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Thalamus and insula

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663353/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-and-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-availability-during-temporal-lobe-epileptogenesis-in-the-amygdala-kindling-model-in-rhesus-monkeys
#1
Evy Cleeren, Cindy Casteels, Karolien Goffin, Michel Koole, Koen Van Laere, Peter Janssen, Wim Van Paesschen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in the endocannabinoid system and glucose metabolism during temporal lobe epileptogenesis. METHODS: Because it is rarely possible to study epileptogenesis in humans, we applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in nonhuman primates to image longitudinal changes in type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) binding and cerebral glucose metabolism. Two rhesus monkeys received [18 F]-MK-9470 and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ([18 F]-FDG -PET) scans in each of the 4 kindling stages to quantify relative changes over time of CB1R binding and cerebral glucose metabolism in vivo...
April 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662445/dysregulation-of-pain-and-emotion-related-networks-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#2
Yanyang Zhang, Zhiqi Mao, Longsheng Pan, Zhipei Ling, Xinyun Liu, Jun Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe neuropathic facial pain disorder associated with increased risks of anxiety and depression. Converging evidence suggests that chronic pain pathophysiology involves dysfunctional pain-related and emotion-related networks. However, whether these systems are also among the culprit networks for TN remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess TN-related anatomical and functional brain anomalies in pain-related and emotion-related networks. We investigated differences in gray matter (GM) volume and the related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between 29 classical TN patients and 34 matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656266/cortical-and-subcortical-changes-in-patients-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#3
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Hai Liao, Geliang Wang, Ru Li, Gaoxiong Duan, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by a series of emotional, physical and behavioral symptoms. Although PMS is related to dysfunctions of the central nervous system, the neuropathological mechanism of PMS still has not been clearly established. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential differences in both cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in PMS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Twenty PMS patients and twenty HCs underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan and clinical assessment...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648977/severe-tbi-patients-without-focal-lesion-but-with-behavioral-disorders-shrinkage-of-gray-matter-nuclei-and-thalamus-revealed-in-a-pilot-voxel-based-mri-study
#4
Alexis Ruet, Françoise Joyeux, Shailandra Segobin, Corinne Jokic, Béatrice Desgranges, Francis Eustache, Anne-Lise Pitel
After a traumatic brain injury (TBI), behavioral disorders can occur without major focal brain lesion and in this case, their pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine whether TBI patients with behavioral disorders but without any focal damage, as observed from an initial clinical CT scan, present subtle volumetric alterations that could be measured voxel-by-voxel in the whole brain with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight severe TBI male adults with behavioral sequela but without major focal cerebral lesion and 17 age-matched controls underwent a volumetric T1-weighted 1...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628069/experiences-of-discrimination-are-associated-with-greater-resting-amygdala-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#5
Uraina S Clark, Evan R Miller, Rachal R Hegde
BACKGROUND: Social discrimination, a type of psychological stressor, is associated with poorer physical and mental health outcomes, yet we have little understanding of how discrimination affects neural functions in marginalized populations. By contrast, the effects of psychological stress on neural functions are well documented, with evidence of significant effects on the amygdala-a neural region that is central to psychosocial functions. Accordingly, we conducted an examination of the relation between self-reported discrimination exposure and amygdala activity in a diverse sample of adults...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625429/a-latent-variable-approach-to-differentiating-neural-mechanisms-of-irritability-and-anxiety-in-youth
#6
Katharina Kircanski, Lauren K White, Wan-Ling Tseng, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Heather R Frank, Stefanie Sequeira, Susan Zhang, Rany Abend, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Importance: Comorbidity is ubiquitous in psychiatry, but it is unclear how to differentiate neural mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms. Pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Threat orienting is pertinent to both phenotypes and is an ideal context in which to examine their unique and common neural mechanisms. Objectives: To decompose the unique and shared variances of pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms and to determine neural correlates of these differentiated phenotypes during threat orienting...
April 6, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625365/morphometric-mri-features-and-surgical-outcome-in-patients-with-epilepsy-related-to-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-low-intellectual-quotient
#7
Larissa Botelho Gaça, Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assumption Leme, Maria Helena Silva Noffs, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to verify in a series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) if those with low intellectual quotient (IQ) levels have more extended areas of atrophy compared with those with higher IQ levels and to analyze whether IQ could be a variable implicated on a surgical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients (n=106) with refractory MTLE-HS submitted to corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) (57 left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); 45 males) were enrolled...
