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Eleonora Iob, Clemens Kirschbaum, Andrew Steptoe
INTRODUCTION: While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health...
June 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Youn-Jung Kang, Catherine T Yan
Classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ) is the main pathway for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells. In the absence of c-NHEJ, an alternative end-joining (A-EJ) mechanism resolves DSBs. To date, no A-EJ specific factor has been identified. Instead, this mechanism appears to co-opt proteins involved in more than one DNA repair pathway. These include components of base-excision repair (PARP1/XRCC1/LIG3), interstrand cross-link repair (BRCA1/FANCD2), and DSB response/DNA end-resection (MRE11A/RAD50/RBBP8)...
June 12, 2018: DNA Repair
Azza A Mahmoud, Nermeen A Elkasabgy, Abdel Fatah A Abdelkhalek
Roflumilast is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 isoenzyme in lung cells. Having psychiatric adverse reactions when administered orally affects negatively the patients' adherence to the drug. This work aimed to prepare emulsified spray dried alginate microparticles for the pulmonary delivery of roflumilast. Sodium alginate was used as microparticle-forming material, isopropyl myristate as an oil, Tween®80 as surfactant and calcium beta-glycerophosphate as cross-linking agent to enhance the mechanical properties of the particles...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gabriela Arandia, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Elva M Arredondo, Mercedes R Carnethon, Alan M Delamater, Linda C Gallo, Carmen R Isasi, Ashley N Marchante, David Pritchard, Linda Van Horn, Krista M Perreira
BACKGROUND: Acculturation among Hispanic/Latinos has been linked to deteriorating dietary quality that may contribute to obesity risks. This study examined the relationship between acculturation, ethnic identity, and dietary quality in U.S. Hispanic/Latino youth. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1298 Hispanic/Latino youth ages 8-16 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth (HCHS/SOL Youth), an ancillary study of offspring of participants in the adult HCHS/SOL cohort...
June 18, 2018: Appetite
Binglin Li, Dandan Duan, Jiao Wang, Huanyu Li, Xiaoli Zhang, Binxia Zhao
Phospholipase D (PLD) was firstly hyperactivated by the bio-imprinting and, then, these hyperactivated PLD molecules were immobilized by adsorption and precipitation, followed by cross-linking. The high degree of conformational rigidification provided by intra- and intermolecular cross-linking can make PLD "remember" imprint-induced characteristics even in aqueous solutions. The obtained immobilized PLD showed the excellent catalytic performance. The maximum activity of immobilized PLD reached 166953 U/gprotein , which was approximately 14 times higher than that of free form (11922 U/gprotein )...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Bhuvana Kamath Shanbhag, Chang Liu, Victoria S Haritos, Lizhong He
Protein based nanomaterials are gaining importance in biomedical and biosensor applications where tunability of the protein particle size is highly desirable. Rationally-designed proteins and peptides offer control over molecular interactions between monomeric protein units to modulate their self-assembly and thus particle formation. Here, using an example enzyme-peptide system produced as a single construct by bacterial expression, we explore how solution conditions affect the formation and size of protein nanoparticles...
June 21, 2018: ACS Nano
Laura J de Schipper, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
Background: Functional imaging methods, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, reflect changes in neural connectivity and may help to assess the widespread consequences of disease-specific network changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study we used a relatively new graph analysis approach in functional imaging: eigenvector centrality mapping. This model-free method, applied to all voxels in the brain, identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lilly-Marlen Bihler, Alexandru Agache, Katja Schneller, Jessica A Willard, Birgit Leyendecker
A growing body of research has been documenting environmental factors that support preschoolers' vocabulary skills. However, less is known about how environmental factors are related to morphological skills of dual language learners (DLLs) and single language learners (SLLs). We examined connections with preschool experiences by investigating the effects of duration of preschool attendance, classroom quality, and classroom composition variables (percentage of DLLs and percentage of children from families with a low socio-economic status) on preschoolers' expressive morphological skills...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gomti Grover, Achla Sharma, Harsimar S Gill, Puja Srivastava, N S Bains
Optimizing wheat height to maximize yield has been an important aspect which is evident from a successful example of green revolution. Dwarfing genes (Rht) are known for yield gains due to lodging resistance and partitioning of assimilates into ear. The available and commercially exploited sources of dwarfism in Indian spring wheat are Rht1 and Rht2 genes inspite of availability of over 20 dwarfing genes. Rht8 a Gibberellic acid sensitive dwarfing gene is another reduced height gene commercially exploited in some Mediterranean countries...
