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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639237/work-home-interference-perceived-total-workload-and-the-risk-of-future-sickness-absence-due-to-stress-related-mental-diagnoses-among-women-and-men-a-prospective-twin-study
#1
Pia Svedberg, Lisa Mather, Gunnar Bergström, Petra Lindfors, Victoria Blom
PURPOSE: Work-home interference has been proposed as an important explanation for sickness absence (SA). Previous studies show mixed results, have not accounted for familial factors (genetics and shared everyday environment), or investigated diagnosis specific SA. The aim was to study whether work-home interference and perceived total workload predict SA due to stress-related mental diagnoses, or SA due to other mental diagnoses, among women and men, when adjusting for various confounders and familial factors...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628033/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-cirrhosis-increases-familial-risk-for-advanced-fibrosis
#2
Cyrielle Caussy, Meera Soni, Jeffrey Cui, Ricki Bettencourt, Nicholas Schork, Chi-Hua Chen, Mahdi Al Ikhwan, Shirin Bassirian, Sandra Cepin, Monica P Gonzalez, Michel Mendler, Yuko Kono, Irine Vodkin, Kristin Mekeel, Jeffrey Haldorson, Alan Hemming, Barbara Andrews, Joanie Salotti, Lisa Richards, David A Brenner, Claude B Sirlin, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND: The risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis (NAFLD-cirrhosis) is unknown and needs to be systematically quantified. We aimed to prospectively assess the risk of advanced fibrosis in first-degree relatives of probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of 26 probands with NAFLD-cirrhosis and 39 first-degree relatives. The control population included 69 community-dwelling twin, sib-sib, or parent-offspring pairs (n = 138), comprising 69 individuals randomly ascertained to be without evidence of NAFLD and 69 of their first-degree relatives...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600868/deep-bipolar-identifying-genomic-mutations-for-bipolar-disorder-via-deep-learning
#3
Sundaram Laksshman, Rajendra Rana Bhat, Vivek Viswanath, Xiaolin Li
Bipolar disorder (BD), also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression and over-excitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from BD. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to conventional lengthy and costly post-symptom clinical diagnosis...
June 10, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594187/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-covariation-between-early-drinking-and-adult-functioning
#4
Jordan Sparks Waldron, Stephen M Malone, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
The vast majority of individuals initiate alcohol consumption for the first time in adolescence. Given the widespread nature of its use and evidence that adolescents may be especially vulnerable to its effects, there is concern about the long-term detrimental impact of adolescent drinking on adult functioning. While some researchers have suggested that genetic processes may confound the relationship, the mechanisms linking drinking and later adjustment remain unclear. The current study utilized a genetically informed sample and biometric modeling to examine the nature of the familial influences on this association and identify the potential for genetic confounding...
June 8, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593127/cessation-related-weight-concern-among-homeless-male-and-female-smokers
#5
Erika Ashley Pinsker, Deborah Jane Hennrikus, Darin J Erickson, Kathleen Thiede Call, Jean Lois Forster, Kolawole Stephen Okuyemi
Concern about post-cessation weight gain is a barrier to making attempts to quit smoking; however, its effect on smoking cessation is unclear. In this study we examine cessation-related weight concern among the homeless, which hasn't been studied. Homeless males (n = 320) and females (n = 110) participating in a smoking cessation RCT in the Twin Cities, Minnesota from 2009 to 2011 completed surveys on cessation-related weight concern, smoking status, and components from the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584286/genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-cognitive-empathy-heritability-and-correlates-with-sex-neuropsychiatric-conditions-and-cognition
#6
V Warrier, K L Grasby, F Uzefovsky, R Toro, P Smith, B Chakrabarti, J Khadake, E Mawbey-Adamson, N Litterman, J-J Hottenga, G Lubke, D I Boomsma, N G Martin, P K Hatemi, S E Medland, D A Hinds, T Bourgeron, S Baron-Cohen
We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of cognitive empathy using the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) in 88,056 research volunteers of European Ancestry (44,574 females and 43,482 males) from 23andMe Inc., and an additional 1497 research volunteers of European Ancestry (891 females and 606 males) from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. We confirmed a female advantage on the Eyes Test (Cohen's d=0.21, P<2.2 × 10(-16)), and identified a locus in 3p26.1 that is associated with scores on the Eyes Test in females (rs7641347, Pmeta=1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583126/blood-pressure-in-young-adulthood-and-residential-greenness-in-the-early-life-environment-of-twins
#7
Esmée M Bijnens, Tim S Nawrot, Ruth Jf Loos, Marij Gielen, Robert Vlietinck, Catherine Derom, Maurice P Zeegers
BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. METHODS: Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578734/genetic-and-environmental-aspects-in-the-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-binge-eating-behavior-in-adults-a-twin-study
#8
A J Capusan, S Yao, R Kuja-Halkola, C M Bulik, L M Thornton, P Bendtsen, I Marteinsdottir, A Thorsell, H Larsson
BACKGROUND: Prior research demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with binge-eating behavior, binge-eating disorder (BED), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to investigate these associations in an adult twin population, and to determine the extent to which ADHD symptoms and binge-eating behavior share genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used self-reports of current ADHD symptoms and lifetime binge-eating behavior and associated characteristics from a sample of over 18 000 adult twins aged 20-46 years, from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry...
