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Richard Teke Ngomba, Gilles van Luijtelaar
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are expressed in key regions of the cortex and the thalamus and are known to regulate spike and wave discharges (SWDs), the electroclinical hallmarks of absence seizures. Recent preclinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of selective group I and III mGlu receptor subtype allosteric modulators, which can suppress pathological SWDs. Of particular interest are positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for mGlu5 receptors, as they currently show the most promise as novel anti-absence epilepsy drugs...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
J D Santoro, N D Forkert, Q-Z Yang, S Pavitt, S J MacEachern, M E Moseley, K W Yeom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tension-type and migraine-type headaches are the most common chronic paroxysmal disorders of childhood. The goal of this study was to compare regional cerebral volumes and diffusion in tension-type and migraine-type headaches against published controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients evaluated for tension-type or migraine-type headache without aura from May 2014 to July 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-two patients with tension-type headache and 23 with migraine-type headache at an average of 4 months after diagnosis were enrolled...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Kamila Cagliari Zenki, Eduardo Kalinine, Eduardo R Zimmer, Thainá Garbino Dos Santos, Ben Hur Marins Mussulini, Luis Valmor Cruz Portela, Diogo Lösch de Oliveira
Several works have demonstrated that status epilepticus (SE) induced-neurodegeneration appears to involve an overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and treatment with high-affinity NMDAR antagonists is neuroprotective against this brain damage. However, these compounds display undesirable side effects for patients since they block physiological NMDA receptor dependent-activity. In this context, memantine (MN), a well tolerable low-affinity NMDAR channel blocker, will be a promising alternative, since it does not compromise the physiological role of NMDA receptors on synaptic transmission...
March 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Qihong Zou, Shuqin Zhou, Jing Xu, Zihui Su, Yuezhen Li, Yundong Ma, Hongqiang Sun, Changwei W Wu, Jia-Hong Gao
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been frequently associated with dreaming. However, mounting evidence obtained from behavioral, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies suggests that REM sleep is not indicative of the dream report and may originate from diverse neural substrates in brain functionality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the functional systems associated with inter-individual differences in dream recall and REM sleep through assessments of the resting-state functional connectivity...
March 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Kathleen S Rockland
Recent commentaries on the role of the thalamus consider a wide sphere of influence beyond sensory-motor transformation, to include task-relevant cognitive processes. In this short review, I reconsider known anatomic features of corticothalamic connectivity, primarily for macaque monkey, and discuss these as part of an intricate network architecture consistent with multiple connectional re-combinations and a diversity of functional tasks. Drawing mainly on results from single axon analysis for the two broad classes of corticothalamic (CT) connections, I review the strikingly complementary spatial parameters of their extrinsic CT arbors in relation to intrinsic cortical collaterals...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Adam J Stark, Christopher T Smith, Kalen J Petersen, Paula Trujillo, Nelleke C van Wouwe, Manus J Donahue, Robert M Kessler, Ariel Y Deutch, David H Zald, Daniel O Claassen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by widespread degeneration of monoaminergic (especially dopaminergic) networks, manifesting with a number of both motor and non-motor symptoms. Regional alterations to dopamine D2/3 receptors in PD patients are documented in striatal and some extrastriatal areas, and medications that target D2/3 receptors can improve motor and non-motor symptoms. However, data regarding the combined pattern of D2/3 receptor binding in both striatal and extrastriatal regions in PD are limited...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zhimin Li, Jun Gao, Tianyu Wang, Xiangyi Kong, Jian Guan, Yongning Li
Central neurocytomas (CNs) are rare benign tumors located in the central nervous system with a good prognosis. These tumors are predominantly located in the lateral ventricle near the foramen of Monro or in the third ventricle. Similar tumors that are located outside the ventricle are also called extraventricular neurocytomas, and have an even lower morbidity. Until now, several tumors have been identified in the thalamus, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. In total, 24 cases of neurocytomas located in the spinal cord have been reported in English journals...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Arata Abe, Tetsuro Sekine, Yuki Sakamoto, Mina Harada-Abe, Ryo Takagi, Satoshi Suda, Kentaro Suzuki, Junya Aoki, Masami Yoneyama, Kazumi Kimura
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is clinically important to evaluate time course changes in symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenotic plaques because of likely recurrence. The objective of this study is to determine whether contrast-enhanced high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a feasible method for this purpose. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced, high-resolution, 3D turbo spin-echo images with low refocusing flip angle control (3D LOWRAT) applied to 7 patients with symptomatic MCA stenosis were evaluated at the initial (1 month after stroke onset) and follow-up (7 months after stroke onset) stages, and statistical variables, including plaque-to-thalamus signal intensity ratio, degree of stenosis, and stroke recurrence obtained at the 2 stages, were compared...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Mikołaj A Pawlak, Aleksandra Wyciszkiewicz, Katarzyna Pawlak-Buś, Piotr Leszczyński, Mariusz Puszczewicz, Włodzimierz Paprzycki, Wojciech Kozubski, Sławomir Michalak
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains poorly understood. Damage within the CNS is driven by the autoimmune response; however, immunopathophysiology of neuropsychiatric (NP) SLE is multifactorial. Immune cell neurotrophin production could be neuroprotective against autoimmunity-driven CNS damage, as has been shown in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether immune cell neurotrophin production is associated with damage severity in NPSLE...
