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Interpersonal trauma

Carol A Keane, Christopher A Magee, Peter J Kelly
Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability...
October 13, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Kai Lee, James Olsen, Jiandong Sun, Arun Chandu
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol related facial trauma is an increasingly prominent social problem and health hazard. Interpersonal violence (IPV) is often implicated in these trauma presentations and the facial skeleton frequently targeted. This paper examines the characteristics of admitted patients with alcohol-related facial fractures. METHODS: Electronic data of patients assessed or treated with facial fractures from January 2012 to December 2014 at Western Health was obtained through Clinical Record Department...
October 15, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
S Saar, M Sokirjanski, L K Junkin, J Laos, A L Laar, I Merioja, U Lepner, L Kukk, A Remmelgas, T Asser, K Innos, J Starkopf, P Talving
PURPOSE: Trauma mechanisms and patterns of severe injuries during the Estonian independence have not been evaluated. The aim of the study was to compare the incidence and outcomes of severe injuries between time periods of early independence from the Soviet Union and the present time. METHODS: After the ethics review board approval, all adult trauma admissions to major trauma facilities in 1993-1994 and 2013-2014 with Injury Severity Score >15 were identified...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Maria Muzik, Diana Morelen, Jessica Hruschak, Katherine Lisa Rosenblum, Erika Bocknek, Marjorie Beeghly
BACKGROUND: The postpartum period represents a major transition in the lives of many women, a time when women are at increased risk for the emergence of psychopathology including depression and PTSD. The current study aimed to better understand the unique contributions of clinically significant postpartum depression, PTSD, and comorbid PTSD/depression on mother-infant bonding and observed maternal parenting behaviors (i.e., behavioral sensitivity, negative affect, positive affect) at 6 months postpartum...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Erin C Dunn, Kristen Nishimi, Abigail Powers, Bekh Bradley
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, the impact of the developmental timing of exposure remains unclear. This study examined the effect of age at first trauma exposure on levels of adult depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Lifetime trauma exposure (including age at first exposure and frequency), current psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic information were collected during interviews with adults participating in a study at a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Donna Gillies, Licia Maiocchi, Abhishta P Bhandari, Fiona Taylor, Carl Gray, Louise O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Virginie C Pointet, Tatjana Aue, Ludwig Stenz, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Wafae Adouan, Aurélia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Marylene Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Maria I Cordero, Molly Rothenberg, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Alexandre G Dayer
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the serotonin 3A receptor gene (HTR3A) has been linked to child maltreatment and adult psychopathology. The present study examined whether HTR3A methylation might be associated with mothers' lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), IPV-related psychopathology, child disturbance of attachment, and maternal neural activity. METHODS: Number of maternal lifetime IPV exposures and measures of maternal psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and aggressive behavior (AgB), and a measure of child attachment disturbance known as "secure base distortion" (SBD) were assessed in a sample of 35 mothers and children aged 12-42 months...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Susanna Pallini, Agnese Alfani, Lucrezia Marech, Fiorenzo Laghi
OBJECTIVES: Women victims of IPV are more likely insecurely attached and have experienced childhood abuse, which according to the attachment theory is deeply related to disorganized attachment. This case-control study was performed with the aim to compare the attachment status and the defensive processing patterns of women victims of IPV (cases) with women with no experiences of IPV (controls). METHODS: Cases were 16 women with an age range from 26 years to 51 years...
October 4, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Stjepan Siber, Marko Matijević, Miroslav Sikora, Dinko Leović, Ivan Mumlek, Darko Macan
OBJECTIVES: The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35...
December 2015: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
J E Rhodes, L J Healey
The study aimed to investigate the experience of adults with a diagnosis of psychosis and who have survived childhood physical abuse. We interviewed eight participants and used interpretative phenomenological analysis to generate themes. The main themes were of perceiving an everyday world of aggression and contempt by others, pervasive mistrust, feeling isolated and for some, attacking oneself with hate. Most participants were also able to reflect on what they saw as 'paranoia' or 'voices'. Paranoia was described as a fluctuating compulsive 'thread' of meaning, feeling and sometimes a transformation of the self...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Eva Fassbinder, Ulrich Schweiger, Desiree Martius, Odette Brand-de Wilde, Arnoud Arntz
Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
William B Elder, Jessica L Domino, Timothy O Rentz, Emma L Mata-Galán
Objective: Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Method: Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology...
September 26, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Onur Durmaz, Serkan Kemer, Tuba Mutluer, Elif Bütün
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) is not fully understood, but multifactorial factors have been associated with PNE. Parental factors, including attitudes to PNE, disciplinary behaviors, and psychiatric comorbidities in parents have been related to etiology of PNE, outcomes and the quality of life in children with enuresis. OBJECTIVE: We examined the psychopathology in mothers of children diagnosed with monosymptomatic PNE(MoPNE) compared with mothers of non-enuretic children (MoNEC) in terms of personality characteristics, early traumatic experiences, and psychiatric symptom evaluation...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Maria W Mauritz, Betsie G I Van Gaal, Ruud A Jongedijk, Lisette Schoonhoven, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Peter J J Goossens
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Thanos Karatzias, Sally Jowett, Amelie Begley, Suzanne Deas
BACKGROUND: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82)...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Samantha M Weltz, Stephen Armeli, Julian D Ford, Howard Tennen
Childhood trauma (CT) has been associated with various forms of emotion dysregulation (ED), including stress-reactivity, which is believed to be one of the mechanisms underlying the link between CT and psychological disorders. The purpose of the present study was to further this line of research by using an intensive longitudinal research design to examine among college students (N=1634, 53.7% women) whether reports of interpersonal CT, specifically emotional abuse and neglect, uniquely moderate the within-person association between repeated assessments of daily stress and negative affect (NA)(i...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Shingisai Chando, Christian Young, Jonathan C Craig, Hasantha Gunasekera, Allison Tong
UNLABELLED: This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience)...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Joanne Haldane, Angela Nickerson
Research findings have documented a relationship between the number of types of traumatic events to which refugees were exposed and psychological disorders. It is unclear, however, if gender moderates the impact of trauma on refugee mental health. The participants in this study were 60 male and 31 female refugees and asylum-seekers resettled in Australia. Participants had a mean age of 34.54 years (SD = 9.70), and were from a variety of countries including Iraq, Iran, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a multigroup path analysis to test if the relationship between psychological outcomes of exposure to trauma (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and symptoms of depression) was different as a function of the type of traumatic exposure (interpersonal vs...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Pavlos Pavlidis, Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Theodossios A Birbilis
Penetrating head injuries due to the use of screwdrivers as wounding agents in acts of interpersonal violence seldom occur. The aim of this article is to update and summarize the relevant literature on penetrating craniocerebral screwdriver stab wounds and to report a new case of screwdriver assault. A number of studies were reviewed to investigate the incidence, distribution, common findings, mechanism of injury, differential diagnostic criteria, complications, treatment, and prognosis of craniocerebral screwdriver stab injuries...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Alexandra Junewicz, Kelly J Kleinert, Nancy Neveloff Dubler, Arthur Caplan
Despite the critical importance of patient-physician trust, it may be compromised among vulnerable patients, such as (1) incarcerated patients and (2) those patients who have been victims of trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine patient-physician trust among forensic and civilian psychiatric inpatient populations and to explore whether it varied based on a patient's history of incarceration and/or victimization. A trust survey (WFPTS) and a trauma instrument (LEC-5) were administered to 93 patients hospitalized on forensic and civilian psychiatric hospital units in a large, urban public hospital...
August 23, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
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