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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#1
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024175/mapping-the-sequence-of-brain-events-in-response-to-disgusting-food
#2
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Ramón Coronas, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Mercedes Rigla, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Ramón Novell, Assumpta Caixàs
Warning signals indicating that a food is potentially dangerous may evoke a response that is not limited to the feeling of disgust. We investigated the sequence of brain events in response to visual representations of disgusting food using a dynamic image analysis. Functional MRI was acquired in 30 healthy subjects while they were watching a movie showing disgusting food scenes interspersed with the scenes of appetizing food. Imaging analysis included the identification of the global brain response and the generation of frame-by-frame activation maps at the temporal resolution of 2 s...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#3
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979822/the-role-and-treatment-implications-of-peripheral-and-central-processing-of-pain-pruritus-and-nausea-in-heightened-somatic-awareness-a-review
#4
REVIEW
David R Spiegel, Alexander Pattison, Alexis Lyons, Umer Ansari, Aidan L Mccroskey, Eric Luehrs, Lauren Barr, Stephanie Le
Pain, pruritus, and nausea are complex sensory and emotional physiological symptoms that can vary widely between people and even within an individual, depending on the context and meaning of the symptom and the psychological state of the person. This article reviews the acute neural transmission of pain, pruritus, and nausea symptoms, which can begin in the periphery and/or viscera. The subsequent multiple pathways in the central nervous system that become involved in the processing of these symptoms are also discussed...
May 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975729/brain-processing-of-rectal-sensation-in-adolescents-with-functional-defecation-disorders-and-healthy-controls
#5
S M Mugie, I J N Koppen, M M van den Berg, P F C Groot, L Reneman, M B de Ruiter, M A Benninga
BACKGROUND: Decreased sensation of urge to defecate is often reported by children with functional constipation (FC) and functional nonretentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate cerebral activity in response to rectal distension in adolescents with FC and FNRFI compared with healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: We included 15 adolescents with FC, 10 adolescents with FNRFI, and 15 young adult HCs. Rectal barostat was performed prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine individual pressure thresholds for urge sensation...
October 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971013/presurgical-thalamocortical-connectivity-is-associated-with-response-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-children-with-intractable-epilepsy
#6
George M Ibrahim, Priya Sharma, Ann Hyslop, Magno R Guillen, Benjamin R Morgan, Simeon Wong, Taylor J Abel, Lior Elkaim, Iahn Cajigas, Ashish H Shah, Aria Fallah, Alexander G Weil, Nolan Altman, Byron Bernal, Santiago Medina, Elysa Widjaja, Prasanna Jayakar, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia
Although chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment for medically-intractable childhood epilepsy, there is considerable heterogeneity in seizure response and little data are available to pre-operatively identify patients who may benefit from treatment. Since the therapeutic effect of VNS may be mediated by afferent projections to the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic thalamocortical connectivity is associated with seizure response following chronic VNS in children with epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957777/unseen-scars-cocaine-patients-with-prior-trauma-evidence-heightened-resting-state-functional-connectivity-rsfc-between-the-amygdala-and-limbic-striatal-regions
#7
Michael J Gawrysiak, Kanchana Jagannathan, Paul Regier, Jesse J Suh, Kyle Kampman, Timothy Vickery, Anna Rose Childress
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) patients with a history of trauma exhibit poorer treatment outcome, greater functional impairment and higher risk for relapse. Endorsement of prior trauma has, in several SUD populations, been linked to abnormal functional connectivity (FC) during task-based studies. We examined amygdala FC in the resting state (RS), testing for differences between cocaine patients with and without prior trauma. METHODS: Patients with cocaine use disorder (CUD; n=34) were stabilized in an inpatient setting prior to a BOLD fMRI scan...
