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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343323/post-traumatic-sleep-wake-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Tatyana Mollayeva, Andrea D'Souza, Shirin Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio
All living organisms that face a traumatic life event are susceptible to sleep-wake disturbances. Stress, which can result in trauma, evokes a high level of physiological arousal associated with sympathetic nervous system activation, during both sleep and wakefulness. Heredity, sex hormones, early losses, developmental factors and intra- and interpersonal conflicts, contribute to the level of baseline physiological arousal, producing either subclinical, clinical or complex clinical traits, acutely and at any time after exposure to a traumatic event...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339563/trauma-informed-social-work-practice
#2
Jill Levenson
Social workers frequently encounter clients with a history of trauma. Trauma-informed care is a way of providing services by which social workers recognize the prevalence of early adversity in the lives of clients, view presenting problems as symptoms of maladaptive coping, and understand how early trauma shapes a client's fundamental beliefs about the world and affects his or her psychosocial functioning across the life span. Trauma-informed social work incorporates core principles of safety, trust, collaboration, choice, and empowerment and delivers services in a manner that avoids inadvertently repeating unhealthy interpersonal dynamics in the helping relationship...
January 23, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326453/violent-trauma-recidivism-does-all-violence-escalate
#3
R M Nygaard, A P Marek, S R Daly, J M Van Camp
PURPOSE: Rates of trauma patients presenting with history of prior trauma range from 25 to 44%. Outcomes involving recidivists in the setting of intentional trauma, especially penetrating trauma, are conflicting. We hypothesized that if violence does escalate with successive incidence, then injuries due to successive violence should escalate or become increasingly severe with successive admissions. METHODS: The trauma registry from an urban level I adult and pediatric trauma center was queried for injuries due to blunt assault, stabbing, and firearm injury...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321873/disintegration-of-the-self-and-the-regeneration-of-psychic-skin-in-the-treatment-of-traumatized-refugees
#4
Monica Luci
This paper presents a tentative understanding of the characteristics of the extreme traumas, elsewhere called 'complex PTSD', that some refugees and asylum-seekers bring into therapy. It suggests that these kinds of traumas suffered during adulthood may involve a disintegration of the self and a loss of 'psychic skin'. This conceptualization is derived from the treatment of a refugee who survived multiple extreme traumas and with whom efforts were made in therapy to identify a complex methodology making use of supplementary therapeutic tools in addition to individual psychotherapy...
April 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320355/severe-war-related-trauma-and-personality-pathology-a-case-control-study
#5
Jasna Munjiza, Dolores Britvic, Maja Radman, Mike J Crawford
BACKGROUND: Exposure to war-related trauma has long been recognised to have an adverse effect on mental health. We attempted to investigate whether people who have clinically significant personality-related problems 15 years after a war are more likely to have been exposed to severe war-related trauma than those who do not have significant personality difficulties. METHODS: A case -control study was conducted in southern Croatia, fifteen years after the 1991-1995 war...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318416/conflicts-between-motivational-systems-related-to-attachment-trauma-key-to-understanding-the-intra-family-relationship-between-abused-children-and-their-abusers
#6
Giovanni Liotti
Research on disorganization of infant attachment provides evidence that it can be caused not only by violent aggression or very early sexual abuse, but also by covert maltreating behavior, which includes the abdication of the caregiver's responsibility to soothe the infant's distress. This paper argues that both overtly abusive caregivers and merely "abdicating" caregivers may cause disorganization of infant attachment through a simultaneous and conflicting activation of the motivational systems governing attachment and survival defense in the infant...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300483/victim-perpetrator-dynamics-through-the-lens-of-betrayal-trauma-theory
#7
Kerry L Gagnon, Michelle Seulki Lee, Anne P DePrince
