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Juliana Barrera-Ramirez, Jessie R Lavoie, Harinad B Maganti, William L Stanford, Caryn Ito, Mitchell Sabloff, Marjorie Brand, Michael Rosu-Myles, Yevgeniya Le, David S Allan
Gene regulatory networks in AML may be influenced by microRNAs (miRs) contained in exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We sequenced miRs from exosomes isolated from marrow-derived MSCs from patients with AML (n = 3) and from healthy controls (n = 3; not age-matched). Known targets of mIRs that were significantly different in AML-derived MSC exosomes compared to controls were identified. Of the five candidate miRs identified by differential packaging in exosomes, only miR-26a-5p and miR-101-3p were significantly increased in AML-derived samples while miR-23b-5p, miR-339-3p and miR-425-5p were significantly decreased...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
Emily Dorman, Brian Perry, Chelsea B Polis, Lisa Campo-Engelstein, Dominick Shattuck, Aaron Hamlin, Abigail Aiken, James Trussell, David Sokal
OBJECTIVE: We modeled the potential impact of novel male contraceptive methods on averting unintended pregnancies in the US, South Africa, and Nigeria. STUDY DESIGN: We used an established methodology for calculating the number of couple-years of protection (CYP) provided by a given contraceptive method mix. We compared a "current scenario" (reflecting current use of existing methods in each country) against "future scenarios," (reflecting whether a male oral pill or a reversible vas occlusion was introduced) in order to estimate the impact on unintended pregnancies averted...
September 5, 2017: Contraception
Z A Khan, M B Brand
BACKGROUND: Incidental gallbladder cancer (iGBC) is found in 0.3-1.5% of cholecystectomy specimens. GBC is uncommon with significant variation amongst geographical regions and ethnic groups. Less than 100 GBC's have been reported in sub Saharan Africa, hence the need for this national audit in South Africa. METHOD: National data was obtained from the South African NHLS for 2003-2015. 34 294 cholecystectomy specimens were included of which 239 were GBCs; 135 were iGBC...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
L A Prodehl, M B Brand, M Mauser
BACKGROUND: HIV positivity and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment have been described as significant causes of acute pancreatitis prevalence and predictors of poor outcomes. Most data are from the late 1990s and early 2000s, prior to widespread roll out of ARVs and newer agents. This study assessed if there is still a significant difference between HIV positive (HIV+) and negative(HIV-) patients in acute pancreatitis in the presentation and outcomes of acute pancreatitis. METHOD: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patient admission data...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
J T Thomson, M B Brand, P FruFonteh
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is characterised by distinct clinical phases. An initial systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS) and occasional subsequent 'second hit' usually initiated by systemic sepsis. The pro-inflammatory T-helper 17 pathway has been shown to be an initiator of early SIRS in AP; however, to date, interleukin-17A has not been evaluated as a marker of the septic second hit in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHOD: Twenty-five (aged 22-78) with mild (n = 12), moderate (n = 5) and severe (n = 8) acute pancreatitis were enrolled...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
E N Nweke, M N Ntwasa, M B Brand, J D Devar, M D Smith, G P Candy
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a devastating cancer. It accounts for about 7% of cancer related deaths worldwide. During PDAC, several genes are altered. These alterations consequently lead to the progression of PDAC. Analysis of these alterations in the context of signalling pathways help in understanding the disease. METHOD: 18 Tissue (9 tumour, 9 normal) samples were obtained from Black South African stage I PDAC patients during the Whipple procedure...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
E N Nweke, M N Ntwasa, M B Brand, J D Devar, M D Smith, G P Candy
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a deadly type of cancer with almost an equal amount of new cases and deaths observed yearly. It accounts for about 7% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In many multi-racial societies including South Africa, the black population has the highest incidence rate. Less than 5% of PDAC patients live up to 5 years. The lack of specific and sensitive diagnostic PDAC biomarkers is strongly responsible for this poor statistic. The discovery of differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with PDAC is crucial to elucidating this condition and may lead to biomarker finding and further understanding of the disease...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
G P Candy, T Little, L Chungho, J A O Omoshoro-Jones, J Devar, M B Brand, M D Smith
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating diagnosis for any patient as it is associated with a high mortality rate, and has few therapeutic interventions that prolong survival as compared to other cancers. Frequent epidemiological reports on PDAC are available in the developed countries, but in South Africa there is paucity of epidemiological data of this aggressive cancer. Understanding risk factors will help to assess and develop relevant interventions. Knowing the potential factors associated with it will provide information for improved screening and management of potentially curable patients...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
Malte Holschen, Florian Brand, Jens D Agneskirchner
BACKGROUND: Massive rotator cuff tears (MRCT) can be treated arthroscopically by partial reconstruction, tenotomy/tenodesis of the long head of the biceps, and debridement. A new treatment option is the additional implantation of a biodegradable spacer (InSpace Balloon®; ISB) into the subacromial space, which reduces subacromial shear forces to keep the humeral head centered in the glenoid. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcome of patients with MRCT who were treated arthroscopically with or without an additional ISB...
