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Interpersonal trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640677/constant-lethality-of-gunshot-injuries-from-firearm-assault-united-states-2003-2012
#1
Philip J Cook, Ariadne E Rivera-Aguirre, Magdalena Cerdá, Garen Wintemute
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity of the apparent downward trend in the national case-fatality rate for gunshot wounds from assault. METHODS: We reanalyzed the estimated annual number of nonfatal firearm injuries the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System reported from 2003 to 2012. We adjusted the estimates for discontinuities created by the substitution of 1 hospital for another in the sample and for a downward trend in the percentage of gunshot injuries classified as "unknown circumstance...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617143/does-ethno-cultural-betrayal-in-trauma-affect-asian-american-pacific-islander-college-students-mental-health-outcomes-an-exploratory-study
#2
Jennifer M Gómez
OBJECTIVES: Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health (1) , with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma (2) . Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental health care utilization (4) . According to cultural betrayal trauma theory (CBTT) (9, 10, 11) , societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students...
June 15, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612168/civilian-cerebral-gunshot-wounds-in-rural-south-african-patients-are-associated-with-significantly-higher-mortality-rates-than-in-urban-patients
#3
V Y Kong, J L Bruce, B Sartorius, G L Laing, J Odendaal, P Brysiewicz, D L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: This study focuses on a specific and often dramatic injury, namely gunshot wounds (GSW) of the head in order to determine whether there is a discrepancy in outcome between patients who sustain their injury in a rural setting and those who sustain it in an urban setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involves a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained regional electronic trauma registry. All patients who sustained a cerebral GSW from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609721/broken-lives-fights-fractures-and-motor-vehicle-accidents-among-heroin-users-entering-detoxification
#4
Michael D Stein, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND: The lives of persons who use illicit substances are filled with physical adversities and negative outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the frequency of substance-related fights, fractures, and driving accidents in the past year among heroin users entering an inpatient detoxification program, and 2) to determine demographic and recent substance use factors associated with the most common of these physical traumas. METHODS: Between May 2015 and December 2015, we surveyed 433 persons entering a short-term inpatient detoxification program that reported heroin use in the last month and recorded their experiences of physical traumas in the last year...
June 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595479/psychobiology-of-cumulative-trauma-hair-cortisol-as-a-risk-marker-for-stress-exposure-in-women
#5
Matthew C Morris, James L Abelson, Alyssa S Mielock, Uma Rao
Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i...
June 8, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588514/pathways-from-trauma-to-psychotic-experiences-a-theoretically-informed-model-of-posttraumatic-stress-in-psychosis
#6
Amy Hardy
In recent years, empirical data and theoretical accounts relating to the relationship between childhood victimization and psychotic experiences have accumulated. Much of this work has focused on co-occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder or putative causal mechanisms in isolation from each other. The complexity of posttraumatic stress reactions experienced in psychosis remains poorly understood. This paper therefore attempts to synthesize the current evidence base into a theoretically informed, multifactorial model of posttraumatic stress in psychosis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573454/quality-of-life-among-adolescents-living-in-residential-youth-care-do-domain-specific-self-esteem-and-psychopathology-contribute
#7
Thomas Jozefiak, Nanna S Kayed, Ingunn Ranøyen, Hanne K Greger, Jan L Wallander, Lars Wichstrøm
PURPOSE: Many adolescents living in residential youth care (RYC) institutions perceive their quality of life (QoL) to be low. Enhancing QoL is thus important, but little is known about the potential contributors to their QoL. Early interpersonal trauma and subsequent removal from home and repeated relocations to new placements are expected to affect mental health and self-esteem. We therefore investigated if domain-specific self-esteem contributed to QoL among adolescents living in RYC institutions over and beyond their levels of psychopathology...
June 1, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562198/challenges-for-providing-health-care-in-traumatized-populations-barriers-for-ptsd-treatments-and-the-need-for-new-developments
#8
Evaldas Kazlauskas
There is a growing recognition about the effects of traumatic experiences on mental health worldwide. With ongoing conflicts, natural disasters, interpersonal violence, and other traumatic events it is estimated that approximately 70% of the global population have been exposed to at least one lifetime traumatic experience. Research shows a substantial proportion of survivors, especially in low- and middle-income countries, would have a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During recent decades effective evidence-based treatments for PTSD have been developed...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559457/violent-injury-predicts-poor-psychological-outcomes-after-traumatic-injury-in-a-hard-to-reach-population-an-observational-cohort-study
#9
Emmylou Rahtz, Kamaldeep Bhui, Melanie Smuk, Iain Hutchison, Ania Korszun
BACKGROUND: People who experience physical trauma face a range of psychosocial outcomes. These may be overlooked by busy clinicians. While some risk factors are understood, understanding of the psychological effects of violent injury remains limited, particularly in UK settings. This study compared psychological outcomes following interpersonal violence and accidental injury, including the persistence of psychological distress. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was carried out at two time points of patients admitted to a large teaching hospital in London between July 2012 and April 2014...
May 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557547/readiness-to-use-psychoactive-substances-among-second-generation-adolescent-immigrants-and-perceptions-of-parental-immigration-related-trauma
#10
Yael Aviad-Wilchek, Inna Levy, Sarah Ben-David
OBJECTIVES: This research explores the relationship between parental immigration-related trauma and second-generation adolescent substance abuse. To examine this relationship, we focused on Ethiopian adolescents in Israel who are at risk for substance abuse. Many immigrants from Ethiopia experienced severe immigration trauma and research indicates the existence of transgenerational trauma transmission. The current research focuses on the connection between Ethiopian adolescents' perceptions of their parents' immigration trauma and their readiness to use psychoactive substances...