November 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949287/cardiorespiratory-concerns-shape-brain-responses-during-automatic-panic-related-scene-processing-in-patients-with-panic-disorder
#8
Katharina Feldker, Carina Yvonne Heitmann, Paula Neumeister, Leonie Brinkmann, Maximillan Bruchmann, Pienie Zwitserlood, Thomas Straube
BACKGROUND: Increased automatic processing of threat-related stimuli has been proposed as a key element in panic disorder. Little is known about the neural basis of automatic processing, in particular to task-irrelevant, panic-related, ecologically valid stimuli, or about the association between brain activation and symptomatology in patients with panic disorder. METHODS: The present event-related fMRI study compared brain responses to task-irrelevant, panic-related and neutral visual stimuli in medication-free patients with panic disorder and healthy controls...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#9
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937319/brain-activation-patterns-during-unilateral-premolar-occlusion
#10
Chun-Zhen Feng, Jin-Feng Li, Nan Hu, Hua Jiang, Yan-Yi Wang, Hong-Chen Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics of brain activation during unilateral premolar occlusion. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected from 10 healthy volunteers during occlusion of the left first premolar (L1), left second premolar (L2), and right first premolar (R1). The brain activation patterns were analyzed, and the primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, insula, thalamus, and prefrontal cortex were chosen as regions of interest...
September 22, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936171/neural-activity-patterns-in-the-human-brain-reflect-tactile-stickiness-perception
#11
Junsuk Kim, Jiwon Yeon, Jaekyun Ryu, Jang-Yeon Park, Soon-Cheol Chung, Sung-Phil Kim
Our previous human fMRI study found brain activations correlated with tactile stickiness perception using the uni-variate general linear model (GLM) (Yeon et al., 2017). Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation on neural correlates of sticky sensations by employing a multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on the same dataset. In particular, we statistically compared multi-variate neural activities in response to the three groups of sticky stimuli: A supra-threshold group including a set of sticky stimuli that evoked vivid sticky perception; an infra-threshold group including another set of sticky stimuli that barely evoked sticky perception; and a sham group including acrylic stimuli with no physically sticky property...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926483/using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-detect-chronic-fatigue-in-patients-with-previous-traumatic-brain-injury-changes-linked-to-altered-striato-thalamic-cortical-functioning
#12
Nils Berginström, Peter Nordström, Urban Ekman, Johan Eriksson, Micael Andersson, Lars Nyberg, Anna Nordström
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to detect fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI). SETTING: Neurorehabilitation clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with TBI (n = 57) and self-experienced fatigue more than 1 year postinjury, and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 27). MAIN MEASURES: Self-assessment scales of fatigue, a neuropsychological test battery, and fMRI scanning during performance of a fatiguing 27-minute attention task...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919314/24-hour-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-assessment-in-post-stroke-spasticity-development-in-patients-with-a-first-documented-anterior-circulation-ischemic-stroke
#13
Ondrej Volny, Maria Justanova, Petra Cimflova, Linda Kasickova, Ivana Svobodova, Jan Muzik, Martin Bares
BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomic substrates responsible for development of post-stroke spasticity are still poorly understood. The study is focused on identification of brain regions within the territory of the middle cerebral artery associated with spasticity development. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective cohort study of first documented anterior circulation ischemic strokes with a neurologic deficit lasting >7 days (from March 2014 to September 2016, all patients are involved in a registry)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905269/differences-in-neural-response-to-romantic-stimuli-in-monogamous-and-non-monogamous-men
#14
Lisa Dawn Hamilton, Cindy M Meston
In non-human animal research, studies comparing socially monogamous and promiscuous species of voles (Microtus) have identified some key neural differences related to monogamy and non-monogamy. Specifically, densities of the vasopressin V1a receptor and dopamine D2 receptors in subcortical reward-related and limbic areas of the brain have been linked to monogamous behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Similar brain areas have been shown to be correlated with feelings of romantic love in monogamously pair-bonded humans...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900267/investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-smoking-feasibility-and-results-of-combining-electronic-cigarettes-with-fmri
#15
