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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915119/neural-correlates-of-pupil-dilation-during-human-fear-learning
#1
Laura Leuchs, Max Schneider, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning and extinction are prevailing experimental and etiological models for normal and pathological anxiety. Pupil dilations in response to conditioned stimuli are increasingly used as a robust psychophysiological readout of fear learning, but their neural correlates remain unknown. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of pupil responses to threat and safety cues during a fear learning task. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#2
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898690/isoflurane-exposure-induces-cell-death-microglial-activation-and-modifies-the-expression-of-genes-supporting-neurodevelopment-and-cognitive-function-in-the-male-newborn-piglet-brain
#3
Kevin D Broad, Jane Hassell, Bobbi Fleiss, Go Kawano, Mojgan Ezzati, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Mariya Hristova, Kate Bennett, Igor Fierens, Ryan Burnett, Badr Chaban, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Aaron Oliver-Taylor, Ilias Tachsidis, Jamshid Rostami, Pierre Gressens, Robert D Sanders, Nicola J Robertson
Exposure of the brain to general anesthesia during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex, incompletely understood and may be sexually dimorphic, but include developmentally inappropriate apoptosis, inflammation and a disruption to cognitively salient gene expression. We investigated the effects of a 6h isoflurane exposure on cell death, microglial activation and gene expression in the male neonatal piglet brain. Piglets (n = 6) were randomised to: (i) naive controls or (ii) 6h isoflurane...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894900/neuroimaging-somatosensory-perception-and-masking
#4
Kimford J Meador, Kathleen Pirog Revill, Charles M Epstein, K Sathian, David W Loring, Chris Rorden
The specific cortical and subcortical regions involved in conscious perception and masking are uncertain. This study sought to identify brain areas involved in conscious perception of somatosensory stimuli during a masking task using functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to contrast perceived vs. non-perceived targets. Electrical trains were delivered to the right index finger for targets and to the left index finger for masks. Target intensities were adjusted to compensate for threshold drift. Sham target trials were given in ~10% of the trials, and target stimuli without masks were delivered in one of the five runs (68 trials/run)...
November 26, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881783/multivariate-brain-prediction-of-heart-rate-and-skin-conductance-responses-to-social-threat
#5
Hedwig Eisenbarth, Luke J Chang, Tor D Wager
: Psychosocial stressors induce autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses in multiple body systems that are linked to health risks. Much work has focused on the common effects of stress, but ANS responses in different body systems are dissociable and may result from distinct patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Here, we used machine learning to develop multivariate patterns of fMRI activity predictive of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) responses during social threat in humans (N = 18)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874847/early-changes-in-emotional-processing-as-a-marker-of-clinical-response-to-ssri-treatment-in-depression
#6
B R Godlewska, M Browning, R Norbury, P J Cowen, C J Harmer
Antidepressant treatment reduces behavioural and neural markers of negative emotional bias early in treatment and has been proposed as a mechanism of antidepressant drug action. Here, we provide a critical test of this hypothesis by assessing whether neural markers of early emotional processing changes predict later clinical response in depression. Thirty-five unmedicated patients with major depression took the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), escitalopram (10 mg), over 6 weeks, and were classified as responders (22 patients) versus non-responders (13 patients), based on at least a 50% reduction in symptoms by the end of treatment...
November 22, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870417/gender-differences-in-neural-correlates-of-stress-induced-anxiety
#7
Dongju Seo, Aneesha Ahluwalia, Marc N Potenza, Rajita Sinha
Although gender differences have been identified as a crucial factor for understanding stress-related anxiety and associated clinical disorders, the neural mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. To explore gender differences in the neural correlates of stress-induced anxiety, the current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain responses in 96 healthy men and women with commensurable levels of trait anxiety as they engaged in a personalized guided imagery paradigm to provoke stress and neutral-relaxing experiences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869064/transdiagnostic-brain-responses-to-disorder-related-threat-across-four-psychiatric-disorders
#8
K Feldker, C Y Heitmann, P Neumeister, S V Tupak, E Schrammen, R Moeck, P Zwitserlood, M Bruchmann, T Straube
BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate whether transdiagnostic neural mechanisms are shared by different anxiety-related disorders or whether different disorders show distinct neural correlates. To investigate this issue, studies controlling for design and stimuli across multiple anxiety-related disorders are needed. METHOD: The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated neural correlates of visual disorder-related threat processing across unmedicated patients suffering from panic disorder (n = 20), social anxiety disorder (n = 20), dental phobia (n = 16) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 11) relative to healthy controls (HC; n = 67)...