May 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555292/associations-between-trauma-type-timing-and-accumulation-on-current-coping-behaviors-in-adolescents-results-from-a-large-population-based-sample
#11
Rachel A Vaughn-Coaxum, Yan Wang, Jenna Kiely, John R Weisz, Erin C Dunn
The development of adolescents' coping in response to stress is critical for adaptive functioning; these coping strategies may be shaped by numerous environmental factors during childhood, including experiences such as exposure to trauma. Childhood trauma has been shown to undermine contemporaneous coping, but how does a history of exposure to trauma and the characteristics of that trauma (type, timing, and accumulation) relate to current coping among adolescents? We addressed this question using a nationally-representative sample of 9427 adolescents (ages 13-18; 48...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535476/examination-of-polytrauma-typologies-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#12
Erin Sullivan, Ateka A Contractor, Monica M Gerber, Craig Neumann
Potentially traumatizing events (PTE) are highly prevalent, and are associated with detrimental effects on psychological health, including increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multiple endorsed PTEs (polytraumatization) may have even greater effects on a person's health than the impact of a single index event. To better understand patterns of polytraumatization, person-centered analytic techniques such as Latent class analysis (LCA) are recommended. The current study used LCA to explore latent subgroupings of people based on their endorsement of PTEs, thus defining patterns in PTE exposure...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532273/childhood-trauma-affects-processing-of-social-interactions-in-borderline-personality-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study-investigating-empathy-for-pain
#13
Vera Flasbeck, Björn Enzi, Martin Brüne
OBJECTIVES: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulties in empathising with others and show disturbances in social interactions. Using a 'Social Interaction Empathy Task', we found that BPD patients judged neutral and psychologically painful conditions as more painful than healthy subjects. Here, we present the neural correlates underlying these differences in empathy for pain. METHODS: Female BPD patients and healthy controls completed the 'Social Interaction Empathy Task' during EEG recording...
June 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531836/trauma-exposure-incident-psychiatric-disorders-and-disorder-transitions-in-a-longitudinal-population-representative-sample
#14
Kate Walsh, Katie A McLaughlin, Ava Hamilton, Katherine M Keyes
Heterotypic continuity, whereby individuals transition from one disorder to another, is common; however, longitudinal studies examining transdiagnostic predictors of heterotypic continuity are lacking. The current study examined whether trauma exposure during childhood (maltreatment) and adulthood (interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma) is associated with heterotypic continuity in a national sample. Men and women (N = 34,653) who participated in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) completed face-to-face interviews about trauma exposure and psychopathology...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523226/interpersonal-early-life-trauma-alters-amygdala-connectivity-and-sustained-attention-performance
#15
Francesca C Fortenbaugh, Vincent Corbo, Victoria Poole, Regina McGlinchey, William Milberg, David Salat, Joseph DeGutis, Michael Esterman
INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal early life trauma (I-ELT) is associated with a myriad of functional impairments in adulthood, increased risk of drug addiction, and neuropsychiatric disorders. While deficits in emotional regulation and amygdala functioning are well characterized, deficits in general cognitive functioning have also been documented. However, the neural underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction in adults with a history of I-ELT and the potential relationship between amygdala-based functional connectivity and behavioral performance are currently poorly understood...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522083/relationships-between-potentially-traumatic-events-sleep-disturbances-and-symptoms-of-ptsd-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-a-young-adult-sample
#16
Mackenzie J Lind, Allison Baylor, Cassie M Overstreet, Sage E Hawn, Bruce D Rybarczyk, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick, Ananda B Amstadter
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic events, particularly those that are interpersonal in nature, are associated with increased risk for co-occurring sequelae, including sleep disturbances, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, the associations between these phenotypes have not been explored among college students. METHODS: We examined relationships between type of potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure (pre-college) and sleep disturbances, as well as mediating effects of lifetime PTSD and AUD symptoms on these relationships, in a large undergraduate sample (N = 1599, 64...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509661/the-relationship-between-interpersonal-trauma-history-and-the-functions-of-non-suicidal-self-injury-in-young-adults-an-experience-sampling-study
#17
Sarah Horowitz, Lana Stermac
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been reported to serve a range of functions for individuals who engage in it. Despite considerable variation in NSSI functions between individuals, limited attention has been paid to exploring relationships between NSSI functions and other characteristics of self-injuring individuals, such as trauma history. This is despite allusion to trauma history in the suggested etiology of some NSSI functions (e.g. anti-dissociation, self-punishment). The present study used a 21-day online daily diary to explore possible relationships between common NSSI functions and past interpersonal trauma in community young adults (n = 38)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496375/revisiting-the-etiological-aspects-of-dissociative-identity-disorder-a-biopsychosocial-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Vedat Şar, Martin J Dorahy, Christa Krüger
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489657/the-pattern-of-orbital-fractures-managed-at-two-referral-centers-in-nairobi-kenya
#19
Wayne Manana, Walter A Odhiambo, Mark L Chindia, Kennedy Koech
Orbital fractures are one of the commonest injuries in mid-face trauma and can lead to significant functional and cosmetic defects. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern of orbital fractures at 2 referral centers in Nairobi. It was a descriptive prospective hospital-based study of the demographics, etiology, clinico-radiological features, and management modalities among patients presenting with orbital fractures at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital and Kenyatta National Referral Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya...
June 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486814/psychodynamic-formulation-in-the-era-of-the-brain-towards-integration
#20
Louise K Newman
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to describe advances in neurosciences and their relationship to psychodynamic models of psychopathology and to present an integrative approach to psychodynamic formulation which incorporates the neurobiological underpinnings of self-functioning and a model of relational trauma. CONCLUSION: Developmental psychopathology is now better able to describe the significance of early developmental periods and the interpersonal context of self-development...
June 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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