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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541428/dissociable-roles-of-cerebral-%C3%AE-opioid-and-type-2-dopamine-receptors-in-vicarious-pain-a-combined-pet-fmri-study
#1
Tomi Karjalainen, Henry K Karlsson, Juha M Lahnakoski, Enrico Glerean, Pirjo Nuutila, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Riitta Hari, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
Neuroimaging studies have shown that seeing others in pain activates brain regions that are involved in first-hand pain, suggesting that shared neuromolecular pathways support processing of first-hand and vicarious pain. We tested whether the dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems involved in nociceptive processing also contribute to vicarious pain experience. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to quantify type 2 dopamine and μ-opioid receptor (D2R and MOR, respectively) availabilities in brains of 35 subjects...
May 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#2
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536272/social-laughter-triggers-endogenous-opioid-release-in-humans
#3
Sandra Manninen, Lauri Tuominen, Robin Dunbar, Tomi Karjalainen, Jussi Hirvonen, Eveliina Arponen, Riitta Hari, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
The size of human social networks significantly exceeds the network that can be maintained by social grooming or touching in other primates. It has been proposed that endogenous opioid release following social laughter would provide a neurochemical pathway supporting long-term relationships in humans (Dunbar, 2012) yet this hypothesis currently lacks direct neurophysiological support. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and μ-opioid-receptor (MOR) specific ligand [11C]carfentanil to quantify laughter-induced endogenous opioid release in 12 healthy males...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536051/altered-thalamo-cortical-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-smokers
#4
Chaoyan Wang, Jie Bai, Caihong Wang, Karen M von Deneen, Kai Yuan, Jingliang Cheng
The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level...
May 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#5
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521048/altered-coupling-between-resting-state-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#6
Jiajia Zhu, Chuanjun Zhuo, Lixue Xu, Feng Liu, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu
Background: Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Methods: 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521044/cross-tissue-exploration-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-effects-on-brain-gray-matter-in-schizophrenia
#7
Dongdong Lin, Jiayu Chen, Stefan Ehrlich, Juan R Bustillo, Nora Perrone-Bizzozero, Esther Walton, Vincent P Clark, Yu-Ping Wang, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Beng C Ho, Charles S Schulz, Vince D Calhoun, Jingyu Liu
Closely linking genetics and environment factors, epigenetics has been of increasing interest in psychiatric disease studies. In this work, we integrated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), DNA methylation of blood and saliva, and brain gray matter (GM) measures to explore the role of genetic and epigenetic variation to the brain structure changes in schizophrenia (SZ). By focusing on the reported SZ genetic risk regions, we applied a multi-stage multivariate analysis to a discovery dataset (92 SZ patients and 110 controls, blood) and an independent replication dataset (93 SZ patients and 99 controls, saliva)...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#8
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional connectivity in 38 CTN patients and 38 matched healthy controls. For VBM analyses, CTN patients displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior and mid cingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area (PMA), and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498276/influence-of-uncertain-anticipation-on-brain-responses-to-aversive-rectal-distension-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
Michiko Kano, Tomohiko Muratsubaki, Joe Morishita, Keiji Kono, Shunji Mugikura, Kei Takase, Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Shin Fukudo
OBJECTIVE: We investigated if certainty and uncertainty of impending aversive visceral sensation differently modulate regional brain activity, both during anticipation and visceral sensation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-six IBS patients (14 women) and 29 healthy controls (15 women) were enrolled in an fMRI study. Participants received rectal distention at an individually titrated severe discomfort level that was preceded by visual cues to induce certain (100% chance of distention), uncertain (50% chance), and safe (0% chance) anticipation...
May 12, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461059/high-resolution-functional-mri-identified-distinct-global-intrinsic-functional-networks-of-nociceptive-posterior-insula-and-s2-regions-in-squirrel-monkey-brain
#10
Ruiqi Wu, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, Li Min Chen
Numerous functional imaging and electrophysiological studies in humans and animals indicate that the two contiguous areas of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and posterior insula (pIns) are core regions in nociceptive processing and pain perception. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S2-pIns connection serves as a hub for connecting distinct sensory and affective nociceptive processing networks in the squirrel monkey brain. At 9.4T, we first mapped the brain regions that respond to nociceptive heat stimuli with high-resolution fMRI, and then used seed-based resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) analysis to delineate and refine the global intrinsic functional connectivity circuits of the proximal S2 and pIns regions...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448683/magnetic-resonance-imaging-connectivity-for-the-prediction-of-seizure-outcome-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Victoria L Morgan, Dario J Englot, Baxter P Rogers, Bennett A Landman, Ahmet Cakir, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Adam W Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Currently, approximately 60-70% of patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remain seizure-free 3 years after surgery. The goal of this work was to develop a presurgical connectivity-based biomarker to identify those patients who will have an unfavorable seizure outcome 1-year postsurgery. METHODS: Resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was acquired from 22 unilateral (15 right, 7 left) patients with TLE and 35 healthy controls...
