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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146879/2-cl-mgv-1-ameliorates-apoptosis-in-the-thalamus-and-hippocampus-and-cognitive-deficits-after-cortical-infarct-in-rats
#1
Yicong Chen, Leo Veenman, Sukhdev Singh, Fubing Ouyang, Jiahui Liang, Weixian Huang, Ilan Marek, Jinsheng Zeng, Moshe Gavish
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal cortical infarction causes neuronal apoptosis in the ipsilateral nonischemic thalamus and hippocampus, which is potentially associated with poststroke cognitive deficits. TSPO (translocator protein) is critical in regulating mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. We examined the effects of the novel TSPO ligand 2-(2-chlorophenyl)quinazolin-4-yl dimethylcarbamate (2-Cl-MGV-1) on poststroke cognitive deficits, neuronal mitochondrial apoptosis, and secondary damage in the ipsilateral thalamus and hippocampus after cortical infarction...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146874/imaging-characteristics-of-venous-parenchymal-abnormalities
#2
Audrey Arnoux, Aude Triquenot-Bagan, Daniela Andriuta, David Wallon, Evelyne Guegan-Massardier, Claire Leclercq, Olivier Martinaud, Mélody Castier-Amouyel, Olivier Godefroy, Jean-Marc Bugnicourt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are few published data on the patterns of parenchymal imaging abnormalities in a context of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of parenchymal lesions associated with CVT and to determine the lesion sites. METHODS: We included 44 consecutively hospitalized patients with CVT and parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of CVT had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography...
November 16, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146718/deep-brain-nuclei-t1-shortening-after-gadobenate-dimeglumine-in-children-influence-of-radiation-and-chemotherapy
#3
S Kinner, T B Schubert, R J Bruce, S L Rebsamen, C A Diamond, S B Reeder, H A Rowley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intrinsic T1-hyperintense signal has recently been reported in the deep gray nuclei on brain MR imaging after multiple doses of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Most reports have included adult patients and excluded those undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. We investigated whether T1 shortening is also observed in children and tried to determine whether radiochemotherapy is a risk factor for this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, we reviewed clinical charts and images of all patients 18 years of age or younger with ≥4 gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRIs for 6 years...
November 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#4
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144173/chronotype-regulates-the-neural-basis-of-response-inhibition-during-the-daytime
#5
Jingjing Song, Pan Feng, Xiaoyue Zhao, Wenjian Xu, Lijuan Xiao, Jia Zhou, Yong Zheng
Studies have elucidated the various modulatory effects of chronotype and time-of-day on task-dependent brain activity, but it is unclear how chronotype and time-of-day regulate brain activity in response inhibition tasks. To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the effects of chronotype and time-of-day on response inhibition in normal day-night conditions. Morning-type (MT) and evening-type (ET) participants conducted the stop-signal task in morning (08:00-12:00 hours) and evening (19:00-23:00 hours) sessions...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143870/head-to-head-comparison-of-18-f-av-1451-and-18-f-thk5351-for-tau-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#6
Young Kyoung Jang, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Seongbeom Park, Seung Jun Oh, Hanna Cho, Minyoung Oh, Young Hoon Ryu, Jae Yong Choi, Gil D Rabinovici, Hee Jin Kim, Seung Hwan Moon, Hyemin Jang, Jin San Lee, William J Jagust, Duk L Na, Jae Seung Kim, Sang Won Seo
PURPOSE: Tau accumulation is a core pathologic change in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau. Recently, tau positron emission tomography tracers such as [(18)F] AV-1451 and [(18)F] THK5351 have been developed to detect tau deposition in vivo. In the present study, we performed a head to head comparison of these two tracers in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia cases and aimed to investigate which tracers are better suited to image tau in these disorders...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143562/pathological-cut-offs-of-global-and-regional-brain-volume-loss-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Jan Krasensky, Lukas Sobisek, Michaela Tyblova, Jana Volna, Zdenek Seidl, Niels Bergsland, Michael G Dwyer, Robert Zivadinov, Nicola De Stefano, Maria Pia Sormani, Eva Kubala Havrdova, Dana Horakova
BACKGROUND: Volumetric MRI surrogate markers of disease progression are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To establish cut-off values of brain volume loss able to discriminate between healthy controls and MS patients. METHODS: In total, 386 patients after first demyelinating event suggestive of MS (CIS), 964 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, 63 secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients and 58 healthy controls were included in this longitudinal study...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#8