June 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575460/testing-familial-transmission-of-smoking-with-two-different-research-designs
#9
Jorien L Treur, Karin J H Verweij, Abdel Abdellaoui, Iryna O Fedko, Eveline L de Zeeuw, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jacqueline M Vink
Introduction: Classical twin studies show that smoking is heritable. To determine if shared family environment plays a role in addition to genetic factors, and if they interact (GxE), we use a children-of-twins design. In a second sample, we measure genetic influence with polygenic risk scores (PRS) and environmental influence with a question on exposure to smoking during childhood. Methods: Data on smoking initiation were available for 723 children of 712 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR;64...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559234/etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-birth-defects-population-based-study
#10
Marcia L Feldkamp, John C Carey, Janice L B Byrne, Sergey Krikov, Lorenzo D Botto
Objective To assess causation and clinical presentation of major birth defects.Design Population based case cohort.Setting Cases of birth defects in children born 2005-09 to resident women, ascertained through Utah's population based surveillance system. All records underwent clinical re-review.Participants 5504 cases among 270 878 births (prevalence 2.03%), excluding mild isolated conditions (such as muscular ventricular septal defects, distal hypospadias).Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were the proportion of birth defects with a known etiology (chromosomal, genetic, human teratogen, twinning) or unknown etiology, by morphology (isolated, multiple, minors only), and by pathogenesis (sequence, developmental field defect, or known pattern of birth defects)...
May 30, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554157/does-neighbourhood-deprivation-affect-the-genetic-influence-on-body-mass
#11
Gwilym Owen, Kelvyn Jones, Richard Harris
Most research into the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of obesity has taken environment to mean behaviours such as exercise and diet. While interesting, this is somewhat at odds with research into the social determinants of obesity, in which the focus has shifted away from individuals and behaviours to the types of wider obesogenic environments in which individuals live, which influence and produce these behaviours. This study combines these two strands of research by investigating how the genetic influence on body mass index (BMI), used as a proxy for obesity, changes across different neighbourhood environments measured by levels of deprivation...
May 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549856/three-decades-of-managing-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-in-peanut-in-southeastern-united-states
#12
REVIEW
R Srinivasan, M R Abney, A K Culbreath, R C Kemerait, R S Tubbs, W S Monfort, H R Pappu
Southeastern states namely Georgia, Florida, and Alabama produce two-thirds of the peanuts in the United States. Thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which causes spotted wilt disease, has been a major impediment to peanut production for the past three decades. The cultivars grown in the 1980s were extremely susceptible to TSWV. Early yield losses extended to tens of millions of dollars each year (up to 100% loss in many fields). This situation led to the creation of an interdisciplinary team known as "SWAT: Spotted Wilt Action Team"...