2018: PloS One
Ricardo Schultz Martins, Patrick Girouard, Evan Elliott, Said Mekary
Martins, RS, Girouard, P, Elliott, E, and Mekary, S. Physiological responses of a jaw repositioning custom-made mouthguard on airway and their effects on athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Advanced dental techniques such as jaw-repositioning have shown to increase lower body muscular power such as vertical jump, but its effects on acceleration and speed have not been studied. Similarly, jaw repositioning is commonly used to increase airways volume and ventilation in a special population (i...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ghadeer S Aljuraiban, Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Linda Van Horn, Martha L Daviglus, Paul Elliott, Linda M Oude Griep
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that low-fat dairy consumption may lower risk of hypertension. Dairy products may be distinctly linked to health, because of differences in nutritional composition, but little is known about specific nutrients that contribute to the dairy-blood pressure (BP) association, nor to underlying kidney function. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations to BP of dairy product intakes, total and by type, from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) including 2694 participants aged 40-59 years from the UK and the USA...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Alexandre Maes, Xavier Martinez, Karen Druart, Benoist Laurent, Sean Guégan, Christophe H Marchand, Stéphane D Lemaire, Marc Baaden
Proteomic and transcriptomic technologies resulted in massive biological datasets, their interpretation requiring sophisticated computational strategies. Efficient and intuitive real-time analysis remains challenging. We use proteomic data on 1417 proteins of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to investigate physicochemical parameters governing selectivity of three cysteine-based redox post translational modifications (PTM): glutathionylation (SSG), nitrosylation (SNO) and disulphide bonds (SS) reduced by thioredoxins...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Israel Zadok, Simcha Srebnik
The MARTINI force-field is adapted for acrylic functional monomers and used to simulate protein-imprinted polymers, including complexation in solution, cross-linking reaction, washing, and rebinding of the protein. A globally-controlled grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation combined with molecular dynamics is used to achieve proper hydration and swelling of the gel. Two gel formulations are compared, one with only polar functional monomers, and one with additional small number of charged monomers. Imprinted hydrogels are evaluated for two proteins, lysozyme and cytochrome C, chosen due to their similarity in size and isoelectric point, though it is known that their imprinting behavior is very different...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Anna K Hochgraf, Susan M McHale, Gregory M Fosco
Weight concerns are common among adolescents and are associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. Self-esteem is one correlate of weight concerns, yet prospective research has not yet documented the direction of this association over the course of adolescence or whether this association differs by gender. This study sought to clarify the role of self-esteem in the development of adolescents' weight concerns and investigate the potentially protective role of father and mother responsiveness, another documented correlate of weight concerns...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Jack S Peltz, Ronald D Rogge, Melissa L Sturge-Apple
In the current study, we examined the potential for transactional relations among parents' marital satisfaction, coparental cooperation and conflict, and parent-child relationship satisfaction in a sample of 249 families with 2-3-year-old children. Using a novel multiwave design with frequent assessments to better capture transactional family processes, mothers and fathers were assessed across 5 waves with 2-month lags; mean age of the target children (53% girls) was 2.8 years ( SD = 0.62) at baseline. Cross-lagged, multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses using an actor-partner interdependence modeling framework revealed coparental cooperation and conflict as likely mechanisms within the family system...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Yuichi Masubuchi, Takashi Uneyama
Although lots of coarse-grained models have been proposed to trace the long-term behaviors of entangled polymers, compatibility among the different models has not been frequently discussed. In this study, some dynamical and static quantities, such as diffusion, relaxation modulus, chain dimension, and entanglement density, were examined for the multi-chain slip-link model (primitive chain network model) and the multi-chain slip-spring model, and the results were compared with those reported for the standard bead-spring model...
June 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Nipun Shrestha, Katriina T Kukkonen-Harjula, Jos H Verbeek, Sharea Ijaz, Veerle Hermans, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: A large number of people are employed in sedentary occupations. Physical inactivity and excessive sitting at workplaces have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce sitting at work compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, OSH UPDATE, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Deepak Kaul, Deepti Malik, Sameena Wani
Cross-talk between coding RNAs and regulatory non-coding microRNAs, within human genome, has provided compelling evidence for the existence of flexible checkpoint control of T-Cell activation. The present study attempts to demonstrate that the interplay between miR-2909 and its effector KLF4 gene has the inherent capacity to regulate genes coding for CTLA4, CD28, CD40, CD134, PDL1, CD80, CD86, IL-6 and IL-10 within normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Based upon these findings, we propose a pathway that links miR-2909 RNomics with the genes coding for immune checkpoint regulators required for the maintenance of immune homeostasis...
June 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Mohamed Khalid, Tanujjal Bora, Ahmed Al Ghaithi, Sharanjit Thukral, Joydeep Dutta
Diagnosis of osteomyelitis presents a formidable challenge. Lack of pathognomonic clinical sign(s) and diagnostic tests that can diagnose osteomyelitis at an early stage contribute to this difficulty. If the diagnosis is not made early, the disease becomes very difficult to eradicate and can lead to limb threatening and potentially life-threatening complications. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism causing osteomyelitis. Raman Spectroscopy provides information about molecular vibration that could potentially be harnessed as a spectral signature for cellular changes in specific pathologic conditions...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi, Seungsoo Kim, Chang-Hoon Lee
The burden of asthma in the elderly is increasing, but the etiology of asthma in the elderly is not clearly understood. Recent studies have reported the epidemiological link between metabolic syndrome (MS) and asthma, but it has rarely been studied in the elderly. This study investigated the association between MS and asthma and the contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and systemic inflammation to this MS-asthma association in the elderly. Our study analyzed 4,060 elderly participants (≥65 years old) from a cross-sectional survey, the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2007-2012...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
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