2017: Obere Extremität
Emili Barba-Vidal, Lorena Castillejos, Victor F B Roll, Gloria Cifuentes-Orjuela, José A Moreno Muñoz, Susana M Martín-Orúe
Probiotics have been demonstrated to be useful to enhance gut health and prevent gastrointestinal infections in humans. Additionally, some multi-strain probiotic combinations have been suggested to have greater efficacy than single strains. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of a combination of the probiotic strains: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 (brand name B. infantis IM1(®)) and B. animalis subsp. lactis BPL6 to enhance gut health and to ameliorate the outcome of a Salmonella challenge using a weaning piglet model...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Burkhard Steuernagel, Jan Vrána, Miroslava Karafiátová, Brande B H Wulff, Jaroslav Doležel
MutChromSeq is an approach for isolation of genes and DNA sequences controlling gene expression in plants with complex and polyploid genomes. It involves a lossless complexity reduction by flow cytometric chromosome sorting and shotgun sequencing DNA from isolated chromosomes. Comparison of sequences from wild-type parental chromosome with chromosomes from multiple independently derived mutants identifies causative mutations in a single candidate gene or a noncoding sequence. MutChromSeq does not rely on recombination-based genetic mapping and does not exclude any DNA sequence from being targeted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Burkhard Steuernagel, Kamil Witek, Jonathan D G Jones, Brande B H Wulff
MutRenSeq is a method to clone disease resistance (R) genes in plants. Tips and detailed experimental protocols for the pipeline, including the complexity reduction by R gene targeted enrichment sequencing, and computational analysis based on comparative genomics are provided in this chapter.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guotai Yu, Asyraf Hatta, Sambasivam Periyannan, Evans Lagudah, Brande B H Wulff
DNA is widely used in plant genetic and molecular biology studies. In this chapter, we describe how to extract DNA from wheat tissues. The tissue samples are ground to disrupt the cell wall. Then cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is used to disrupt the cell and nuclear membranes to release the DNA into solution. A reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol, is added to break the disulfide bonds between the cysteine residues and to help remove the tanins and polyphenols. A high concentration of salt is employed to remove polysaccharides...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rohit Mago, Bradley Till, Sambasivam Periyannan, Guotai Yu, Brande B H Wulff, Evans Lagudah
One of the most important tools to identify and validate rust resistance gene function is by producing loss-of-function mutants. Mutants can be produced using irradiation, chemicals, and insertions. Among all the mutagens, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and sodium azide are most favored because of the ease of use and generation of random point mutations in the genome. The mutants so produced facilitate the isolation, identification and cloning of rust resistance genes. In this chapter we describe a protocol for seed mutagenesis of wheat with EMS and sodium azide...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Anelise R Gaya, Arieli F Dias, Vanilson B Lemes, Juliana Correa Gonçalves, Priscila A Marques, Gabriela Guedes, Caroline Brand, Adroaldo C A Gaya
OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of an aggregate risk to cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal health of Brazilian adolescents in the period 2008/09 and 2013/14 and to identify whether there are differences in risk between the genders and in these periods. METHODS: This was a trend epidemiological study with a quantitative approach, consisting of a voluntary sample of adolescents from 16 Brazilian states. Data were extracted from the database of Brazil Sports Project (Projeto Esporte Brasil)...