April 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616603/snack-food-as-a-modulator-of-human-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#8
Andrea Mendez-Torrijos, Silke Kreitz, Claudiu Ivan, Laura Konerth, Julie Rösch, Monika Pischetsrieder, Gunther Moll, Oliver Kratz, Arnd Dörfler, Stefanie Horndasch, Andreas Hess
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation...
April 4, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602255/monitoring-and-control-of-amygdala-neurofeedback-involves-distributed-information-processing-in-the-human-brain
#9
Christian Paret, Jenny Zähringer, Matthias Ruf, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Stephanie Mall, Talma Hendler, Christian Schmahl, Gabriele Ende
Brain-computer interfaces provide conscious access to neural activity by means of brain-derived feedback ("neurofeedback"). An individual's abilities to monitor and control feedback are two necessary processes for effective neurofeedback therapy, yet their underlying functional neuroanatomy is still being debated. In this study, healthy subjects received visual feedback from their amygdala response to negative pictures. Activation and functional connectivity were analyzed to disentangle the role of brain regions in different processes...
March 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602198/severity-of-olfactory-deficits-is-reflected-in-functional-brain-networks-an-fmri-study
#10
Johanna L Reichert, Elbrich M Postma, Paul A M Smeets, Wilbert M Boek, Kees de Graaf, Veronika Schöpf, Sanne Boesveldt
Even though deficits in olfactory function affect a considerable part of the population, the neuronal basis of olfactory deficits remains scarcely investigated. To achieve a better understanding of how smell loss affects neural activation patterns and functional networks, we set out to investigate patients with olfactory dysfunction using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and olfactory stimulation. We used patients' scores on a standardized olfactory test as continuous measure of olfactory function...
March 30, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595708/brain-heart-pathways-to-blood-pressure-related-hypoalgesia
#11
Cristina Ottaviani, Sabrina Fagioli, Eugenio Mattei, Federica Censi, Louisa Edwards, Emiliano Macaluso, Marco Bozzali, Hugo Critchley, Giovanni Calcagnini
OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure (BP) is associated with reduced pain sensitivity, known as BP-related hypoalgesia. The underlying neural mechanisms remain uncertain, yet arterial baroreceptor signaling, occurring at cardiac systole, is implicated. We examined normotensives using functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and pain stimulation during distinct phases of the cardiac cycle to test the hypothesized neural mediation of baroreceptor-induced attenuation of pain. METHODS: Eighteen participants (10 women; 32...
March 28, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587165/disrupted-functional-connectivity-patterns-of-the-insula-subregions-in-drug-free-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Chao Wang, Huawang Wu, Fangfang Chen, Jinping Xu, Hongming Li, Hong Li, Jiaojian Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impairments in emotional and cognitive functions. Emerging studies have shown that cognition and emotion interact by reaching identical brain regions, and the insula is one such region with functional and structural heterogeneity. Although previous literatures have shown the role of insula in MDD,it remains unclear whether the insular subregions show differential change patterns in MDD. METHODS: Using the resting-state fMRI data in a group of 23 drug-free MDD patients and 34 healthy controls (HCs), we investigated whether the abnormal connectivity patterns of insular sub-regions or any behavioural correlates can be detected in MDD...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580887/neuroimaging-correlates-of-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Masataka Wada, Masaru Mimura, Yoshihiro Noda, Shotaro Takasu, Eric Plitman, Makoto Honda, Akiyo Natsubori, Kamiyu Ogyu, Ryosuke Tarumi, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Shinichiro Nakajima
Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques have advanced our understanding of biological mechanisms underpinning narcolepsy. We used MEDLINE to retrieve neuroimaging studies to compare patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Thirty-seven studies were identified and demonstrated several replicated abnormalities: (1) gray matter reductions in superior frontal, superior and inferior temporal, and middle occipital gyri, hypothalamus, amygdala, insula, hippocampus, cingulate cortex, thalamus, and nucleus accumbens, (2) decreased fractional anisotropy in white matter of fronto-orbital and cingulate area, (3) reduced brain metabolism or cerebral blood flow in middle and superior frontal, and cingulate cortex (4) increased activity in inferior frontal gyri, insula, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, and (5) N-acetylaspartate/creatine-phosphocreatine level reduction in hypothalamus...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580569/default-mode-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder-measured-up-to-10-days-after-ketamine-administration
#14
Jennifer W Evans, Joanna Szczepanik, Nancy Brutsché, Lawrence T Park, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) are rapidly alleviated by administration of a single dose of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine. However, few studies have investigated the potential sustained neural effects of this agent beyond immediate infusion. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effect of a single ketamine infusion on the resting state default mode network (DMN) at 2 and 10 days after a single ketamine infusion in unmedicated subjects with MDD as well as healthy control subjects (HCs)...