Interpersonal trauma exposure is linked with a host of seemingly disparate outcomes for victims, such as psychological distress, post-trauma appraisals (e.g., alienation, shame), poor cognitive functioning, expectations of harm in relationships, and revictimization risk. The presence of interpersonal trauma alone may not fully explain this range of outcomes. The current paper applies Betrayal Trauma Theory (BTT), which was originally articulated two decades ago as a framework for understanding memory disruptions following interpersonal trauma, as a framework to understand the diverse outcomes that can occur when interpersonal trauma is perpetrated by a close other...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295431/relational-family-therapy-as-an-aid-toward-resolving-the-trauma-of-sexual-abuse-in-childhood-in-the-process-of-separation-in-the-couple-relationship
#8
Tanja Repič Slavič, Christian Gostečnik
Relational family therapy (RFT) is a psycho-organic therapeutic approach that combines intrapsychic dynamics with interpersonal mechanisms and a systemic perspective. This integrative model is based on the assumption that the repetitive patterns of relationships in early childhood repeat in adulthood. It often happens that a sexually abused individual will later unconsciously be attracted to someone with whom they will relive the abusive atmosphere and dynamics from childhood. The purpose of this contribution is to present the RFT approach for dealing with sexual abuse...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272852/trauma-unit-attendance-is-there-a-relationship-with-weather-sporting-events-and-week-month-end-times-an-audit-at-an-urban-tertiary-trauma-unit-in-cape-town
#9
K L Milford, P H Navsaria, A J Nicol, S Edu
BACKGROUND: The Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit is a high-volume referral center where patient volumes may be related to temporal and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: This audit aimed to determine if numbers of patients presenting after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and interpersonal violence (IPV) were related to temporal factors, weather variables and important soccer matches. METHOD: Numbers of patients presenting to the unit per shift over 17 months were obtained from unit logs...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270330/fidelity-to-the-cognitive-processing-therapy-protocol-evaluation-of-critical-elements
#10
Courtney C Farmer, Karen S Mitchell, Kelly Parker-Guilbert, Tara E Galovski
The contributions of individual therapy elements to the overall efficacy of evidence-based practices for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well-understood. This study first examined the extent to which theoretically important treatment components of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; i.e., skill in Socratic questioning; prioritizing assimilation; attention to practice assignments; emphasis on expression of natural affect) were successfully administered across the course of therapy for 68 PTSD-positive survivors of interpersonal trauma...
March 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270328/constructive-and-unproductive-processing-of-traumatic-experiences-in-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-youth
#11
Adele M Hayes, Carly Yasinski, Damion Grasso, C Beth Ready, Elizabeth Alpert, Thomas McCauley, Charles Webb, Esther Deblinger
Although there is substantial evidence to support the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is some debate about how these treatments have their effects. Modern learning theory and cognitive and emotional processing theories highlight the importance of reducing avoidance, facilitating the constructive processing of feared experiences, and strengthening new inhibitory learning. We examined variables thought to be associated with unproductive and constructive processing of traumatic experiences in a sample of 81 youth with elevated PTSD symptoms, who received Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for abuse or traumatic interpersonal loss...
March 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266223/a-multi-level-modeling-approach-examining-ptsd-symptom-reduction-during-prolonged-exposure-therapy-moderating-effects-of-number-of-trauma-types-experienced-having-an-hiv-related-index-trauma-and-years-since-hiv-diagnosis-among-hiv-positive-adults
#12
Angela G Junglen, Brian C Smith, Jennifer A Coleman, Maria L Pacella, Jessica M Boarts, Tracy Jones, Norah C Feeny, Jeffrey A Ciesla, Douglas L Delahanty
People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH...
March 7, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261858/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptom-clusters-and-acquired-capability-for-suicide-a-reexamination-using-dsm-5-criteria
#13
Elizabeth G Spitzer, Kelly L Zuromski, Margaret T Davis, Tracy K Witte, Frank Weathers
This study used the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide to explore the relationships among DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters derived from the six-factor anhedonia model and facets of acquired capability for suicide (ACS). In a sample of 373 trauma-exposed undergraduates, most PTSD symptom clusters were negatively associated with facets of ACS in bivariate correlations, but the anhedonia cluster was positively associated with ACS in regression models. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis indicated that anhedonia served as a suppressor variable for the other symptom clusters...
