-gonadal-hormone-effects-across-development
#3
Kelly L Klump, Kristen M Culbert, Cheryl L Sisk
Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating...
March 16, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296242/observed-parent-child-feeding-dynamics-in-relation-to-child-body-mass-index-and-adiposity
#4
C M Johnson, M S Henderson, G Tripicchio, P Rozin, M Heo, A Pietrobelli, R I Berkowitz, K L Keller, M S Faith
BACKGROUND: Restrictive feeding is associated with child overweight; however, the majority of studies used parent-report questionnaires. OBJECTIVES: The relationship between child adiposity measures and directly observed parent and child behaviours were tested using a novel behavioural coding system (BCS). METHODS: Data from 109 children, participants in a twin study and their mothers, were analyzed. Parent-child dyads were video-recorded twice in the laboratory, while children ate ad libitum from a buffet lunch...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290499/the-evolution-of-extreme-cooperation-via-shared-dysphoric-experiences
#5
Harvey Whitehouse, Jonathan Jong, Michael D Buhrmester, Ángel Gómez, Brock Bastian, Christopher M Kavanagh, Martha Newson, Miriam Matthews, Jonathan A Lanman, Ryan McKay, Sergey Gavrilets
Willingness to lay down one's life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins)...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286050/the-role-of-maternal-age-in-twin-pregnancy-outcomes
#6
Amelia S McLennan, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cande V Ananth, Jason D Wright, Zainab Siddiq, Mary E D'Alton, Alexander M Friedman
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on how maternal age is related to twin pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal age and risk for preterm birth, fetal death, and neonatal death in the setting of twin pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This population-based study of US birth, fetal death, and period linked birth-infant death files from 2007-2013 evaluated neonatal outcomes for twin pregnancies. Maternal age was categorized as 15 to 17, 18 to 24, 25 to 29, 30 to 34, 35 to 39, and ≥40 years of age...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284955/-the-murcia-twin-registry-a-resource-for-research-on-health-related-behaviour
#7
Juan R Ordoñana, Juan F Sánchez Romera, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Eduvigis Carrillo, Francisca González-Javier, Juan J Madrid-Valero, José J Morosoli-García, Francisco Pérez-Riquelme, José M Martínez-Selva
Genetically informative designs and, in particular, twin studies, are the most widely used methodology to analyse the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to inter-individual variability. These studies basically compare the degree of phenotypical similarity between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In addition to the traditional estimate of heritability, this kind of registry enables a wide variety of analyses which are unique due to the characteristics of the sample. The Murcia Twin Registry is population-based and focused on the analysis of health-related behaviour...
March 8, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283857/gene-environment-interactions-in-adhd-the-roles-of-ses-and-chaos
#8
Karen L Gould, William L Coventry, Richard K Olson, Brian Byrne
Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, emerging evidence suggests symptoms are associated with interactions between genes and the environment (GxE) during development. This study tested whether heritability of ADHD symptoms is moderated by two environmental factors: socioeconomic status (SES) and chaos (household disorganisation). A population sample of 520 twin pairs (N = 1040, 52.3% female) from 6 to 15 years completed measures of behavior and home environment. Structural equation modelling was then used to test whether environmental factors were associated with a change in the extent to which genes explain variability in ADHD symptoms...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277309/differential-gene-expression-profiles-in-neurons-generated-from-lymphoblastoid-b-cell-line-derived-ips-cells-from-monozygotic-twin-cases-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-and-discordant-responses-to-clozapine
#9
Takanobu Nakazawa, Masataka Kikuchi, Mitsuru Ishikawa, Hidenaga Yamamori, Kazuki Nagayasu, Takuya Matsumoto, Michiko Fujimoto, Yuka Yasuda, Mikiya Fujiwara, Shota Okada, Kensuke Matsumura, Atsushi Kasai, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Norihito Shintani, Shusuke Numata, Kazuhiro Takuma, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano, Akihiro Nakaya, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Ryota Hashimoto
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder with complex genetic and environmental origins. While many antipsychotics have been demonstrated as effective in the treatment of schizophrenia, a substantial number of schizophrenia patients are partially or fully unresponsive to the treatment. Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic drug for treatment-resistant schizophrenia; however, clozapine has rare but serious side-effects. Furthermore, there is inter-individual variability in the drug response to clozapine treatment...