February 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575249/separate-neural-representations-of-prediction-error-valence-and-surprise-evidence-from-an-fmri-meta-analysis
#15
Elsa Fouragnan, Chris Retzler, Marios G Philiastides
Learning occurs when an outcome differs from expectations, generating a reward prediction error signal (RPE). The RPE signal has been hypothesized to simultaneously embody the valence of an outcome (better or worse than expected) and its surprise (how far from expectations). Nonetheless, growing evidence suggests that separate representations of the two RPE components exist in the human brain. Meta-analyses provide an opportunity to test this hypothesis and directly probe the extent to which the valence and surprise of the error signal are encoded in separate or overlapping networks...
March 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571264/white-matter-connectivity-of-the-visual-vestibular-cortex-examined-by-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#16
Anna M Wirth, Sebastian M Frank, Mark W Greenlee, Anton L Beer
The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) and the posterior insular cortex (PIC) are key regions of the cortical vestibular network, both located in the mid-posterior section of the lateral sulcus. Little is known about the structural connectivity pattern of these areas. We employed probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared the ipsilateral connectivity of PIVC and PIC. Seed areas for the tracking algorithm were identified in each brain by functional MRI activity during caloric and visual motion stimulation, respectively...
March 23, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560306/global-network-modulation-during-thalamic-stimulation-for-tourette-syndrome
#17
Hang Joon Jo, Kevin W McCairn, William S Gibson, Paola Testini, Cong Zhi Zhao, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Kirk M Welker, Charles D Blaha, Bryan T Klassen, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H Lee
Background and objectives: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a promising therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). However, few human studies have examined its mechanism of action. Therefore, the networks that mediate the therapeutic effects of thalamic DBS remain poorly understood. Methods: Five participants diagnosed with severe medically refractory TS underwent bilateral thalamic DBS stereotactic surgery. Intraoperative fMRI characterized the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response evoked by thalamic DBS and determined whether the therapeutic effectiveness of thalamic DBS, as assessed using the Modified Rush Video Rating Scale test, would correlate with evoked BOLD responses in motor and limbic cortical and subcortical regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548849/template-based-prediction-of-vigilance-fluctuations-in-resting-state-fmri
#18
Maryam Falahpour, Catie Chang, Chi Wah Wong, Thomas T Liu
Changes in vigilance or alertness during a typical resting state fMRI scan are inevitable and have been found to affect measures of functional brain connectivity. Since it is not often feasible to monitor vigilance with EEG during fMRI scans, it would be of great value to have methods for estimating vigilance levels from fMRI data alone. A recent study, conducted in macaque monkeys, proposed a template-based approach for fMRI-based estimation of vigilance fluctuations. Here, we use simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI data to investigate whether the same template-based approach can be employed to estimate vigilance fluctuations of awake humans across different resting-state conditions...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536636/reproducible-network-and-regional-topographies-of-abnormal-glucose-metabolism-associated-with-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-multivariate-and-univariate-analyses-in-american-and-chinese-patient-cohorts
#19
Jingjie Ge, Jianjun Wu, Shichun Peng, Ping Wu, Jian Wang, Huiwei Zhang, Yihui Guan, David Eidelberg, Chuantao Zuo, Yilong Ma
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare movement disorder and often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) in early phases. In this study, we report reproducible disease-related topographies of brain network and regional glucose metabolism associated with PSP in clinically-confirmed independent cohorts of PSP, MSA, and PD patients and healthy controls in the USA and China. Using18 F-FDG PET images from PSP and healthy subjects, we applied spatial covariance analysis with bootstrapping to identify a PSP-related pattern (PSPRP) and estimate its reliability, and evaluated the ability of network scores for differential diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530447/single-pulse-tms-to-the-dlpfc-compared-to-a-matched-sham-control-induces-a-direct-causal-increase-in-caudate-cingulate-and-thalamic-bold-signal
#20
Logan T Dowdle, Truman R Brown, Mark S George, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In the 20 years since our group established the feasibility of performing interleaved TMS/fMRI, no studies have reported direct comparisons of active prefrontal stimulation with a matched sham. Thus, for all studies there is concern about what is truly the TMS effect on cortical neurons. OBJECTIVE: After developing a sham control for use within the MRI scanner, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis of greater regional BOLD responses for active versus control stimulation...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
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