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141247/connections-of-anterior-thalamic-visual-centers-in-the-leopard-frog-rana-pipiens
#9
Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137644/functional-resonance-magnetic-imaging-fmri-in-adolescents-with-idiopathic-musculoskeletal-pain-a-paradigm-of-experimental-pain
#10
Juliana Molina, Edson Amaro, Liana Guerra Sanches da Rocha, Liliana Jorge, Flavia Heloisa Santos, Claudio A Len
BACKGROUND: Studies on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that adults with musculoskeletal pain syndromes tolerate smaller amount of pressure (pain) as well as differences in brain activation patterns in areas related to pain.The objective of this study was to evaluate, through fMRI, the brain activation in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain (IMP) while performing an experimental paradigm of pain. METHODS: The study included 10 consecutive adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain (average age 16...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137009/brain-metabolism-in-patients-with-freezing-of-gait-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#11
Seo Yeon Yoon, Sang Chul Lee, Na Young Kim, Young-Sil An, Yong Wook Kim
Movement disorders are 1 of the long-term neurological complications that can occur after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). However, freezing of gait (FOG) after HIBI is rare. The aim of this study was to examine the brain metabolism of patients with FOG after HIBI using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET).We consecutively enrolled 11 patients with FOG after HIBI. The patients' overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 FDG PET, and we compared their regional brain metabolic activity with that from 15 healthy controls using a voxel-by-voxel-based statistical mapping analysis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#12
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136012/regional-knockdown-of-ndufs4-implicates-a-thalamocortical-circuit-mediating-anesthetic-sensitivity
#13
Renjini Ramadasan-Nair, Jessica Hui, Pavel I Zimin, Leslie S Itsara, Philip G Morgan, Margaret M Sedensky
Knockout of the mitochondrial complex I protein, NDUFS4, profoundly increases sensitivity of mice to volatile anesthetics. In mice carrying an Ndufs4lox/lox gene, adeno-associated virus expressing Cre recombinase was injected into regions of the brain postulated to affect sensitivity to volatile anesthetics. These injections generated otherwise phenotypically wild type mice with region-specific, postnatal inactivation of Ndufs4, minimizing developmental effects of gene loss. Sensitivities to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and halothane were measured using loss of righting reflex (LORR) and movement in response to tail clamp (TC) as endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135225/regional-variations-of-spontaneous-transient-adenosine-release-in-brain-slices
#14
Scott T Lee, B Jill Venton
Transient adenosine signaling has been recently discovered in vivo, where the concentration is on average 180 nM and the duration only 3-4 seconds. Characterizing transient adenosine release in brain slices would facilitate pharmacological experiments testing formation and function of adenosine. Here, the goal was to compare the frequency, concentration, and duration of transient events in rat brain slices from the pre-frontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (CA1), and thalamus using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
November 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134725/reproducibility-of-brain-mri-segmentation-algorithms-empirical-comparison-of-local-map-pstaple-freesurfer-and-fsl-first
#15
Clemente Velasco-Annis, Alireza Akhondi-Asl, Aymeric Stamm, Simon K Warfield
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmentation of human brain structures is crucial for the volumetric quantification of brain disease. Advances in algorithmic approaches have led to automated techniques that save time compared to interactive methods. Recently, the utility and accuracy of template library fusion algorithms, such as Local MAP PSTAPLE (PSTAPLE), have been demonstrated but there is little guidance regarding its reproducibility compared to single template-based algorithms such as FreeSurfer and FSL-FIRST...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134552/intranasal-delivery-of-%C3%AE-asarone-to-the-brain-with-lactoferrin-modified-mpeg-pla-nanoparticles-prepared-by-premix-membrane-emulsification
#16
Linmei Pan, Jing Zhou, Feng Ju, Huaxu Zhu
Alpha-asarone is a bioactive component of Acorus tatarincuii Schott with low bioavailability, which is often used for treatments of various brain diseases in clinical setting. This study was to formulate biodegradable methoxy polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (mPEG-PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) surface-modified by lactoferrin (Lf), for delivering α-asarone into the brain following intranasal administration. Alpha-asarone NPs were prepared by premix membrane emulsification. The relative parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken experimental design...
