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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319755/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-reduces-resting-state-insula-activity-and-modulates-functional-connectivity-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-cigarette-smokers
#1
Xingbao Li, Lian Du, Gregory L Sahlem, Bashar W Badran, Scott Henderson, Mark S George
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can reduce cue-elicited craving and decrease cigarette consumption in smokers. The mechanism of this effect however, remains unclear. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to test the effect of rTMS in non-treatment seeking smokers. METHODS: We used a single blinded, sham-controlled, randomized counterbalanced crossover design where participants underwent two visits separated by at least 1 week...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317947/parietal-operculum-and-motor-cortex-activities-predict-motor-recovery-in-moderate-to-severe-stroke
#2
Firdaus Fabrice Hannanu, Thomas A Zeffiro, Laurent Lamalle, Olivier Heck, Félix Renard, Antoine Thuriot, Alexandre Krainik, Marc Hommel, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard
While motor recovery following mild stroke has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, mechanisms of recovery after moderate to severe strokes of the types that are often the focus for novel restorative therapies remain obscure. We used fMRI to: 1) characterize reorganization occurring after moderate to severe subacute stroke, 2) identify brain regions associated with motor recovery and 3) to test whether brain activity associated with passive movement measured in the subacute period could predict motor outcome six months later...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293484/structural-and-functional-hyperconnectivity-within-the-sensorimotor-system-in-xenomelia
#3
Jürgen Hänggi, Deborah A Vitacco, Leonie M Hilti, Roger Luechinger, Bernd Kraemer, Peter Brugger
INTRODUCTION: Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent and compulsive desire for the amputation of one or more physically healthy limbs. We highlight the neurological underpinnings of xenomelia by assessing structural and functional connectivity by means of whole-brain connectome and network analyses of regions previously implicated in empirical research in this condition. METHODS: We compared structural and functional connectivity between 13 xenomelic men with matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging combined with fiber tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284776/neural-underpinnings-of-prosexual-effects-induced-by-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-in-healthy-male-humans
#4
Oliver G Bosch, Michael M Havranek, Andrea Baumberger, Katrin H Preller, Robin von Rotz, Marcus Herdener, Rainer Kraehenmann, Philipp Staempfli, Milan Scheidegger, Tim Klucken, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist currently used as treatment for narcolepsy but also as a drug of abuse. Non-medical GHB users have repeatedly reported prosexual effects including libido-enhancement and lowering of attractiveness standards for partner selection. Here, we examined the putative prosexual effects of oral GHB in healthy males in two experiments both employing randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, and cross-over study designs. In experiment I, subjective effects of 20 and 35mg/kg GHB vs...
March 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265059/neural-basis-of-impaired-safety-signaling-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#5
Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Claire M Gillan, Naomi A Fineberg, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
The ability to assign safety to stimuli in the environment is integral to everyday functioning. A key brain region for this evaluation is the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). To investigate the importance of vmPFC safety signaling, we used neuroimaging of Pavlovian fear reversal, a paradigm that involves flexible updating when the contingencies for a threatening (CS+) and safe (CS-) stimulus reverse, in a prototypical disorder of inflexible behavior influenced by anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254652/chemosensory-danger-detection-in-the-human-brain-body-odor-communicating-aggression-modulates-limbic-system-activation
#6
Smiljana Mutic, Yvonne F Brünner, Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Martin Wiesmann, Jessica Freiherr
Although the sense of smell is involved in numerous survival functions, the processing of body odor emitted by dangerous individuals is far from understood. The aim of the study was to explore how human fight chemosignals communicating aggression can alter brain activation related to an attentional bias and danger detection. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was seen involved in processing threat-related emotional information, danger detection and error evaluation, it still remains unknown whether human chemosignals communicating aggression can potentially modulate this activation...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253082/multimodal-imaging-evidence-for-a-frontocortical-modulation-of-visual-cortex-during-the-selective-processing-of-conditioned-threat
#7
Nathan M Petro, L Forest Gruss, Siyang Yin, Haiqing Huang, Vladimir Miskovic, Mingzhou Ding, Andreas Keil
Emotionally salient cues are detected more readily, remembered better, and evoke greater visual cortical responses compared with neutral stimuli. The current study used concurrent EEG-fMRI recordings to identify large-scale network interactions involved in the amplification of visual cortical activity when viewing aversively conditioned cues. To generate a continuous neural signal from pericalcarine visual cortex, we presented rhythmic (10/sec) phase-reversing gratings, the orientation of which predicted the presence (CS+) or absence (CS-) of a cutaneous electric shock (i...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249119/enhanced-task-related-brain-activation-and-resting-perfusion-in-healthy-older-adults-after-chronic-blueberry-supplementation
#8
Joanna L Bowtell, Zainie Aboo-Bakkar, Myra Conway, Anna-Lynne R Adlam, Jonathan Fulford
Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67...
