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Interpersonal trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437731/children-and-adolescents-facing-a-continuous-security-threat-aggressive-behavior-and-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#1
Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429858/trauma-related-disgust-in-veterans-with-interpersonal-trauma
#2
Jessica Bomyea, Carolyn B Allard
Although traditionally conceptualized as an anxiety disorder, variability in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be explained by individual differences in peri- or posttraumatic disgust. We examined relationships between disgust reactions and other trauma-related symptoms in 100 veterans with a history of interpersonal trauma and gender differences in these variables. We also evaluated the mediating role of posttraumatic disgust and guilt in the relationship between peritraumatic disgust and PTSD symptoms...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414492/measuring-psychological-change-after-trauma-psychometric-properties-of-a-new-bi-directional-scale
#3
Andreas Espetvedt Nordstrand, Odin Hjemdal, Are Holen, Jon Gerhard Reichelt, Hans Jakob Bøe
OBJECTIVE: The current scientific measures of posttraumatic changes in the wake of major stressors have mostly been unidirectional. This study is an attempt to develop a scale that will capture the continuum of positive to negative psychological changes after trauma. METHOD: Forty-five statements were presented to a veteran sample (N = 4,053) with the request to report for each item their experiences of negative, positive, or no posttraumatic changes as a result of their deployment to Afghanistan...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398912/sharp-force-trauma-death-in-a-young-individual-from-medieval-gloucester
#4
Satu Valoriani, Constantine Eliopoulos, Matteo Borrini
The authors of the present work evaluate the trauma observed on the skeletal remains of an individual from medieval Gloucester and reconstruct the events that led to his death. The almost complete skeleton was recovered from the cemetery of St Owen and dates to the late medieval period. Several methods were used to determine the sex and age of the individual. The anthropological examination showed that the remains belonged to a young male, between the ages of 17 and 19 years. The young man also had antemortem pathologies that were related to his diet and lifestyle, as he appears to have had iron-deficiency anemia and Schmorl nodes...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380289/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-accelerated-aging-ptsd-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-a-sample-of-civilian-women
#5
Andrea L Roberts, Karestan C Koenen, Qixuan Chen, Paola Gilsanz, Susan M Mason, Jennifer Prescott, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Eric B Rimm, Jennifer A Sumner, Ashley Winning, Immaculata De Vivo, Laura D Kubzansky
BACKGROUND: Studies in male combat veterans have suggested posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with shorter telomere length (TL). We examined the cross-sectional association of PTSD with TL in women exposed to traumas common in civilian life. METHODS: Data are from a substudy of the Nurses' Health Study II (N = 116). PTSD and subclinical PTSD were assessed in trauma-exposed women using diagnostic interviews. An array of health behaviors and conditions were assessed...
April 5, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376282/history-of-sexual-trauma-moderates-psychotherapy-outcome-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#6
John C Markowitz, Yuval Neria, Karina Lovell, Page E Van Meter, Eva Petkova
BACKGROUND: Moderators of differential psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are rare, yet have crucial clinical importance. We tested the moderating effects of trauma type for three psychotherapies in 110 unmedicated patients with chronic DSM-IV PTSD. METHODS: Patients were randomized to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE, N = 38), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, N = 40), or relaxation therapy (RT, N = 32). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was the primary outcome measure...
April 4, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363118/gender-differences-in-automatic-thoughts-and-cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-personality-disorder
#7
Masayuki Kanehisa, Chiwa Kawashima, Mari Nakanishi, Kana Okamoto, Harumi Oshita, Koji Masuda, Fuku Takita, Toshihiko Izumi, Ayako Inoue, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Haruka Higuma, Taiga Ninomiya, Jotaro Akiyoshi
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351731/the-impact-of-extrafamilial-victimization-and-poly-victimization-on-the-psychological-well-being-of-english-young-people
#8
Vicki Jackson-Hollis, Stephen Joseph, Kevin Browne
Childhood victimization impacts on the well-being of children and young people, particularly those experiencing an extreme amount of different types of victimization (i.e., poly-victims). However, limited attention has been given to the impact of different categories of extrafamilial victimization (experienced outside of the family), particularly in the UK. The intricacies of the significant detrimental impact poly-victimization has on victims are also poorly understood. In this study, 730 young people, aged 13 to 16 years (mean 13...
March 25, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343323/post-traumatic-sleep-wake-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Tatyana Mollayeva, Andrea D'Souza, Shirin Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio
All living organisms that face a traumatic life event are susceptible to sleep-wake disturbances. Stress, which can result in trauma, evokes a high level of physiological arousal associated with sympathetic nervous system activation, during both sleep and wakefulness. Heredity, sex hormones, early losses, developmental factors and intra- and interpersonal conflicts, contribute to the level of baseline physiological arousal, producing either subclinical, clinical or complex clinical traits, acutely and at any time after exposure to a traumatic event...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339563/trauma-informed-social-work-practice
#10
Jill Levenson
Social workers frequently encounter clients with a history of trauma. Trauma-informed care is a way of providing services by which social workers recognize the prevalence of early adversity in the lives of clients, view presenting problems as symptoms of maladaptive coping, and understand how early trauma shapes a client's fundamental beliefs about the world and affects his or her psychosocial functioning across the life span. Trauma-informed social work incorporates core principles of safety, trust, collaboration, choice, and empowerment and delivers services in a manner that avoids inadvertently repeating unhealthy interpersonal dynamics in the helping relationship...