Matthew B Wall, Alexander Mentink, Georgina Lyons, Oliwia S Kowalczyk, Lysia Demetriou, Rexford D Newbould
Cigarette addiction is driven partly by the physiological effects of nicotine, but also by the distinctive sensory and behavioural aspects of smoking, and understanding the neural effects of such processes is vital. There are many practical difficulties associated with subjects smoking in the modern neuroscientific laboratory environment, however electronic cigarettes obviate many of these issues, and provide a close simulation of smoking tobacco cigarettes. We have examined the neural effects of 'smoking' electronic cigarettes with concurrent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886046/effects-of-water-avoidance-stress-on-peripheral-and-central-responses-during-bladder-filling-in-the-rat-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-the-study-of-urologic-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-mapp-research-network-study
#16
Zhuo Wang, Harriet H Chang, Yunliang Gao, Rong Zhang, Yumei Guo, Daniel P Holschneider, Larissa V Rodriguez
Stress plays a role in the exacerbation and possibly the development of functional lower urinary tract disorders. Chronic water avoidance stress (WAS) in rodents is a model with high construct and face validity to bladder hypersensitive syndromes, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), characterized by urinary frequency and bladder hyperalgesia and heightened stress responsiveness. Given the overlap of the brain circuits involved in stress, anxiety, and micturition, we evaluated the effects chronic stress has on bladder function, as well as its effects on regional brain activation during bladder filling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885754/deficits-in-voluntary-pursuit-and-inhibition-of-risk-taking-in-sensation-seeking
#17
Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Moqian Tian, Weizhi Nan, Guochun Yang, Jin Liang, Xun Liu
Sensation seeking has been associated with substance use and other risk-taking behaviors. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the neural correlates underlying risk taking in sensation seeking. Twenty-eight high sensation seekers (HSS; 14 female and 14 male young adults) and 28 low sensation seekers (LSS; 14 female and 14 male young adults) performed an interactive, sequential gambling task that allowed for voluntary pursuit or inhibition of risk taking. Behaviorally, HSS versus LSS exhibited a stronger tendency toward risk taking...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881433/structural-connectivity-defined-thalamic-subregions-have-different-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-implications-for-clinical-correlations
#18
Alessandro d'Ambrosio, Milagros Hidalgo de la Cruz, Paola Valsasina, Elisabetta Pagani, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
In spite of the well-known importance of thalami in multiple sclerosis (MS), only limited data on whole and subregional thalamic functional connectivity (FC) changes are available. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we performed a structural connectivity based thalamic parcellation and investigated subregional thalamic resting-state (RS) FC alterations and their relationship with clinical/cognitive measures in MS. MRI data from a reference set of healthy controls (HC) were used to parcellate the thalami into five subregions, according to their structural connectivity...
September 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871117/conjoint-and-dissociated-structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#19
Weina Wang, Youjin Zhao, Xinyu Hu, Xiaoqi Huang, Weihong Kuang, Su Lui, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Published MRI evidence of structural and resting-state functional brain abnormalities in MDD has been inconsistent. To eliminate interference by repeated disease episodes and antidepressant treatment, we conducted the first multimodal voxel-wise meta-analysis of studies of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode drug-naive MDD patients, using the Seed-based d Mapping method (SDM). Fifteen VBM data sets and 11 ALFF data sets were included. SDM-based multimodal meta-analysis was used to highlight brain regions with both structural and functional abnormalities...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833732/grey-matter-volume-in-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-associated-eating-disorder-symptoms
#20
Beatriz Martin Monzon, Luke A Henderson, Sloane Madden, Vaughan G Macefield, Stephen Touyz, Michael R Kohn, Simon Clarke, Nasim Foroughi, Phillipa Hay
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder of complex aetiology. Previous neuroimaging studies have found consistent global reductions in global grey matter volume of underweight girls with AN; however, differences in regional grey matter volumes are less consistent. The aims of this study were to investigate grey matter regional volumes of adolescent girls with AN before and after weight recovery and the relationship of any changes with clinical characteristics. We collected high-resolution T1-weighted images from 26 underweight girls with AN before weight gain and 20 healthy control volunteers...
October 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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