March 14, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Ahmed M Elkady, Dana Cobzas, Hongfu Sun, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
BACKGROUND: Combined R2* and quantitative susceptibility (QS) has been previously used in cross-sectional multiple sclerosis (MS) studies to distinguish deep gray matter (DGM) iron accumulation and demyelination. PURPOSE: We propose and apply discriminative analysis of regional evolution (DARE) to define specific changes in MS and healthy DGM. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal (baseline and 2-year follow-up) retrospective study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-seven relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 17 progressive MS (PMS), and corresponding age-matched healthy subjects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jingjie Ge, Jianjun Wu, Shichun Peng, Ping Wu, Jian Wang, Huiwei Zhang, Yihui Guan, David Eidelberg, Chuantao Zuo, Yilong Ma
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare movement disorder and often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) in early phases. In this study, we report reproducible disease-related topographies of brain network and regional glucose metabolism associated with PSP in clinically-confirmed independent cohorts of PSP, MSA, and PD patients and healthy controls in the USA and China. Using18 F-FDG PET images from PSP and healthy subjects, we applied spatial covariance analysis with bootstrapping to identify a PSP-related pattern (PSPRP) and estimate its reliability, and evaluated the ability of network scores for differential diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Aditya Jain, Aaron F Struck, Kaitlin M Woo, Christine J Jaskowiak, Lance T Hall
The aim of this study was to investigate thalamic and basal ganglia (BG) metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on interictal18 F-FDG PET using standardized uptake value (SUV). Retrospective review of data was undertaken for patients who were surgically treated for medically intractable TLE. All patients underwent18 F-FDG PET, MRI brain and EEG as preoperative workup, and subsequently underwent temporal lobe resection. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed as without or with residual disabling seizures. SUVmax and SUVpeak values were calculated for thalamus and BG...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Panlong Li, Han Shan, Shengxiang Liang, Binbin Nie, Shaofeng Duan, Qi Huang, Tianhao Zhang, Xi Sun, Ting Feng, Lin Ma, Baoci Shan, Demin Li, Hua Liu
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays a key role in various cognitive functions. The fiber connectivity of RSC had been reported in rodent and primate studies by tracer injection methods To explore structural and functional connectivity of two sub-regions of RSC, Brodmann area (BA)29 and BA30, we constructed fiber connectivity networks of two sub-regions by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional connectivity networks by resting-state functional MRI...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yun Zhou, Bjørnar Hassel, Tore Eid, Niels Christian Danbolt
The excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2) represents the major mechanism for removal of extracellular glutamate. In the hippocampus, there is some EAAT2 in axon-terminals, whereas most of the protein is found in astroglia. The functional importance of the neuronal EAAT2 is unknown, and it is debated whether EAAT2 expressing nerve terminals are present in other parts of the brain. Here we selectively deleted the EAAT2 gene in neurons (by crossing EAAT2-flox mice with synapsin 1-Cre mice in the C57B6 background)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Shinjiro Fukami, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Hirofumi Okada, Jiro Akimoto, Tamotsu Miki, Hirokazu Fukuhara, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Toshitaka Nagao, Masumi Tsuda, Michihiro Kohno
INTRODUCTION: Removal of midline paraventricular gliomas is difficult because of their deep localization and invasive character, requiring biopsy for pathological diagnosis. This study aimed to assess the pathological findings and clinical course of midline paraventricular gliomas diagnosed using a neuroendoscope. METHODS: This study was performed as a retrospective investigation of 26 patients whose tumors were diagnosed as midline paraventricular gliomas using a neuroendoscope...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Logan T Dowdle, Truman R Brown, Mark S George, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In the 20 years since our group established the feasibility of performing interleaved TMS/fMRI, no studies have reported direct comparisons of active prefrontal stimulation with a matched sham. Thus, for all studies there is concern about what is truly the TMS effect on cortical neurons. OBJECTIVE: After developing a sham control for use within the MRI scanner, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis of greater regional BOLD responses for active versus control stimulation...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Emily A Boeke, Stefan Ehrlich, Stephanie N DeCross, Shahin Nasr, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Delusions are a defining and common symptom of psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that subclinical and clinical delusions may represent distinct stages on a phenomenological and biological continuum. However, few studies have tested whether subclinical psychotic experiences are associated with neural changes that are similar to those observed in clinical psychosis. For example, it is unclear if overactivity of the hippocampus, a replicated finding of neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia, is also present in individuals with subclinical psychotic symptoms...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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