April 1, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326453/violent-trauma-recidivism-does-all-violence-escalate
#11
R M Nygaard, A P Marek, S R Daly, J M Van Camp
PURPOSE: Rates of trauma patients presenting with history of prior trauma range from 25 to 44%. Outcomes involving recidivists in the setting of intentional trauma, especially penetrating trauma, are conflicting. We hypothesized that if violence does escalate with successive incidence, then injuries due to successive violence should escalate or become increasingly severe with successive admissions. METHODS: The trauma registry from an urban level I adult and pediatric trauma center was queried for injuries due to blunt assault, stabbing, and firearm injury...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321873/disintegration-of-the-self-and-the-regeneration-of-psychic-skin-in-the-treatment-of-traumatized-refugees
#12
Monica Luci
This paper presents a tentative understanding of the characteristics of the extreme traumas, elsewhere called 'complex PTSD', that some refugees and asylum-seekers bring into therapy. It suggests that these kinds of traumas suffered during adulthood may involve a disintegration of the self and a loss of 'psychic skin'. This conceptualization is derived from the treatment of a refugee who survived multiple extreme traumas and with whom efforts were made in therapy to identify a complex methodology making use of supplementary therapeutic tools in addition to individual psychotherapy...
April 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320355/severe-war-related-trauma-and-personality-pathology-a-case-control-study
#13
Jasna Munjiza, Dolores Britvic, Maja Radman, Mike J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. METHODS: A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318416/conflicts-between-motivational-systems-related-to-attachment-trauma-key-to-understanding-the-intra-family-relationship-between-abused-children-and-their-abusers
#14
Giovanni Liotti
Research on disorganization of infant attachment provides evidence that it can be caused not only by violent aggression or very early sexual abuse, but also by covert maltreating behavior, which includes the abdication of the caregiver's responsibility to soothe the infant's distress. This paper argues that both overtly abusive caregivers and merely "abdicating" caregivers may cause disorganization of infant attachment through a simultaneous and conflicting activation of the motivational systems governing attachment and survival defense in the infant...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300483/victim-perpetrator-dynamics-through-the-lens-of-betrayal-trauma-theory
#15
Kerry L Gagnon, Michelle Seulki Lee, Anne P DePrince
Interpersonal trauma exposure is linked with a host of seemingly disparate outcomes for victims, such as psychological distress, post-trauma appraisals (e.g., alienation, shame), poor cognitive functioning, expectations of harm in relationships, and revictimization risk. The presence of interpersonal trauma alone may not fully explain this range of outcomes. The current paper applies Betrayal Trauma Theory (BTT), which was originally articulated two decades ago as a framework for understanding memory disruptions following interpersonal trauma, as a framework to understand the diverse outcomes that can occur when interpersonal trauma is perpetrated by a close other...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295431/relational-family-therapy-as-an-aid-toward-resolving-the-trauma-of-sexual-abuse-in-childhood-in-the-process-of-separation-in-the-couple-relationship
#16
Tanja Repič Slavič, Christian Gostečnik
Relational family therapy (RFT) is a psycho-organic therapeutic approach that combines intrapsychic dynamics with interpersonal mechanisms and a systemic perspective. This integrative model is based on the assumption that the repetitive patterns of relationships in early childhood repeat in adulthood. It often happens that a sexually abused individual will later unconsciously be attracted to someone with whom they will relive the abusive atmosphere and dynamics from childhood. The purpose of this contribution is to present the RFT approach for dealing with sexual abuse...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272852/trauma-unit-attendance-is-there-a-relationship-with-weather-sporting-events-and-week-month-end-times-an-audit-at-an-urban-tertiary-trauma-unit-in-cape-town
#17
K L Milford, P H Navsaria, A J Nicol, S Edu
BACKGROUND: The Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit is a high-volume referral center where patient volumes may be related to temporal and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: This audit aimed to determine if numbers of patients presenting after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and interpersonal violence (IPV) were related to temporal factors, weather variables and important soccer matches. METHOD: Numbers of patients presenting to the unit per shift over 17 months were obtained from unit logs...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270330/fidelity-to-the-cognitive-processing-therapy-protocol-evaluation-of-critical-elements
#18
Courtney C Farmer, Karen S Mitchell, Kelly Parker-Guilbert, Tara E Galovski
The contributions of individual therapy elements to the overall efficacy of evidence-based practices for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well-understood. This study first examined the extent to which theoretically important treatment components of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; i.e., skill in Socratic questioning; prioritizing assimilation; attention to practice assignments; emphasis on expression of natural affect) were successfully administered across the course of therapy for 68 PTSD-positive survivors of interpersonal trauma...
March 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270328/constructive-and-unproductive-processing-of-traumatic-experiences-in-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-youth
#19
Adele M Hayes, Carly Yasinski, Damion Grasso, C Beth Ready, Elizabeth Alpert, Thomas McCauley, Charles Webb, Esther Deblinger
Although there is substantial evidence to support the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is some debate about how these treatments have their effects. Modern learning theory and cognitive and emotional processing theories highlight the importance of reducing avoidance, facilitating the constructive processing of feared experiences, and strengthening new inhibitory learning. We examined variables thought to be associated with unproductive and constructive processing of traumatic experiences in a sample of 81 youth with elevated PTSD symptoms, who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for abuse or traumatic interpersonal loss...
March 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266223/a-multi-level-modeling-approach-examining-ptsd-symptom-reduction-during-prolonged-exposure-therapy-moderating-effects-of-number-of-trauma-types-experienced-having-an-hiv-related-index-trauma-and-years-since-hiv-diagnosis-among-hiv-positive-adults
#20
Angela G Junglen, Brian C Smith, Jennifer A Coleman, Maria L Pacella, Jessica M Boarts, Tracy Jones, Norah C Feeny, Jeffrey A Ciesla, Douglas L Delahanty
People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH...
March 7, 2017: AIDS Care
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