October 27, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276868/population-based-birth-weight-reference-percentiles-for-chinese-twins
#10
Li Dai, Changfei Deng, Yanhua Li, Ling Yi, Xiaohong Li, Yi Mu, Qi Li, Qiang Yao, Yanping Wang
BACKGROUND: Birth weight percentiles by gestational age are important for assessing prenatal growth and predicting postnatal outcomes of newborns. Several countries have developed nation-specific birth weight references for twins, but China still lacks such references. METHODS AND RESULTS: Birth weight data for twins born between October 2006 and September 2015 were abstracted from the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 54,786 live twin births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects were included in the analysis...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263622/parental-involvement-as-an-etiological-moderator-of-middle-childhood-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#11
Ishien Li, D Angus Clark, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt
The goal of this study was to investigate parental involvement as an etiologic moderator of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during middle childhood. Previous studies examining the influence of genetic and environmental factors on ODD have not considered whether and how these factors might vary by parental involvement. We thus conducted a series of "latent genetic by measured environmental" interaction analyses, in which measured parental involvement was allowed to moderate genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences on child ODD...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254163/human-biomonitoring-pilot-study-democophes-in-germany-contribution-to-a-harmonized-european-approach
#12
Gerda Schwedler, Margarete Seiwert, Ulrike Fiddicke, Sissy Ißleb, Jürgen Hölzer, Julia Nendza, Michael Wilhelm, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Holger M Koch, Birgit K Schindler, Thomas Göen, Jörg Hildebrand, Reinhard Joas, Anke Joas, Ludwine Casteleyn, Jürgen Angerer, Argelia Castano, Marta Esteban, Greet Schoeters, Elly Den Hond, Ovnair Sepai, Karen Exley, Louis Bloemen, Lisbeth E Knudsen, Marike Kolossa-Gehring
Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants, but comparable HBM data in Europe are lacking. In order to expedite harmonization of HBM studies on a European scale, the twin projects COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) and DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) were formed, comprising 35 partners from 27 European countries. In COPHES a research scheme and guidelines were developed to exemplarily measure in a pilot study mercury in hair, cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate metabolites in urine of 6-11year old children and their mothers in an urban and a rural region...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248394/research-on-an-artificial-dielectric-material-for-millimeter-wave-imaging-application
#13
Jinbang Wang, Hanxue Mei, Kui Yang, Lu Zhao, Zhiguo Liu, Tao Zhang
Material made of artificial molecules fabricated from cage-shaped granules of conductor (CGC) is introduced and its electrical and magnetic characteristics are presented. Its refractive index, calculated using complex relative permittivity and complex relative permeability, is 1.504 at 35 GHz. A two-element lens, consisting of a pair of spherical plano-convex lenses, was designed and fabricated by embedding CGC in poly(methyl methacrylate). The active millimeter-wave imaging system was constructed with the two-element lens by having the curved surfaces face each other...
March 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240920/multivariate-analysis-of-genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-parenting-in-adolescence
#14
Megan W Patterson, Amanda K Cheung, Frank D Mann, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Adolescents whose parents are affectionate, maintain consistent rules, and are knowledgeable about their whereabouts tend to exhibit more adaptive levels of psychological functioning across multiple domains. Behavioral genetic research has documented the sensitivity of parenting to genetically influenced child characteristics and behaviors. Yet, the question of whether the correlations between parenting behaviors are driven by overlapping parent effects, overlapping child effects, or some combination of the two remains open...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240821/-invited-review-genetic-research-on-alcohol-use-outcomes-in-african-american-populations-a-review-of-the-literature-associated-challenges-and-implications
#15
REVIEW
Danielle M Dick, Peter Barr, Mignonne Guy, Aashir Nasim, Denise Scott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There have been remarkable advances in understanding genetic influences on complex traits; however, individuals of African descent have been underrepresented in genetic research. METHODS: We review the limitations of existing genetic research on alcohol phenotypes in African Americans (AA) including both twin and gene identification studies, possible reasons for underrepresentation of AAs in genetic research, the implications of the lack of racially diverse samples, and special considerations regarding conducting genetic research in AA populations...