November 13, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133436/ventral-midline-thalamus-is-necessary-for-hippocampal-place-field-stability-and-cell-firing-modulation
#17
T Cholvin, V Hok, L Giorgi, F A Chaillan, B Poucet
The reuniens (Re) and Rhomboid (Rh) nuclei of the ventral midline thalamus are reciprocally connected with the hippocampus (Hip) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Growing evidence suggests that these nuclei might play a crucial role in cognitive processes requiring Hip-mPFC interactions, including spatial navigation. Here, we tested the effect of ReRh lesions on the firing properties and spatial activity of dorsal hippocampal CA1 place cells as male rats explored a familiar or a novel environment. We found no change in the spatial characteristics of CA1 place cells in the familiar environment following ReRh lesions...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133062/anatomical-and-physiological-basis-of-continuous-spike-wave-of-sleep-syndrome-after-early-thalamic-lesions
#18
Alberto Leal, Eulália Calado, José P Vieira, Carla Mendonça, José C Ferreira, Hugo Ferreira, Daniel Carvalho, Fátima Furtado, Roseli Gomes, José P Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: Early neonatal thalamic lesions account for about 14% of continuous spike-wave of sleep (CSWS) syndrome, representing the most common etiology in this epileptic encephalopathy in children, and promise useful insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. METHODS: We describe nine patients with unilateral neonatal thalamic lesions which progressed to CSWS. Longitudinal whole-night and high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) were performed, as well as detailed imaging and clinical evaluation...
November 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131126/extending-the-neuroanatomic-territory-of-diffuse-midline-glioma-k27m-mutant-pineal-region-origin
#19
Andrea R Gilbert, Wafik Zaky, Murat Gokden, Christine E Fuller, Eylem Ocal, Norman E Leeds, Gregory N Fuller
Diffuse midline glioma, H3-K27M mutant (DMG-K27M) is a newly described, molecularly distinct infiltrative glioma that almost exclusively arises in midline CNS structures, including the brain stem, especially the pons, as well as the thalamus and spinal cord with rare examples seen in the cerebellum, third ventricle, and hypothalamus. To our knowledge, only 1 case of a molecularly confirmed DMG-K27M arising in the pineal region has been previously reported. We present the second occurrence of a tissue-confirmed DMG-K27M of the pineal region, which, to our knowledge, is the first case reported in a child and the first case with documented preoperative MRI...
November 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131117/significant-hemorrhage-rate-reduction-after-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-in-symptomatic-cavernous-malformations-long-term-outcome-in-95-case-series-and-literature-review
#20
Remedios López-Serrano, Nuria E Martínez, M Elena Kusak, Alicia Quirós, Roberto Martínez
BACKGROUND: The natural history of cavernous malformations (CMs) has remained unclear. This lack of knowledge has made treatment decisions difficult. Indeed, the use of stereotactic radiosurgery is nowadays controversial. The purpose of this paper is to throw light on the effectiveness of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) therapy. METHODS: The authors reviewed data collected from a prospectively maintained database. A total of 95 patients (57 female and 38 male) underwent GKRS for high-surgical-risk CMs...
November 4, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
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