August 23, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
Ahmad Kantar, Anne B Chang, Mike D Shields, Julie M Marchant, Keith Grimwood, Jonathan Grigg, Kostas N Priftis, Renato Cutrera, Fabio Midulla, Paul L P Brand, Mark L Everard
This European Respiratory Society statement provides a comprehensive overview on protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children. A task force of experts, consisting of clinicians from Europe and Australia who manage children with PBB determined the overall scope of this statement through consensus. Systematic reviews addressing key questions were undertaken, diagrams in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement constructed and findings of relevant studies summarised...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Staci M Amburgey, David A W Miller, Evan H Campbell Grant, Tracy A G Rittenhouse, Michael F Benard, Jonathan L Richardson, Mark C Urban, Ward Hughson, Adrianne B Brand, Christopher J Davis, Carmen R Hardin, Peter W C Paton, Christopher J Raithel, Rick A Relyea, A Floyd Scott, David K Skelly, Dennis E Skidds, Charles K Smith, Earl E Werner
Species' distributions will respond to climate change based on the relationship between local demographic processes and climate and how this relationship varies based on range position. A rarely tested demographic prediction is that populations at the extremes of a species' climate envelope (e.g., populations in areas with the highest mean annual temperature) will be most sensitive to local shifts in climate (i.e., warming). We tested this prediction using a dynamic species distribution model linking demographic rates to variation in temperature and precipitation for wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in North America...
August 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
N Jyotsana, A Sharma, A Chaturvedi, M Scherr, F Kuchenbauer, L Sajti, A Barchanski, R Lindner, F Noyan, K-W Sühs, D Grote-Koska, K Brand, H-P Vornlocher, M Stanulla, B Bornhauser, J-P Bourquin, M Eder, F Thol, A Ganser, R K Humphries, E Ramsay, P Cullis, M Heuser
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 22 August 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.269.
August 22, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Jun Tang, Darin Salloum, Brandon Carney, Christian Brand, Susanne Kossatz, Ahmad Sadique, Jason S Lewis, Wolfgang A Weber, Hans-Guido Wendel, Thomas Reiner
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in adults. DLBCL exhibits highly aggressive and systemic progression into multiple tissues in patients, particularly in lymph nodes. Whole-body (18)F-fluodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET) imaging has an essential role in diagnosing DLBCL in the clinic; however, [(18)F]FDG-PET often faces difficulty in differentiating malignant tissues from certain nonmalignant tissues with high glucose uptake. We have developed a PET imaging strategy for DLBCL that targets poly[ADP ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1), the expression of which has been found to be much higher in DLBCL than in healthy tissues...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sharon E Johnatty, Yen Y Tan, Daniel D Buchanan, Michael Bowman, Rhiannon J Walters, Andreas Obermair, Michael A Quinn, Penelope B Blomfield, Alison Brand, Yee Leung, Martin K Oehler, Judy A Kirk, Tracy A O'Mara, Penelope M Webb, Amanda B Spurdle
OBJECTIVE: To determine endometrial cancer (EC) risk according to family cancer history, including assessment by degree of relatedness, type of and age at cancer diagnosis of relatives. METHODS: Self-reported family cancer history was available for 1353 EC patients and 628 controls. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between EC and cancer diagnosis in ≥1 first or second degree relative, and to assess whether level of risk differed by degree of relationship and/or relative's age at diagnosis...
August 16, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
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