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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349864/the-morphometric-co-atrophy-networking-of-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders
#1
Franco Cauda, Andrea Nani, Tommaso Costa, Sara Palermo, Karina Tatu, Jordi Manuello, Sergio Duca, Peter T Fox, Roberto Keller
By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration...
January 18, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348135/development-of-high-signal-intensity-within-the-globus-pallidus-and-dentate-nucleus-following-multiple-administrations-of-gadobenate-dimeglumine
#2
G M Bolles, M Yazdani, S T Stalcup, S G Creeden, H R Collins, P J Nietert, D R Roberts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated various gadolinium based contrast agents and their association with gadolinium retention, however, there is a discrepancy in the literature concerning the linear agent gadobenate dimeglumine. Our aim was to determine whether an association exists between the administration of gadobenate dimeglumine and the development of intrinsic T1-weighted signal in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, the signal intensity of the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus, thalamus, and middle cerebellar peduncle was measured on unenhanced T1-weighted images in 29 adult patients who had undergone multiple contrast MRIs using exclusively gadobenate dimeglumine (mean, 10...
January 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344465/grey-and-white-matter-alterations-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Ji Hyun Kim
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been classified as a syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy and is characterized by a strong genetic basis, age-specific onset of seizures, specific types of seizures, generalized spike-wave discharges on electroencephalography, and a lack of focal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, a wide range of advanced neuroimaging techniques have been utilized to elucidate the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying JME...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343658/differences-in-signal-intensity-and-enhancement-on-mr-images-of-the-perivascular-spaces-in-the-basal-ganglia-versus-those-in-white-matter
#4
Shinji Naganawa, Toshiki Nakane, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Taoka
PURPOSE: To elucidate differences between the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia (BG) versus that found in white matter (WM) using heavily T2-weighted FLAIR (hT2-FL) in terms of 1) signal intensity on non-contrast enhanced images, and 2) the degree of contrast enhancement by intravenous single dose administration of gadolinium based contrast agent (IV-SD-GBCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy men and 13 patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops were included...
January 18, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341457/different-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-midazolam-on-the-expression-of-nr2b-and-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-rats
#5
Jiayu Chen, Hanjun Li, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Wei Zhao, Yunli Yang, Weiqing Ma, Na Li
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain condition and the treatment is a major clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that two FDA approved drugs dexmedetomidine (DEX) and midazolam (MZL), may be useful in treating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism is not fully dementated. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of DEX and MZL treatment in the peripheral nerve injury model. Intramuscular injection with DEX and MZL attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339004/differential-activation-of-brain-areas-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-during-tasks-of-manual-dexterity-an-ale-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
I Fuelscher, K Caeyenberghs, P G Enticott, J Williams, J Lum, C Hyde
Recent neuroimaging studies have reported atypical neural activation in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during tasks assessing manual dexterity. However, small sample sizes and subtle differences in task parameters have led to inconsistent findings, rendering interpretation difficult. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize this body of evidence using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis to identify reliable regions of differential neural activation in children with DCD, compared to age-matched controls...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337197/brain-perfusion-alterations-in-tick-borne-encephalitis-preliminary-report
#7
Zuzanna Tyrakowska-Dadełło, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Dariusz Janusek, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Joanna Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are nonspecific and pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to their formation remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate brain perfusion in TBE patients using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion imaging. METHODS: MRI scans were performed in 12 patients in the acute phase, 3-5days after TBE diagnosis, with conventional MR images and DSC-MRI perfusion studies. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) parametric maps were created...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337004/quantitative-sensory-testing-profiles-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-6-20-years-with-cerebral-palsy-hints-for-a-neuropathic-genesis-of-pain-syndromes
#8
M Blankenburg, J Junker, G Hirschfeld, E Michel, F Aksu, J Wager, B Zernikow
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with cerebral palsy (CP) suffer chronic pain as one of the most limiting factors in their quality of life. In CP patients, pain mechanisms are not well understood, and pain therapy remains a challenge. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) might provide unique information about the functional status of the somatosensory system and therefore better guide pain treatment. OBJECTIVES: To understand better the underlying pain mechanisms in pediatric CP patients, we aimed to assess clinical and pain parameters, as well as QST profiles, which were matched to the patients' cerebral imaging pathology...
December 30, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336871/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-gene-by-an-insertion-deletion-in-the-promoter-region
#9
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Daniel Almeida, Raoul Belzeaux, Ipek Yalcin, Gustavo Turecki
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) regulates reward, hedonic tone and emotions. At therapeutic level, on-going clinical trials are assessing the potential of targeting the KOR for the management of depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. However, genetic polymorphisms in the KOR gene that potentially contribute to its implication in these phenotypes have been poorly studied. Here we investigated an insertion-deletion in the promoter region of KOR (rs35566036), recently associated with alcohol addiction, in a cohort of depressed subjects who died by suicide, as well as psychiatrically healthy individuals...