February 27, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237326/metabolic-profiling-of-stages-of-healthy-pregnancy-in-hu-sheep-using-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-nmr
#16
Lingwei Sun, Yixuan Guo, Yixuan Fan, Haitao Nie, Ruocheng Wang, Feng Wang
Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting the reproductive performance of animals. Changes in the ovine maternal metabolism during pregnancy are critical to fetal development. To understand the differences in ovine metabolic changes that occur during normal pregnancy, pregnant ewes carrying twin fetuses (n = 8) were selected at 35 days of gestation (dG). All ewes received 100% of National Research Council (NRC) requirements of all nutrients and energy during this experiment. At 50, 70, 90, and 110 dG, maternal plasma samples were collected and designated as one of four corresponding time points (T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively)...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236812/unusual-twinning-resulting-in-chimerism-a-systematic-review-on-monochorionic-dizygotic-twins
#17
Henrike E Peters, Tamar E König, Marieke O Verhoeven, Roel Schats, Velja Mijatovic, Johannes C F Ket, Cornelis B Lambalk
Traditionally, it is understood that dizygotic (DZ) twins always have a dichorionic placenta. However, with 8% blood chimerism in DZ twins, placental sharing is probably more common than previously has been recognized. In this article, we will review all available cases of monochorionic dizygotic (MCDZ) twins. A total of 31 twins have been described in literature. A monochorionic diamniotic placenta is reported in all cases. Assisted reproductive technology is responsible for the origin of the pregnancy in 82...
February 27, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230406/test-retest-reliability-of-the-facial-expression-labeling-task
#18
Jennifer L Cecilione, Lance M Rappaport, Brad Verhulst, Dever M Carney, R J R Blair, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Recognizing others' emotional expressions is vital for socioemotional development; impairments in this ability occur in several psychiatric disorders. Further study is needed to map the development of this ability and to evaluate its components as potential transdiagnostic endophenotypes. Before doing so, however, research is required to substantiate the test-retest reliability of scores of the face emotion identification tasks linked to developmental psychopathology. The current study estimated test-retest reliability of scores of one such task, the facial expression labeling task (FELT) among a sample of twin children (N = 157; ages 9-14)...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223478/phenotypic-and-genetic-evidence-for-a-unifactorial-structure-of-spatial-abilities
#19
Kaili Rimfeld, Nicholas G Shakeshaft, Margherita Malanchini, Maja Rodic, Saskia Selzam, Kerry Schofield, Philip S Dale, Yulia Kovas, Robert Plomin
Spatial abilities encompass several skills differentiable from general cognitive ability (g). Importantly, spatial abilities have been shown to be significant predictors of many life outcomes, even after controlling for g. To date, no studies have analyzed the genetic architecture of diverse spatial abilities using a multivariate approach. We developed "gamified" measures of diverse putative spatial abilities. The battery of 10 tests was administered online to 1,367 twin pairs (age 19-21) from the UK-representative Twins Early Development Study (TEDS)...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220550/metabolomic-profiling-in-umbilical-venous-plasma-reveals-effects-of-dietary-rumen-protected-arginine-or-n-carbamylglutamate-supplementation-in-nutrient-restricted-hu-sheep-during-pregnancy
#20
L Sun, H Zhang, Y Fan, Y Guo, G Zhang, H Nie, F Wang
Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is a major problem worldwide for human and animal production. Arginine (Arg) is critical to health, growth and reproduction. N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), a key enzyme in arginine synthesis, is not extensively degraded in rumen. The aim of this study was to investigate ameliorating effects of rumen-protected arginine (RP-Arg) and NCG supplementation on dietary in undernourished Hu sheep during gestation. From day 35 to 110 of gestation, 32 Hu ewes carrying twin foetuses were randomly divided into four groups: a control (CG) group (n = 8; fed 100% National Research Council (NRC) requirements for pregnant sheep), a nutrient-restricted (RG) group (n = 8; fed 50% NRC requirements, which included 50% mineral-vitamin mixture) and two treatment (Arg and NCG) groups (n = 8; fed 50% NRC requirements supplemented with 20 g/day RP-Arg or 5 g/day NCG, which included 50% mineral-vitamin mixture)...
February 20, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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