March 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223929/the-effects-of-age-from-young-to-middle-adulthood-and-gender-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-dopaminergic-midbrain
#9
Andrew C Peterson, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18-49 years of age, 104 men)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202336/functional-connectivity-in-resting-state-as-a-phonemic-fluency-ability-measure
#10
Anna Miró-Padilla, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, María-Ángeles Palomar-García, César Ávila
There is some evidence that functional connectivity (FC) measures obtained at rest may reflect individual differences in cognitive capabilities. We tested this possibility by using the FAS test as a measure of phonemic fluency. Seed regions of the main brain areas involved in this task were extracted from meta-analysis results (Wagner et al., 2014) and used for pairwise resting-state FC analysis. Ninety-three undergraduates completed the FAS test outside the scanner. A correlation analysis was conducted between the F-A-S scores (behavioral testing) and the pairwise FC pattern of verbal fluency regions of interest...
February 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176413/anomalous-single-subject-based-morphological-cortical-networks-in-drug-naive-first-episode-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Taolin Chen, Keith M Kendrick, Jinhui Wang, Min Wu, Kaiming Li, Xiaoqi Huang, Yuejia Luo, Su Lui, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with disruptions in the topological organization of brain morphological networks in group-level data. Such disruptions have not yet been identified in single-patients, which is needed to show relations with symptom severity and to evaluate their potential as biomarkers for illness. To address this issue, we conducted a cross-sectional structural brain network study of 33 treatment-naive, first-episode MDD patients and 33 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174532/resting-state-brain-abnormalities-in-chronic-subjective-tinnitus-a-meta-analysis
#12
Yu-Chen Chen, Fang Wang, Jie Wang, Fan Bo, Wenqing Xia, Jian-Ping Gu, Xindao Yin
Purpose: The neural mechanisms that give rise to the phantom sound of tinnitus have not been fully elucidated. Neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities in resting-state activity that could represent the neural signature of tinnitus, but there is considerable heterogeneity in the data. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of published neuroimaging studies aimed at identifying a common core of resting-state brain abnormalities in tinnitus patients. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for whole-brain resting-state neuroimaging studies with SPECT, PET and functional MRI that compared chronic tinnitus patients with healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174127/altered-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-influence-of-childhood-adhd
#13
Deokjong Lee, Junghan Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Chul Jung
OBJECTIVE: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by abnormal executive control, leading to loss of control over excessive gaming. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common comorbid disorders in IGD, involving delayed development of the executive control system, which could predispose individuals to gaming addiction. We investigated the influence of childhood ADHD on neural network features of IGD. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis was performed on 44 young, male IGD subjects with and without childhood ADHD and 19 age-matched, healthy male controls...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163677/human-brain-activity-related-to-the-tactile-perception-of-stickiness
#14
Jiwon Yeon, Junsuk Kim, Jaekyun Ryu, Jang-Yeon Park, Soon-Cheol Chung, Sung-Phil Kim
While the perception of stickiness serves as one of the fundamental dimensions for tactile sensation, little has been elucidated about the stickiness sensation and its neural correlates. The present study investigated how the human brain responds to perceived tactile sticky stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To evoke tactile perception of stickiness with multiple intensities, we generated silicone stimuli with varying catalyst ratios. Also, an acrylic sham stimulus was prepared to present a condition with no sticky sensation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162919/cholinergic-receptor-binding-in-alzheimer-disease-and-healthy-aging-assessment-in-vivo-with-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#15
David L Sultzer, Rebecca J Melrose, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Theresa A Narvaez, Joseph Veliz, Timothy K Ando, Kevin O Juarez, Dylan G Harwood, Arthur L Brody, Mark A Mandelkern
OBJECTIVE: To compare regional nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy older adults in vivo and to assess relationships between receptor binding and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging and structured clinical assessment, outpatients with mild to moderate AD (N = 24) and healthy older adults without cognitive complaints (C group; N = 22) were studied...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153806/a-study-of-brain-metabolism-in-fibromyalgia-by-positron-emission-tomography
#16
Chie Usui, Tsutomu Soma, Kotaro Hatta, Satoko Aratani, Hidetoshi Fujita, Kenya Nishioka, Yutaka Machida, Yoshiyuki Kuroiwa, Toshihiro Nakajima, Kusuki Nishioka
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to determine the brain regions with altered metabolism in patients with treatment-naïve fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: We used [(18)F] fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography to examine a total of 18 treatment-naïve FM patients and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls not suffering from pain. A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: No significant voxel (peak)-level results were detected in this study; however, some regions were detected as significant-size clusters...