April 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446254/functional-neuroimaging-of-sex-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-depression
#12
K D Young, J Bodurka, W C Drevets
BACKGROUND: Females are more likely than males to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of autobiographical memory (AM) recall between males and females diagnosed with MDD. AM overgenerality is a persistent cognitive deficit in MDD, the magnitude of which is correlated with depressive severity only in females. Delineating the neurobiological correlates of this deficit may elucidate the nature of sex-differences in the diathesis for developing MDD...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430885/lesion-mapping-of-stroke-related-erectile-dysfunction
#13
Klemens Winder, Frank Seifert, Martin Köhrmann, Carl Crodel, Stephan Kloska, Arnd Dörfler, Katharina M Hösl, Stefan Schwab, Max J Hilz
Acute ischaemic stroke in brain areas contributing to male sexual function may impair erectile function depending on the lesion site. This study intended to determine associations between stroke-related erectile dysfunction and cerebral ischaemic lesion sites using voxel-based lesion mapping. In 52 males (mean age 60.5 ± 10.5 years) with first-ever ischaemic strokes, we assessed erectile function after and retrospectively 3 months prior to the stroke using scores of the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429160/neural-mechanisms-of-risky-decision-making-in-adolescents-reporting-frequent-alcohol-and-or-marijuana-use
#14
Eric D Claus, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Renee E Magnan, Erika Montanaro, Kent E Hutchison, Angela D Bryan
Because adolescence is a period of heightened exploration of new behaviors, there is a natural increase in risk taking including initial use of alcohol and marijuana. In order to better understand potential differences in neurocognitive functioning among adolescents who use drugs, the current study aimed to identify the neural substrates of risky decision making that differ among adolescents who are primary users of alcohol or marijuana, primary users of both alcohol and marijuana, and controls who report primary use of neither drug...
April 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420981/age-related-difference-in-functional-brain-connectivity-of-mastication
#15
Chia-Shu Lin, Ching-Yi Wu, Shih-Yun Wu, Hsiao-Han Lin, Dong-Hui Cheng, Wen-Liang Lo
The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413777/sex-differences-in-the-interacting-roles-of-impulsivity-and-positive-alcohol-expectancy-in-problem-drinking-a-structural-brain-imaging-study
#16
Jaime S Ide, Simon Zhornitsky, Sien Hu, Sheng Zhang, John H Krystal, Chiang-Shan R Li
Alcohol expectancy and impulsivity are implicated in alcohol misuse. However, how these two risk factors interact to determine problem drinking and whether men and women differ in these risk processes remain unclear. In 158 social drinkers (86 women) assessed for Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), positive alcohol expectancy, and Barratt impulsivity, we examined sex differences in these risk processes. Further, with structural brain imaging, we examined the neural bases underlying the relationship between these risk factors and problem drinking...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413706/basic-taste-processing-recruits-bilateral-anteroventral-and-middle-dorsal-insulae-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies
#17
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Tazuko K Goto, Wai Keung Leung
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Numerous task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported the locations of basic taste representations in the human brain, but they usually employed a limited number of subjects (<20) with different methodologies and stimuli. Moreover, the reported brain regions were sometimes inconsistent. Thus, we aimed at performing a meta-analysis of the published data to identify locations consistently activated across studies, and performed a connectivity analysis to reveal how these taste processing regions connect with other brain regions...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408961/the-usefulness-of-diagnostic-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-pain-symptoms-in-temporomandibular-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Shigeaki Suenaga, Kunihiro Nagayama, Taisuke Nagasawa, Hiroko Indo, Hideyuki J Majima
The causes of pain symptoms in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscle (MM) regions may not be determined by clinical examination alone. In this review, we document that pain symptoms of the TMJ and MM regions in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are associated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) findings of internal derangement, joint effusion, osteoarthritis, and bone marrow edema. However, it is emphasized that these imaging findings must not be regarded as the unique and dominant factors in defining TMJ pain...
November 2016: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401046/functional-neuroanatomy-in-panic-disorder-status-quo-of-the-research
#19
Thomas Sobanski, Gerd Wagner
AIM: To provide an overview of the current research in the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder. METHODS: Panic disorder (PD) is a frequent psychiatric disease. Gorman et al (1989; 2000) proposed a comprehensive neuroanatomical model of PD, which suggested that fear- and anxiety-related responses are mediated by a so-called "fear network" which is centered in the amygdala and includes the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray region, locus coeruleus and other brainstem sites...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400807/modulatory-effects-of-acupuncture-on-brain-networks-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#20
Ting-Ting Tan, Dan Wang, Ju-Ke Huang, Xiao-Mei Zhou, Xu Yuan, Jiu-Ping Liang, Liang Yin, Hong-Liang Xie, Xin-Yan Jia, Jiao Shi, Fang Wang, Hao-Bo Yang, Shang-Jie Chen
Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to investigate the effects of acupuncture on neural activity. However, most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on acute changes in brain activation induced by acupuncture. Thus, the time course of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture remains unclear. In this study, 32 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into two groups, where they received either Tiaoshen Yizhi acupuncture or sham acupoint acupuncture...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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