March 6, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242410/the-effect-of-trauma-on-the-severity-of-obsessive-compulsive-spectrum-symptoms-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Michelle L Miller, Rebecca L Brock
It is important to consider trauma-related sequelae in the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology, namely understudied disorders such as those belonging to the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum (OCS). This meta-analysis examined the association between past trauma exposure and current severity of OCS disorder symptoms. A systematic literature search was conducted with 24 (N=4557) articles meeting inclusion criteria. A significant overall effect size was obtained (r=0.20), indicating that exposure to past trauma is associated with a higher severity of OCS symptoms, with a stronger association for females (β=0...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240673/survey-of-american-college-of-surgeons-committee-on-trauma-members-on-firearm-injury-consensus-and-opportunities
#15
Deborah A Kuhls, Brendan T Campbell, Peter A Burke, Lisa Allee, Ashley Hink, Robert W Letton, Peter T Masiakos, Michael Coburn, Maria Alvi, Trudy J Lerer, Barbara A Gaines, Michael L Nance, Douglas J E Schuerer, Tina L Palmieri, James W Davis, Douglas M Geehan, James K Elsey, Beth H Sutton, Mark P McAndrew, Ronald I Gross, Donald N Reed, Donald H Van Boerum, Thomas J Esposito, Roxie M Albrecht, Babak Sarani, David S Shapiro, Katie Wiggins-Dohlvik, Ronald M Stewart
BACKGROUND: In the U.S. there is a perceived divide regarding the benefits and risks of firearm ownership. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma Injury Prevention and Control Committee designed a survey to evaluate Committee on Trauma (COT) member attitudes about firearm ownership, freedom, responsibility, physician-patient freedom and policy, with the objective of using survey results to inform firearm injury prevention policy development. METHODS: A 32 question survey was sent to 254 current U...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238997/a-two-year-retrospective-study-on-the-pattern-of-dental-trauma-and-its-etiology-northwest-ethiopia
#16
Amare Teshome, Abebe Muche
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia traumatic dental injury (TDI) is seriously neglected, regardless of its current increased incidence rate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiology and types of TDIs among traumatized patients admitted to Gondar University Hospital Dental Clinic (GUHDC) between September 2013 and August 2015. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study design was conducted using previous medical records of 309 patients. Records were retrieved, reviewed and analyzed...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206786/posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-and-marital-adjustment-among-israeli-combat-veterans-the-role-of-loneliness-and-attachment
#17
Liat Itzhaky, Jacob Y Stein, Yafit Levin, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVE: War trauma may foster ramifications for marital relationships. Veterans may feel that no one can understand them and thus impact their relationships. The current study aims to shed light on the role that posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), loneliness, and attachment orientations may play in marital adjustment among combat veterans. METHOD: Participants were 504 veterans who served in the Lebanon War in 1982. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that higher PTSS levels were related to lower marital adjustment and that the indirect path of this relation through loneliness was significant...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199428/-complex-trauma
#18
María V Chiappe, Germán L Teti
The effects of trauma have been the focus of study by several researchers. However, at present, there is no diagnostic criteria that includes all forms of clinical presentations of subjects who have been victims of prolonged trauma or that have started at developmentally vulnerable times in the victim's life. Unlike those individuals who are victims of a single traumatic event, individuals who suffer multiple traumas that occur at vulnerable times, are at risk of developing a complex trauma. The concept of complex trauma was introduced in the last decades and is characterized by a symptomatic pleomorphism: emotional instability, somatization, dissociation; changes in identity, pathological changes in interpersonal relationships and suicidal behavior...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195013/betrayal-trauma-in-youth-and-negative-communication-during-a-stressful-task
#19
Vanessa M Jacoby, Elisa Krackow, Joseph R Scotti
Attachment-based theories and related research illustrate that emotion regulation develops in the context of a secure relationship between a child and caregiver. When a secure bond is broken, such as in the context of betrayal trauma, children fail to develop necessary emotion regulation skills which can lead to an array of relational problems. The current study examined the relations between betrayal trauma history, type of communication during a stressful interpersonal laboratory task, and emotion regulation difficulties in a sample of trauma-exposed adolescents...
March 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194504/variation-in-post-traumatic-response-the-role-of-trauma-type-in-predicting-icd-11-ptsd-and-cptsd-symptoms
#20
Philip Hyland, Jamie Murphy, Mark Shevlin, Frédérique Vallières, Eoin McElroy, Ask Elklit, Mogens Christoffersen, Marylène Cloitre
PURPOSE: The World Health Organization's 11th revision to the International Classification of Diseases manual (ICD-11) will differentiate between two stress-related disorders: PTSD and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). ICD-11 proposals suggest that trauma exposure which is prolonged and/or repeated, or consists of multiple forms, that also occurs under circumstances where escape from the trauma is difficult or impossible (e.g., childhood abuse) will confer greater risk for CPTSD as compared to PTSD...
February 14, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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