November 21, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864080/alterations-of-resting-state-functional-network-connectivity-in-the-brain-of-nicotine-and-alcohol-users
#9
Victor M Vergara, Jingyu Liu, Eric D Claus, Kent Hutchison, Vince Calhoun
Alcohol and nicotine intake result in neurological alterations at the circuit level. Resting state functional connectivity has shown great potential in identifying these alterations. However, current studies focus on specific seeds and leave out many brain regions where effects might exist. The present study uses a data driven technique for brain segmentation covering the whole brain. Functional magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 188 subjects: 51 non-substance consumption controls (CTR), 36 smoking-and-drinking subjects (SAD), 28 drinkers (DRN), and 73 smokers (SMK)...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818626/arousal-rather-than-basic-emotions-influence-long-term-recognition-memory-in-humans
#10
Artur Marchewka, Marek Wypych, Abnoos Moslehi, Monika Riegel, Jarosław M Michałowski, Katarzyna Jednoróg
Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818364/might-the-olfactory-bulb-be-an-origin-of-olfactory-auras-in-focal-epilepsy
#11
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory auras (phantosmia) are an infrequent phenomenon in complex focal seizures generated in the mesial temporal lobe. It is generally assumed that all such auras arise from epileptic foci in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala or rostral insula, all of which have major afferent projections from the olfactory bulb or mainly from its relay, the anterior olfactory nucleus. The histological morphology, synaptic circuitry, and foetal development of the olfactory bulb are unique. The olfactory system is the only special sensory system that does not project to the thalamus because its bulb and tract incorporate an intrinsic thalamic equivalent: axonless granular and periglomerular neurons and the anterior olfactory nucleus...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799910/an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis-study-of-simple-motor-movements-in-older-and-young-adults
#12
Ted K Turesky, Peter E Turkeltaub, Guinevere F Eden
The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776655/abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study-in-unilateral-pulsatile-tinnitus-patients-with-single-etiology-a-seed-based-functional-connectivity-study
#13
Han Lv, Pengfei Zhao, Zhaohui Liu, Rui Li, Ling Zhang, Peng Wang, Fei Yan, Liheng Liu, Guopeng Wang, Rong Zeng, Ting Li, Cheng Dong, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies demonstrated altered regional neural activations in several brain areas in patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT), especially indicating an important role of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). However, few studies focused on the degree of functional connectivity (FC) of this area in PT patients. In this study, we will compare the FC of PCC in patients affected with this condition and normal controls by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770470/altered-interregional-molecular-associations-of-the-serotonin-transporter-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-assessed-with-pet
#14
Thomas Vanicek, Alexandra Kutzelnigg, Cecile Philippe, Helen L Sigurdardottir, Gregory M James, Andreas Hahn, Georg S Kranz, Anna Höflich, Alexander Kautzky, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Marcus Hacker, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Altered serotonergic neurotransmission has been found to cause impulsive and aggressive behavior, as well as increased motor activity, all exemplifying key symptoms of ADHD. The main objectives of this positron emission tomography (PET) study were to investigate the serotonin transporter binding potential (SERT BPND ) in patients with ADHD and to assess associations of SERT BPND between the brain regions. 25 medication-free patients with ADHD (age ± SD; 32.39 ± 10.15; 10 females) without any psychiatric comorbidity and 25 age and sex matched healthy control subjects (33...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746043/brain-activity-in-patients-with-adductor-spasmodic-dysphonia-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Asanori Kiyuna, Norimoto Kise, Munehisa Hiratsuka, Shunsuke Kondo, Takayuki Uehara, Hiroyuki Maeda, Akira Ganaha, Mikio Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is considered a focal dystonia. However, the detailed pathophysiology of SD remains unclear, despite the detection of abnormal activity in several brain regions. The aim of this study was to clarify the pathophysiological background of SD. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case-control study. METHODS: Both task-related brain activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging by reading the five-digit numbers and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measured by 150 T2-weighted echo planar images acquired without any task were investigated in 12 patients with adductor SD and in 16 healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741467/reconfiguration-of-hub-level-community-structure-in-depressions-a-follow-up-study-via-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#16
Jiaolong Qin, Haiyan Liu, Maobin Wei, Ke Zhao, Jianhuai Chen, Jingyu Zhu, Xiangyu Shen, Rui Yan, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu
BACKGROUND: The role of abnormal communications among large-scale brain networks have been given increasing attentions in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have investigated the effect of antidepressant medication treatment on the information communication of structural brain networks, especially converged from the individual analysis. METHODS: Nineteen unipolar MDD patients completed two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans before and after 8-week treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718507/a-resting-state-fmri-study-of-obese-females-between-pre-and-postprandial-states-before-and-after-bariatric-surgery
#17
Lyle Wiemerslage, Wei Zhou, Gaia Olivo, Julia Stark, Pleunie S Hogenkamp, Elna-Marie Larsson, Magnus Sundbom, Helgi B Schiöth
Past studies utilizing resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI), have shown that obese humans exhibit altered activity in brain areas related to reward compared to normal-weight controls. However, to what extent bariatric surgery-induced weight loss alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans is less well-studied. Thus, we measured the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from eyes-closed, rsfMRI in obese females (n = 11, mean age = 42 years, mean BMI = 41 kg/m(2) ) in both a pre- and post-prandial state at two time points: four weeks before, and four weeks after bariatric surgery...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688940/cbt-reduces-cbf-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-reduces-cerebral-blood-flow-in-fear-relevant-brain-regions-in-spider-phobia
#18
Leila M Soravia, Ariane Orosz, Simon Schwab, Masahito Nakataki, Roland Wiest, Andrea Federspiel
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have provided evidence that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is able to change brain activation in phobic patients in response to threatening stimuli. The changes occurred in both emotion-generating and modulatory regions. In this study, we use a data-driven approach to explore resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL), before and after CBT. METHODS: Eight female patients with spider phobia were scanned before and 1 month after an exposure-based group therapy for spider phobia...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685801/prefrontal-cortex-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-volume-are-affected-in-suicidal-psychiatric-patients
#19
Savannah N Gosnell, Kenia M Velasquez, David L Molfese, Peter J Molfese, Alok Madan, James C Fowler, B Christopher Frueh, Philip R Baldwin, Ramiro Salas
Suicide is a leading cause of death in America, with over 40,000 reported suicides per year. Mental illness is a major risk factor for suicidality. This study attempts to validate findings of volumetric differences from studies on suicidality. Psychiatric inpatients classified as having mildly severe or severe depression were separated into two groups: suicide attempted in the past two months (SA; n=20), non-suicidal control group (DA; n=20); these patients were all depressed and not significantly different for age, gender, race, marital status, education level, anxiety level, and substance abuse...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678090/static-and-dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-use-of-arterial-spin-labelling-fmri
#20
Jeff Boissoneault, Janelle Letzen, Song Lai, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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