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148969/structural-connectivity-variances-underlie-functional-and-behavioral-changes-during-pain-relief-induced-by-neuromodulation
#17
Richard L Lin, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Nicola Filippini, Thomas W Okell, Charlotte J Stagg, Irene Tracey
An increased understanding of the relationship between structural connections and functional and behavioral outcomes is an essential but under-explored topic in neuroscience. During transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-induced analgesia, neuromodulation occurs through a top-down process that depends on inter-regional connections. To investigate whether variation in anatomical connectivity explains functional and behavorial outcomes during neuromodulation, we first combined tDCS and a tonic pain model with concurrent arterial spin labelling that measures cerebral perfusion related to ongoing neural activity...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144739/increased-insular-connectivity-with-emotional-regions-in-primary-insomnia-patients-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#18
Tianyue Wang, Jianhao Yan, Shumei Li, Wenfeng Zhan, Xiaofen Ma, Likun Xia, Meng Li, Chulan Lin, Junzhang Tian, Cheng Li, Guihua Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the abnormal connectivity patterns between the insular and the voxels of the brain in primary insomnia (PI) with insular-based functional connectivity (FC). METHODS: With the resting-state fMRI data acquired from 57 PI patients and 46 healthy controls, a two-sample t test was performed on individual FC correlation maps from two groups. The person correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the abnormal FC and clinical features...
January 31, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139359/altered-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#19
Anna Alonso-Solís, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Maria J Portella, Mireia Rabella, Eva M Grasa, Alexandra Roldán, Alejandro Keymer-Gausset, Conrad Molins, Fidel Núñez-Marín, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Enric Alvarez, Iluminada Corripio
The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in low frequency fluctuation (LFF) values between schizophrenia patients with and without auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Nineteen schizophrenia patients with persistent AVH (HP), fourteen non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients (nHP) and twenty healthy controls (HC) underwent R-fMRI. LFF values were calculated in the slow frequency band (0.01-0.08Hz). By means of group level contrasts, we performed direct voxel-wise group comparisons. Both groups of patients showed decreased amplitude LFF (ALFF) values in the occipital pole and lingual gyrus compared to HC, whereas increased ALFF values were found in the temporal pole and fusifom gyrus...
January 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135213/brain-activity-for-tactile-allodynia-a-longitudinal-awake-rat-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-tracking-emergence-of-neuropathic-pain
#20
Pei-Ching Chang, Maria Virginia Centeno, Daniel Procissi, Alex Baria, A Vania Apkarian
Tactile allodynia, a condition in which innocuous mechanical stimuli are perceived as painful, is a common feature of chronic pain. However, how the brain reorganizes in relation to the emergence of tactile allodynia is still largely unknown. This may stem from the fact that experiments in humans are cross-sectional in nature, whereas animal brain imaging studies typically require anaesthesia rendering the brain incapable of consciously sensing or responding to pain. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study in awake rats, we tracked brain activity with the development of tactile allodynia...
March 2017: Pain
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