May 24, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545755/are-alcohol-trajectories-a-useful-way-of-identifying-at-risk-youth-a-multiwave-longitudinal-epidemiologic-study
#13
David D Vachon, Robert F Krueger, Daniel E Irons, William G Iacono, Matt McGue
OBJECTIVE: Trajectory approaches are a popular way of identifying subgroups of children and adolescents at high risk for developing alcohol use problems. However, mounting evidence challenges the meaning and utility of these putatively discrete alcohol trajectories, which can be analytically derived even in the absence of real subgroups. This study tests the hypothesis that alcohol trajectories may not reflect discrete groups-that the development of alcohol use is continuous rather than categorical...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544391/the-experience-sampling-method-as-an-mhealth-tool-to-support-self-monitoring-self-insight-and-personalized-health-care-in-clinical-practice
#14
Jim van Os, Simone Verhagen, Anne Marsman, Frenk Peeters, Maarten Bak, Machteld Marcelis, Marjan Drukker, Ulrich Reininghaus, Nele Jacobs, Tineke Lataster, Claudia Simons, Richel Lousberg, Sinan Gülöksüz, Carsten Leue, Peter C Groot, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Philippe Delespaul
BACKGROUND: The experience sampling method (ESM) builds an intensive time series of experiences and contexts in the flow of daily life, typically consisting of around 70 reports, collected at 8-10 random time points per day over a period of up to 10 days. METHODS: With the advent of widespread smartphone use, ESM can be used in routine clinical practice. Multiple examples of ESM data collections across different patient groups and settings are shown and discussed, varying from an ESM evaluation of a 6-week randomized trial of mindfulness, to a twin study on emotion dynamics in daily life...
May 23, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536874/-genetic-findings-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
REVIEW
C M Freitag
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive developmental disorders comprising problems in social interaction, communication, and stereotyped behavior and interests. They show a prevalence of around 0.8% in children, adolescents, and adults, and a skewed sex distribution (about 4:1 = male:female). ASD are predominantly genetically determined disorders. Heritability estimates from twin studies range between 64 and 91%. Recurrence risk in siblings is 20-fold elevated. De novo and inherited monogenetic disorders, mutations, sex chromosomal abnormalities, cytogenetic and imprinting disorders as well as common variants are associated with ASD...
May 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533738/genetics-of-tinnitus-still-in-its-infancy
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Vona, Indrajit Nanda, Wafaa Shehata-Dieler, Thomas Haaf
Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound that affects between 10 and 15% of the general population. Despite this considerable prevalence, treatments for tinnitus are presently lacking. Tinnitus exhibits a diverse array of recognized risk factors and extreme clinical heterogeneity. Furthermore, it can involve an unknown number of auditory and non-auditory networks and molecular pathways. This complex combination has hampered advancements in the field. The identification of specific genetic factors has been at the forefront of several research investigations in the past decade...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524230/the-etiology-of-autistic-traits-in-preschoolers-a-population-based-twin-study
#17
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Rosa A Hoekstra, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable, but the exact etiological mechanisms underlying the condition are still unclear. METHODS: Using a multiple rater twin design in a large sample of general population preschool twins, this study aimed to (a) estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to autistic traits, controlling for the possible effects of rater bias, (b) to explore possible sex differences in etiology and (c) to investigate the discordance in autistic traits in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523545/anxiety-and-epigenetics
#18
Andrew A Bartlett, Rumani Singh, Richard G Hunter
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. A number of anxiety disorder subtypes are considered "stress related." A large focus of research has been on the epigenetic and anxiety-like behavioral consequences of stress...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506778/genetic-factors-explain-the-association-between-pain-catastrophizing-and-chronic-widespread-pain
#19
Soshiro Ogata, Frances Williams, Andrea Burri
This study aimed to clarify whether there are shared genetic and/or environmental factors explaining the strong link between pain catastrophizing (PC) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). Data were available for N = 1,109 female twins from TwinsUK. Information on self-reported CWP and PC was subject to variance component twin analysis. Heritabilities were 40% for PC and 77% for CWP. The genetic correlation between PC and CWP was .40%, whereas no evidence of an environmental correlation could be detected (.0)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500880/motor-functioning-differentially-predicts-mortality-in-men-and-women
#20
Marie Ernsth Bravell, Deborah Finkel, Anna Dahl Aslan, Chandra A Reynolds, Jenny Hallgren, Nancy L Pedersen
INTRODUCTION: Research indicates gender differences in functional performance at advanced ages, but little is known about their impact on longevity for men and women. OBJECTIVE: To derive a set of motor function factors from a battery of functional performance measures and examine their associations with mortality, incorporating possible gender interactions. METHOD: Analyses were performed on the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) including twenty-four assessments of motor function up to six times over a 19-year period...
May 2, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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