January 11, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336203/aberrant-interactions-of-peripheral-measures-and-neurometabolites-with-lipids-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-pilot-study
#10
Ye-Ha Jung, Hyeonjin Kim, So Yeon Jeon, Jeong Min Kwon, Dasom Lee, Soo-Hee Choi, Do-Hyung Kang
Background The aim of this study was to assess peripheral measures and central metabolites associated with lipids using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Twelve patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and 11 healthy controls participated. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we measured the levels of lipid 13a (Lip13a) and lipid 09 (Lip09) relative to total creatine (tCr) levels in the right and left thalamus. We found negative correlations of Lip13a/tCr in the right thalamus with red blood cells or neutrophils, but a positive correlation between Lip13a/tCr and lymphocytes in the controls...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335082/-a-comparative-analysis-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-or-without-abnormal-findings-on-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Jian-Zhao Zhang, Qian Chen, Ping Zheng, Li-Na Xie, Xiao-Li Yi, Hai-Tao Ren, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings. RESULTS: In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335072/rebound-excitability-mediates-motor-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Jeongjin Kim, Daesoo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder resulting from loss of dopamine neurons. In dopamine deficient state, the basal ganglia increases inhibitory synaptic outputs to the thalamus. This increased inhibition by the basal ganglia output is known to reduce firing rate of thalamic neurons that relay motor signals to the motor cortex. This 'rate model' suggests that the reduced excitability of thalamic neurons is the key for inducing motor abnormalities in PD patients. We reveal that in response to inhibition, thalamic neurons generate rebound firing at the end of inhibition...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334825/the-influence-of-traumatic-axonal-injury-in-thalamus-and-brain-stem-on-level-of-consciousness-at-scene-or-admission-a-clinical-mri-study
#13
Hans Kristian Moe, Kent Gøran Moen, Toril Skandsen, Kjell Arne Kvistad, Steven Laureys, Asta Kristine Håberg, Anne Vik
The aim of this study was to investigate how traumatic axonal injury (TAI) lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia and brain stem on clinical brain MRI are associated with level of consciousness in the acute phase in patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). 158 patients with moderate-severe TBI (7-70 years) with early 1.5T MRI (median 7 days, range 0-35) without mass lesion were prospectively included. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were registered before intubation or at admission. TAI lesions were identified in T2*gradient echo (GRE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scans...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332084/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
Benjamin B Whiting, Alexander C Whiting, Donald M Whiting
The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been proven to be a safe and efficacious treatment for the management of many diseases. The most common indication for thalamic DBS remains essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders in the world. ET patients should be considered for surgical intervention when their tremor has demonstrated to be refractory to medication, a characteristic estimated to be present in roughly 50% of ET cases. Advantages of DBS over thalamotomy include its reversibility, the ability to adjust stimulation settings to optimize efficacy and minimize side effects, the ability to perform bilateral procedures safely, and an association with a lower risk of postoperative cognitive problems...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332070/pathophysiologic-basis-of-movement-disorders
#15
Thomas Wichmann
Movement disorders are common and functionally disabling neurologic diseases. Studies over the last decades have investigated the pathophysiology of these diseases in considerable detail, leading to significant insights into their generation of motor disability. While genetically and clinically heterogeneous, most of them are accompanied by prominent and characteristic changes in firing rates and patterns in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex. In recent years, researchers have placed increasing emphasis on the importance of oscillatory changes in firing in these structures, and have discovered that brain areas that were previously considered to be remote from the basal ganglia (such as the cerebellum and the pedunculopontine nucleus) are also highly significant in these disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330020/predictors-of-deep-brain-stimulation-outcome-in-tremor-patients
#16
Claire Sandoe, Vibhor Krishna, Diellor Basha, Francesco Sammartino, Joao Tatsch, Marina Picillo, Lazzaro di Biase, Yu-Yan Poon, Clement Hamani, Duemani Reddy, Renato P Munhoz, Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison, Alfonso Fasano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation of the ventro-intermedius nucleus of the thalamus is an established treatment for tremor of differing etiologies but factors that may predict the short- and especially long-term outcome of surgery are still largely unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, pharmacological, electrophysiological and anatomical features that might predict the initial response and preservation of benefit in all patients who underwent deep brain stimulation for tremor...
January 2, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329055/altered-brain-structure-in-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#17
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Yichen Wei, Yong Pang, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional brain abnormalities have been noted in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the brain structural alterations related to PMS remain unclear. This study aimed to identify possible abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volumes and structural covariance patterns among PMS patients. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 20 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was applied to examine GM volumes changes between the two groups...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325982/multiple-cerebral-infarct-with-cerebral-vasculitis-in-a-young-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Maeng Real Park, Mun Ki Min, Ji Ho Ryu, Dae Sub Lee, Kang Ho Lee
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and debilitating disorder, characterized by inflammation of the colonic mucosa. UC can be considered a systemic disorder but UC-related manifestations in the central nervous system (CNS) are quite rare. A 29-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with repeated generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) type seizures. Based on brain CT, brain metastasis or hemorrhagic infarct was suspected. Diffusion-weighted image of brain MRI showed high signal in the left thalamus and heterogenous enhancement in the right parietal and left frontal lobes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325780/longitudinal-atlas-for-normative-human-brain-development-and-aging-over-the-lifespan-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#19
Yuyao Zhang, Hongjiang Wei, Matthew J Cronin, Naying He, Fuhua Yan, Chunlei Liu
Longitudinal brain atlases play an important role in the study of human brain development and cognition. Existing atlases are mainly based on anatomical features derived from T1-and T2-weighted MRI. A 4D developmental quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) atlas may facilitate the estimation of age-related iron changes in deep gray matter nuclei and myelin changes in white matter. To this end, group-wise co-registered QSM templates were generated over various age intervals from age 1-83 years old. Registration was achieved by combining both T1-weighted and QSM images...
January 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325013/effects-of-task-demands-on-olfactory-auditory-and-visual-event-related-potentials-suggest-similar-top-down-modulation-across-senses
#20
Linus Andersson, Petra Sandberg, Jonas Olofsson, Steven Nordin
A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored...
January 8, 2018: Chemical Senses
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